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Daylilies lost their fragrance as a result of many years of hybridization that singularly focused on flower color and form. Using a field collection system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, this study assessed the fragrance profiles of 147 daylilies. Major volatile constituents and their variations in the daylily study populations were determined and suggest that fragrance could be a trait pursued in a breeding program to enhance the sensory phenotypes of new daylily varieties.
Keywords: Hemerocallis, fragrance, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, hybridization.
We are all here due to an involvement in an industry that goes back many thousands of years. Over that time there have been a multitude of changes in why, what, and when people buy plants. I intend to look briefly at the long-term history and how it has shifted around the demand and use of edible plants. I will then review the more recent trends over the past 50 years and how they relate to human culture, the economy and social fluctuations. Retailing is a complex subject at best and is impossibly unpredictable in edible horticulture. To set the record for this paper the class of edible plants encompasses all the plants used in the home: edible, medicinal, and fragrant.
Keywords: garden centers, food crops, marketing, edible plants, edimentals, herbs.
The authors report on two trips to the Sultanate of Oman to assist with horticultural projects. The first trip (November 2015) focused on assisting the management and staff of the Oman Botanic Garden on issues of seed propagation, propagation mixes, and nursery practice. The second trip (May 2018) focused on advising on requirements for propagation of wetland species at the Bauer Nimr nursery.
Keywords: Arabian plants, wetland plants, wetland purification.
The only weed management tools in container plant production (other than a few herbicides for grass weed control) are preemergence herbicides and hand weeding. Labor for hand weeding is becoming more and more expensive and difficult to find. It may be more important now than ever to find ways to manage weeds efficiently. Recent estimates show that weed control costs can exceed $10,000 per ha ($4,000 per ac.) These costs typically include herbicide costs, application costs, and hand weeding costs. These estimates often do not include the opportunity cost that is lost when labor is diverged from profit generating tasks (potting, propagating, etc.) to hand weeding - a profit reducing task. Here I will describe five common themes I have observed in the most consistently clean nurseries I have visited. These methods are supported by research, but more importantly, have all been proven successful (and economical) in the real world.
Keywords: Herbicides, hand weeding, non-chemical weed control, sanitation, top-dressing, dibbling, incorporating, chemical rotation, pre- and post-emergence, solarization.
Native plants as ornamentals are gaining popularity across the United States, including Hawaii where native plants have been promoted since the 1990s and are required in state-funded landscaping projects. Due to limited information and to increase availability and variety of native Hawaiian plant selections, a research program was established at the University of Hawaii at Manoa to collect, select, and evaluate non-endangered and underutilized species for ornamental uses. Research has provided useful information on propagation of Heteropogon contortus (pili grass), Chenopodium oahuense (aweoweo), Melanthera integrifolia (nehe), Eragrostis deflexa (Pacific lovegrass), Jacquemontia ovaliifolia (pau o hiiaka), and Peperomia spp. (ala ala wai nui).
Keywords: Heteropogon contortus, Chenopodium oahuense, Melanthera integrifolia, Eragrostis deflexa, Jacquemontia ovaliifolia, Peperomia spp.
Many species of Ficusare used for interiorscaping and landscaping. Their growth habits range from prostrate groundcovers to shrubs, trees, and vines. Nearly all are easily propagated by the usual vegetative techniques of cutting, layering, grafting, and micropropagation. Fewer are propagated by seed as pollination requires specialized wasps, but some of those that do produce seed have become invasive. Ficus species are suitable subjects for plant propagation classes as many, such as F. elastica, F. rubiginosa, and F. benghalensis, can be propagated by single-node cuttings as well as by stem cuttings and air layers. Aerial roots are characteristic of some species, which also signal ease of rooting. Many of the selections used in interiorscapes have been tissue cultured, giving rise to diverse forms, some of which are more compact and better branched.
Keywords: Ficus carica, Ficus benjamina, Ficus elastica, Ficus pumila, figs, grafting, layering, micropropagation.
The effects of LED lighting and fluorescent lighting and the sequence of the lighting on the growth of compact 'Tom Thumb' lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in a noncirculating hydroponic system. One-half of the seedlings were grown under red+blue+white LEDs (110 micromol/m2/s) and one-half were grown under T5 high output fluorescent lighting (111 micromol/m2/s). The photoperiod was 12 hours. After 12 days, one-half of the plants under the LED lighting were moved under the fluorescent lighting, and one-half of the plants under the fluorescent lighting were moved under the LED lighting for 16 more days. At the end of the study, differences among treatments were significant for plant height, leaf chlorophyll content, root dry weight, total plant dry weight, shoot dry weight produced per amount of nutrient solution used, and the pH and electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution. There were no significant differences among treatments for shoot dry weight, shoot-root ratio, percent dry weight partitioned to the shoots, percent dry weight partitioned to the roots, and the amount of nutrient solution that was used by each lettuce plant. In summary, the sequence of LED and fluorescent lighting could be an alternative to using only LED lighting or fluorescent lighting for growing lettuce plants.
Keywords: Artificial light, sequenced lighting, vegetable production.
South Africa is the 2nd largest exporter of fresh citrus in the world, shipping citrus further and to more export destinations than any other country. Sustainable citrus production, as well as the access to markets, are continuously threatened by exotic pests and diseases. When new pests or diseases are found in a production region, these might impact significantly on tree health and production and/or have significant trade implications, ranging from regulated treatments to quarantine measures. This paper discusses the role of nurseries in preventing incursion and spread of exotic citrus pests and diseases.
Keywords:Disease, Huanglongbing, HLB, Asian Citrus Psyllid.
In many genotypes, satisfactory adventitious rooting of cuttings is achieved by a treatment with auxin. There has been no essential improvement of this treatment ever since its invention in the 1930s. To achieve rooting in otherwise recalcitrant genotypes, a donor-plant pretreatment may be the way out.
Keywords: Cuttings, auxin, rejuvenation, etiolation, sensitivity, miRNA.
Native Hawaiian horticulturalists introduced a suite of crops to Hawai
The experiences of the Western Region Exchange recipient in 2017 are described. They include a journey through two countries and over 3900 km that included nurseries and gardens in the Pacific northwest in North America.
Keywords:Canada, United States, scholarship.
The Trial Gardens at UGA were started in 1982 and Dr. John Ruter has served as Director of the Trial Gardens since 2013. In 2017, Brandon Coker joined as manager of the Trial Gardens. The mission of the Garden includes teaching, research, and introduction of new plants to the industry. The Trial Garden is an essential testing site for heat and humidity tolerance for many of the world
Tissue cultured transplants cultivated under two LEDs with different light quality and conventional fluorescent lamp as artificial light sources, were examined and compared the growth of plantlets. Culture conditions were 23
New herbaceous and woody plant introductions are presented for 2018.
Keywords: Prunella vulgaris, Pennisetum alopecuroides, Sedum, Panicum, Vernonia, Pholx, Chrysogonum, Aronia melanocarpa, Philadelphus coronarius, Taxus xmedia, Weigela florida
Boron nutrition of walnut and pistachio is challenging because, although a required element, it is needed in only small quantities and has a narrow optimum range that varies by variety. Unlike with many other species, boron is immobile in pistachios and walnuts, accumulating in the older foliage. The present study was undertaken to see if excised, in vitro shoots from clones of walnut and pistachio differ in tolerance to varying levels of boron in the growing medium. Boron toxicity symptoms appeared as necrosis on tips on older leaves, extending to the margins and followed by leaf drop. Boron concentrations above 50 mg l-1 stopped growth of most of the nine pistachio clones under study and induced leaf drop on all of them. Among the walnut clones, the rootstocks
Our landscapes have lost diversity. When considering the limited variety of species and selections that are currently being used in the landscape, the development of relative monocultures becomes apparent. This is disheartening considering the sheer number of viable landscape plants available that could be utilized. Following are some plants that I feel are landscape worthy, but seem to be missing from production in sufficient numbers.
Keywords: Plant diversity, monoculture, overplanting.
As a young faculty member at North Carolina State University, IPPS has always been a valuable resource for me to see the concepts that I teach on campus applied in a real-world setting. It is one thing to discuss plant propagation in a lecture and to practice the techniques in a laboratory classroom
Quercus virginiana (live oak) seeds are commonly planted soon after collection. We wanted to know how long we could store seeds and still obtain a reasonable germination rate. Our production goal was to have two planting dates for young seedlings. Results suggest that Live Oak seeds can be stored for up to 8 months and still have good germination if they are put into cold storage soon after collection. Keywords: Live oak, seed propagation, seed storage, cold storage.
There have been anecdotal reports that the use of alcohol in auxin solutions can cause "stem burn" on stem cuttings. However, no formal research has been conducted to adequately establish occurrence of tissue damage on stem cuttings using alcohol-based auxin solutions. The potential phytotoxic effects of alcohol on stem cuttings of several herbaceous and woody plant taxa were evaluated. It was found that using a basal quick-dip, auxin solutions containing up to 50% alcohol were safe for most stem cuttings that are in good condition. Some crops may be sensitive to alcohol-based rooting solutions applied to the entire cutting.
Keywords: IBA, Lantana, Artemisia, Ficus, Impatiens, Pelargonium
Composts made of manure, bedding and animals are available in abundance in Kentucky. Mechanical composting directly captured from a hog production facility floor mixed with woodchips and automatically turned in windrows under cover will create a low moisture, low readily degradable organic matter. Suggesting the finished compost would have lower transportation costs and should provide value as a soil conditioner. Hog compost was tested for use as a substrate amendment in container production of ornamental plants. The arborvitae plants were allowed to grow without additional fertilizer for 8 weeks. Dramatic color differences were observed. The plants in the 100% pine bark were chlorotic while the plants in the 85% pine bark:15% compost were green.
Keywords: Nursery production, nitrate, nitrogen, substrate analysis, alternative substrates.
Herbaceous native perennials include wildflowers, grasses, sedges, and rushes. Most can be readily propagated from seed. Some exhibit complex seed dormancies and are more easily propagated vegetatively by root division or stem cuttings. This article focuses on propagation of wildflowers and grasses using seed, as this is a commonly used, but often misunderstood method of producing native herbaceous perennials. The methods described herein are based upon our forty-five years of experience at Prairie Nursery in propagating a wide range of native plants from seed.
Keywords: Seed dormancy, cuttings, division, wildflowers, sedges, grasses, rushes, germination.
Turmeric (Curucuma longa L.) includes many functional components in the rhizome, and the most important ingredient is curcumin, a yellow pigment, which has antioxidant and anti-bacterial properties. Plant growth, rhizome yield and curcumin content change depending on various environmental factors. We examined to evaluate the effects of relative soil moisture on the yield and curcumin content of turmeric rhizome. The average soil moisture of the control plot during the cultivation period was 19.5%. The values in the high and the low moisture plots were 23.4% and 18.8% respectively. As a result of measuring at 225 days after planting, values of total leaf area and the rhizome growth rate in the high moisture plot were 1.8 times compared with the control plot. Curcumin content per rhizome dry weight was highest in the control plot, though the difference was statistically non-significant. On the other hand, the curcumin content per plant was significantly higher in the high moisture plot, 267.9 mg/plant.
Keywords: Moisture level, irrigation, rhizome.
The effect of nitrogen on an alternative forest-based product substrate (FPS) performance was evaluated using rates of Nitroform, a slow-release urea-based pre-plant fertilizer, and a water-soluble N-P-K starter fertilizer. FPS is manufactured from loblolly pine harvested locally within the Southeastern United States. Impatiens were grown in 80:20 peat:perlite (by volume) industry standard, 80:20 FPS:peat, or 100% FPS. Nitroform
Many people find Latin names confusing. What they don
Hackney Nursery was started by my father, George Hackney, in 1991. The nursery was built around cheap land, cheap freight, and cheap labor. None of these attributes exist anymore. Much has changed since 1991 - not only in the way we sell, ship, and grow our plants - but also, who grows them. These changes have evolved because of regulation, necessity and advancing technology.
Keywords: Sales, automation, robots, pods, labor, propagation, potting, herbicides, shipping.
Successful evergreen azalea seed germination can be achieved using healthy viable seeds and the appropriate conditions. Evergreen azaleas are in the genus Rhododendron obtusum series. The seed capsules begin to form after a complete azalea flower opens and matures and pollen is transferred to the stigma of the pistil. This occurs via physical contact, wind, pollinators or controlled crossing by humans. The pollen moves down the pollen tube to the ovary and with successful pollination - it will develop into a mature capsule. A mature seed capsule can contain 100-500 azalea seeds. This paper describes proven seed propagation protocols for Rhododendron.
Keywords: Seed dormancy, Rhododendron, azalea, seed capsules, germination.
Rose rosette is currently the major plant disease of the rose in the world.
Helianthus verticillatus or whorled sunflower is a recently designated endangered species found only on a few prairie remnants in Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. It is a perennial species that spreads via rhizomes and produces copious amounts of small seeds if compatible genotypes are present. The specific aims of this research were to determine germination conditions for seeds and to develop clonal propagation methods that utilize tissue culture and rooted cuttings
Keywords: Clonal propagation, seed propagation, cuttings, tissue culture, endangered species, plant breeding.
The conservation status of New Zealand
Research on growing media (substrates) has been an important facet in the evolution of containerized horticultural crop production for over 50 years. During this time, we have relied on peat moss as the primary substrate component to grow most greenhouse crops. Peat moss is undoubtedly an ideal material based on its excellent physical and chemical properties. Research on substrates continues today as vigorously (maybe more) than ever, despite the successes and familiarity of our traditional peat-based mixes. Much has been reported in recent years about the development and potential of wood-based substrate components in the floriculture, nursery, and edible production industries here in the United States. Product development in many European and North American companies has a continued interest in wood materials as components of substrates. While visually different, these commercial materials have been used successfully. The scale to which many of these wood materials are being made has grown rather large over the years to the point that today, the color of peat and bark storage yards and production facilities is becoming more and more
Black pepper, a flowering vine of the Piperaceae family, is valued for its dried berries called peppercorns, which are known for their health benefits and are used as a spice and seasoning. Native to the humid jungles of the Malabar Coast of Southwestern India, the plant is cultivated in the tropics worldwide. In the Micronesian region, it is gaining commercial importance as an important cash crop because of the premium price of peppercorns. However, the limited availability of disease-free black pepper seedlings and the trunks of the native tree fern (Cyathea nigricans) that are used as supports for black pepper vines are becoming limitations for sustainable commercial black pepper cultivation in the region. Therefore, to ensure the year-round availability of uniform, disease-free and high-quality planting material in Micronesia, an efficient micropropagation and acclimatization protocol was developed for a local, commercially important black pepper cultivar (Piper nigrum
My long-term breeding goal was to produce daylilies that rebloomed and extended the flowering time. In the early 1970s, I was inspired by the breeding work of Walter Jablonski of Merryville, Indiana. In 1975, he introduced
Crapemyrtle bark scale is an exotic pest infesting crapemyrtles and has become a major concern because of its potential impact on other economically or ecologically important plant species. The systemic neonicotinoid insecticides are the most effective chemical class controlling this scale. However, pollinator safety has to be considered when developing IPM strategies, since crapemyrtle pollen is a significant food source for many pollinators. Pollen collection is the first step in analyzing for neonicotinoid concentration. In this study, the flowering phenology and the amount of pollen that can be collected from flowers in a timely manner were evaluated to determine the best timing and method for pollen collection. The first week of blooming for a total of 60 crapemyrtle cultivars were recorded to determine early-, mid-, and late-season blooming cultivars. Then, the clusters of crapemyrtle flowers of ten cultivars representing early- and mid-season bloomers were grouped as new, full, and spent blooms based on the percentage of the cluster that showed color. Results indicated that there was a significant difference in flowering phenology among crapemyrtle cultivars, which affected pollen availability and thus sampling period for each cultivar. Three pollen collection trials were conducted to determine the amount of pollen that could be collected from
With a high labour cost in New Zealand (NZ) and increasing competition between nursery firms, efficiency in the use of labour and other resources is critical for future growth of this industry. Technologies already being used in North America, Europe, and other overseas locations provide opportunities for increased productivity in NZ, but an
Commercially available slow-release fertilizers (SRFs) are different than controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs). They differ in coating materials, characteristics of fertilizer release, longevity as influenced by temperature, hydrolysis and/or microbial activity - and unit cost compared to actual usage/longevity cost in a commercial, production setting. Unit cost is not the only deciding economic factor.
Keywords: Organic, synthetic, resin coated, polymer coated, fertilizer release characteristics, cost analysis.
Since the fall of 2013, I have been working with Cornelia B. Holland of Franklin, Tennessee, to develop a hosta and shade garden at the University of Tennessee Gardens in Knoxville, Tennessee. To date, over 500 Hosta sp. , hybrids, Rohdea and other Asian origin plants, shrubs and trees have been dug from Cornelia
Growth, yield, and fruit quality were compared at 8 years after planting between Aikou mango trees grafted onto rootstock propagated by air layering and those grafted onto seedling rootstock under pot culture. The rootstock used in this study was a Taiwanese native strain. The two types of trees were planted in 25-L pots constructed of non-woven fabric. The trunk diameter of the air-layered rootstock trees was significantly smaller than that of the seedling rootstock trees until the trees were 5 years old, but there was no difference between the two tree types after 8 years old. Moreover, no significant difference was observed in total length of green branches and numbers of leaves per tree except at 8, or 6 and 8 years of age. The fresh and dry weights of the leaves, green branches, thick branches, and fine roots of the air-layered rootstock trees were significantly greater than those of the seedling rootstock trees. The total weight of the aboveground parts of the air-layered rootstock trees was significantly greater than that of the seedling rootstock trees, but no significant difference was observed in the total weight of the underground parts between the tree types. The fresh weight of an entire air-layered rootstock tree was significantly greater than that of a seedling rootstock tree. The top/root (T/R) fresh weight ratio of the air-layered rootstock trees was significantly greater than that of the seedling rootstock trees. No significant differences in yield or fruit quality were observed between the two tree types. These results indicate that the use of rootstock propagated by air layering during mango nursery tree production is practical, as the growth, yield, and fruit quality of the air-layered rootstock trees and seedling rootstock trees were similar.
Keywords:Layered, rootstock, grafting, fruit tree, Mangifera, nursery production.
In the propagation of many plant species, the basal end of cuttings is dipped in auxin powder diluted with talc to promote rooting. While the talc dip method has provided satisfactory results for many years, it is labor intensive and requires significant employee training and personal protective equipment. In this study, we tested the effects of auxin applied as a talc dip or a foliar spray at 0, 500, or 1000 ppm indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) to cuttings of cape mallow, Chinese fringe flower, and glossy abelia, and at 0, 1000, or 3000 ppm IBA to cuttings of bush daisy, crimson-spot rockrose, mirror plant,
There have been major advances in containers used for production of nursery stock during the past decades, particularly with the advent of plastics in the manufacturing of nursery containers. Most seedlings were being grown in seed beds in the early 1970s, with peat block and plastic bags started to make their appearance. Availability of polystyrene led to the development of Speedling trays for vegetable seedling production. Plug trays gained popularity in forestry around the world, along with the development of mechanical transplanters. Containerization of woody crops still presents some challenges, with systems developed over the past 20 years for nursery production of grape, tea tree, cherry, and pecan, and citrus.
Keywords: Cherry, eucalyptus, grafting, pecan, polystyrene containers.
President Creech welcomed everyone to Chattanooga, Tennessee for the 43rd Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators
Fungus gnats are the single greatest insect pest in propagation facilities globally-excessive moisture, conducive media temperatures, and exposed rooting media provide ample opportunity for reproduction. Pressure from this pest along with shore fly is nearly ubiquitous in any propagation facility that Koppert Biological Systems works with. Pest pressures vary wildly depending on crop type, region, season, and facility. One grower
Soil Surveys play an important role in both agriculture and forestry to apply best land practice, for farm planning, suitable crop choices, yield predictions and for control of erosion and compaction. Land evaluation includes assessing terrain, climate, geology, soil and vegetation cover. Soil information provides an essential facet for land assessment and suitability for a particular use or crop. A soil survey can be conducted at various levels from a detailed survey for irrigation at a scale of 1:5,000 to a reconnaissance level at scales of 1:20,000 to 1:50,000.
Keywords: Soil productivity, soil classification, erosion, plantation productivity.
Cultural practices that influence the development of the root system shortly after germination can have a lasting impact on the quality of container-grown nursery crops. Standard plastic containers have been shown to promote crooks in primary roots and root circling, potentially leading to girdling roots, and overall decreases in plant quality. Taxa that exhibit a prominent taproot are particularly susceptible. This phenomenon poses a significant issue for species predominantly propagated by seed in container nurseries. Alternative container products that employ air-root pruning techniques may provide a solution, however, these products are often expensive and thorough investigations of their influence on coarsely-rooted taxa are lacking. This study explores the influence of air-root pruning, in comparison to culture in standard plastic containers, on vegetative growth responses and root architecture of seedlings shortly after germination of eight species of woody plants that exhibit taproot development. At the conclusion of the study, all air-pruned taproots lacked crooks or circling, whereas deflection of the taproots was observed in each of the controls. Significant differences in the vegetative growth responses were not observed.
Keywords: Nursery production, root architecture, containers, Aesculus, Carya, Juglans nigra, Nyssa, Pinus, Quercus, Ungnadia, Xanthoceras.
Typically, when we discuss the ecological or environmental value of plants, our mind jumps to those that provide nectar for pollinators, or fruits and seeds for birds, or serve as host plants for a range of moths and butterflies. Yes, these are all important and deserve consideration, but these are not the only considerations in determining the overall ecological value of a plant. That determination is complicated, convoluted, and likely incalculable. After a significant amount of reading, research, observation, and reflection, there is no doubt that some plants deserve much more celebration than they typically receive. Though I am sure there are more, I have identified seven factors that influence the environmental/ecological value of a plant.
Keywords: Pollinators, butterflies, caterpillars, bird habitat, carbon balance, ecology, Liriodendron, Aralia, Populus, oak, Quercus, holly, Ilex, willow, Salix, Vaccinium, Tilia, maple, Acer, Prunus.
Gardens by the Bay is a national garden covering 101 hectares in the Central Region of Singapore, adjacent to the Marina Reservoir. The park consists of three waterfront gardens: Bay South Garden, Bay East Garden and Bay Central Garden. Cooled conservatories display plants that cannot be grown outdoors in the climate of Singapore. The Research & Horticulture Department conducts trials for plants to be displayed at the Flower Field in Flower Dome and the Orchid Corner in Cloud Forest.
Keywords: Conservatories, plant trials, public gardens, waterfront gardens.
In September 2014, a Pennsylvania Game commissioner educator noticed damage to the tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), along with an insect he did not recognize. The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture entomologists were able to collect several hundred specimens which were identified as Lycorma delicatula (White), a new pest in Pennsylvania and North America. Currently a quarantine is in place to stop the movement of this pest to new areas and to slow its spread within the quarantine area. The quarantine restricts the movement of the pest and products that may have egg masses present. Education and outreach are key to future control of this quickly spreading invasive pest. Be informed, aware of your surroundings and report any unusual observations to authorities.
Keywords: Insect, exotic invasive, pest control, Lycorma.
Previous research with biochar as a cutting propagation substrate amendment showed poor rooting for many plant species when biochar was included at 40% or 80% (by volume). Adventitious root architecture in 80% biochar substrates often showed a proliferation of short primary roots compared to the control and lower rates of biochar, which all had longer primary roots. The objectives of this study were to create a sand mixture that matched the biochar particle size, then assess the rooting of herbaceous cuttings in substrates amended with the biochar or sand. Root development in substrates amended with sand was not the same as root development in biochar. Incorporation of 40% or 80% biochar resulted in a reduction of root length compared to the control, whereas incorporation of 40% or 80% sand did not change root architecture compared to the control. The rating of rooted cuttings stuck in 80% biochar was consistently the lowest among all substrates. This suggests that the root architecture observed for cuttings rooted in substrate containing 40% or 80% biochar is not caused by particle size, but is more likely a result of water retention, nutrient availability, or plant growth-regulating compounds.
Keywords: Biochar, herbaceous cuttings, K-IBA.
Shumaka crape myrtle is a hybrid resulting from the cross of Lagerstroemia
The United States National Arboretum azalea collection is a reference collection of documented new and old varieties, species, and cultivars. Within the collection is the group of Glenn Dale azaleas that were planted between 1946 and 1947 on the south face of Mt. Hamilton by the Arboretum
Glyphosate resistant horseweed is a significant issue in nursery crop production but has not been studied broadly. Our objective was to identify a glyphosate resistant horseweed population, evaluate seed viability, and determine the effectiveness of glyphosate rate on resistant and susceptible seedlings. Two populations were identified, and individual plants were treated with glyphosate or glufosinate Resistant plants survived glyphosate treatments and died following glufosinate treatments, while all treated susceptible plants died. Seeds were collected from each population and a germination test was used to evaluate viability. Seedlings were used for a whole plant assay, with glyphosate at 0, 2.2, and 11.1 L ha-1 (0, 1, and 5 qt ac-1). Germination test results indicate that resistant plant seeds are more likely to have a higher viability. In the whole plant assay, resistant seedlings treated with glyphosate did not have significantly lower shoot weights than non-treated seedlings. However, with susceptible seedlings there was a significant decrease in shoot weight with increasing glyphosate rates. Results suggest that glyphosate resistance is readily passed down and resistant seedlings are more likely to survive and reproduce.
Keywords: Round-up, glufosinate, marestail, Conyza canadensis, seed germination, whole-plant assay.
The Royal Botanic Gardens in Australia have two sites one in Melbourne and one in Cranbourne. The Melbourne site sits on 38 Ha and is 171 years old, it also contains the National Herbarium of Victoria. The gardens have 1.6 million visitors a year and this is expected to double by 2070. The Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria has over 50,000 plants in their collection representing over 8,000 taxa. The gardens have 30 living collections including; Southern Africa, Southern China and Californian collection. The Cranbourne site is 363 Ha and was built in 1970. The Australian Garden takes up 10 Ha and the remaining 353 Ha is remnant bushland. This paper describes propagation, production and conservation research at the Royal Botanic Gardens.
Keywords: Botanic gardens, wetlands, Melbourne, IPPS tours.
The ornamental container nursery industry is large contributor to Alabama
Older greenhouse concepts from many decades ago or even past centuries seem new today and the benefits are many. Previous generations of nurserymen and estate gardeners embraced the concept of earth shelter structures and used them with great success. With increasingly common and complex energy crises in recent memory, there should be greater energy awareness. In addition to the environmental stewardship, savings on energy costs can translate into greater profitability. Using new double-wall glazing materials, the energy benefits of being up to 6-ft below grade can be quite significant. This project was not a scientific study of energy efficiency, but an example of how common-sense principles can be applied simply and economically, resulting in a successful propagation program that is scalable to any size nursery.
Keywords: Propagation structure, history, propagation.
Swamp privet is an underutilized member of the Oleaceae. Swam privet is native to wet areas of the lower Midwest and southeast (USDA Zones 5 to 8). It forms a large shrub or small tree. Plants are dioecious and female plants produce an ovoid, blue-black drupe. Its ornamental potential has not been explored, but it could serve as a non-invasive replacement for privet (Ligustrum) as a deciduous hedge. Its foliage is a good, clean dark to dull green and there is usually good yellow fall color. Swamp privet could make a good addition to the plants available for rain garden and bioretention areas. The highest germination was in seeds placed directly at 22C (63%). Seeds cold stratified for 3 or 6 weeks did not germinate to the same extent as seeds only exposed to warm stratification. Germination was higher at 22 compared to 25C.
Keywords: Seed dormancy, native plants, Oleaceae.
Pawpaw is a small, deciduous fruit tree species in the family Annonaceae that is native to eastern North America. Among the members of the family Annonaceae, only the genus Asimina is found in the temperate zone. Temperate fruit tree species enter a dormant state during the winter. This endogenous dormancy breaks after exposure to low temperatures for a specific period of time. Since the dormancy period of Pawpaw in southern Kyushu of Japan is unknown, we collected Pawpaw branches over time and estimated the dormancy period using a stem cutting method.
Keywords: Fruit tree, bud dormancy, overwintering.
The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess the rooting of herbaceous cuttings Salvia xsylvestris
Research was conducted on crop tolerance of Asiatic jasmine (Trachelospermum asiaticum
Twelve varieties became All-America Selections (AAS) National Award Winners for 2018. AAS includes a network of over 80 trial grounds across the United States and Canada where new, never-before-sold varieties are "Tested Nationally and Proven Locally" by skilled, impartial AAS Judges. Only the best performers are declared AAS Winners. Once these new varieties are announced as AAS Winners, they are available for immediate sale and distribution. An additional three varieties were selected as AAS Regional Award Winners for 2018. Regional winners undergo the same trialing process as national winners, but are re-cognized as varieties that exhibit outstanding performance in specific regional climates.
Keywords: Annuals, plant trials, new plants, vegetables.
Pine nuts are commonly collected from native stands of single-leaf pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla) throughout the Great Basin. The goal of this research was to test the feasibility of topworking wild pinyon pines (Pinus edulis) to improve pine nut production. These trials compared different scion accessions, scion types, and graft type. Scions were prepared as buds only (B) or buds with needles (BN). Graft types included bark, side-wedge, and side-stub grafts. When evaluated on May 18, 2018, the main effects of scion treatment and season were statistically significant, showing greater success with BN scions (43% as compared to 12% with B) and spring grafting (27% as compared to 6% with fall). Bark grafts were the least successful of all the graft types, with only 1 surviving among the April grafts (0.8%) and none surviving among the August grafts. The BN side-wedge grafts were the most successful among the April grafts (16%) and the BN side-stub grafts were the only successful grafts among the August grafts (6%). The experiment was repeated on April 18, 2018, using 10 P. edulis stock trees. Scions were handled as in the BN treatment, and 6-mil white plastic was tented and stapled over the graft. Graft types were side-wedge and side-veneer grafts. Assessment of the grafts showed 78% with elongated candles, 8% alive but not growing, and 13% dead. Grafting success for side-wedge grafts and side-veneer grafts was 82% and 83%, respectively, with no significant difference. The average scion growth of accession #1 (1.1 cm) was significantly less than that of scions #2 or #3 (2.8 and 2.3 cm, respectively). These preliminary studies indicate that wild P. monophylla scions can be established in the canopy of uncultivated P. edulis trees.
Keywords: Grafting, pine grafting, pinyon pines, single-leaf pinyon pine.
At Carolina Native Nursery in mountainous western North Carolina, we grow 12 species of deciduous azaleas that are native to the southeastern United States. Over the past 15 years, we have honed our seed-growing protocol for this special group of ornamentals, native shrubs. We start from seeds and eventually finish in 3-gal containers. What follows is a summary of our methods.
Keywords: Seed collection, seed propagation, Rhododendron species, Rhododendron periclymenoides, Rhododendron atlanticum, Rhododendron canescens, Rhododendron austrinum, IPM
Pa'uohi'iaka is a native Hawaiian plant that is commonly used as an ornamental ground cover and has potential use as a hanging basket plant. This study aimed to document easily identifiable morphological characteristics to distinguish between accessions for hanging basket potential. Analysis revealed significant differences in average stem diameter, leaf length, leaf width, leaf thickness, petiole diameter, length of internodes, number and length of lateral branches, flower diameter, and number of open flowers. No significant differences were observed in plant canopy and number of preformed roots. Morphological characteristics, such as number of lateral branches and length of lateral branches, are important factors for selection and potential use of pa'uohi'iaka as a hanging basket plant. Based on these characteristics, selections from Leeward Community College, Puhala Bay, and Mahana Bay show promise for further evaluation.
Keywords: Convolvulaceae, ground covers, Hawaiian plants, native plants.
Experiments were conducted in 2018 to assess herbicide movement through organic mulch materials including pinebark, pinestraw, and hardwood. Weed species evaluated were crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), garden spurge (Euphorbia hirta), and eclipta (Eclipta prostrata). Liquid formulations of prodiamine, dimethenamid-P + pendimethalin, and indaziflam were evaluated in combination with mulch materials applied at a depth of 5.1 cm (2 in.). Quantification of these herbicides was performed using biological and chemical assays from the soil samples collected from below the mulch layers. Results showed that only 67% eclipta control was observed in pots originally mulched with hardwood, which indicates that indaziflam was more tightly bound to this mulch. Crabgrass data showed that pinebark (65% control) was the only mulch type that caused a significant reduction in prodiamine efficacy. Dimethenamid-P + pendimethalin efficacy on garden spurge was reduced in pots originally mulched with hardwood or pinebark, but all treatments provided >94% control. Chemical assays showed that approximately 20% of pendimethalin, prodiamine, and indaziflam that was applied reached the soil surface when mulch was present during the application. More dimethenamid-P reached the soil surface than any other herbicide, with 69% being retained by the pinebark mulch.
Keywords: Pinebark, pinestraw, hardwood, bioassay, chemical assay, preemergence.
Single-leaf pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla) is a source of wild-collected, edible, soft-shelled pine nuts that are in great demand. This project identified high yielding, wild trees and evaluated side-wedge versus side-veneer grafting. An analysis of the grafts indicated side-wedge grafts were more successful than side-veneer grafts (95% and 89%, respectively), had longer average candle lengths (3.6 cm and 3.3 cm, respectively) and longer needles (4 cm and 3.3 cm, respectively). Scions from Hamlin had the lowest survival rate (80.5%), scions from Austin had the longest average candle lengths (4 cm), and scions from Raft River had the longest needle lengths (5.4 cm). These results, excluding the average candle lengths, were statistically significant, indicating that side-wedge grafts are more successful than side-veneer grafts for grafting pinyon pine seedlings. Considering that these scions were collected from wild grown trees rather than cultivated trees, the results are very promising for the establishment of stock blocks.
Keywords: Grafting, pine grafting, pinyon pines, single-leaf pinyon pine.
IPPS-New Zealand Region member Megan Robinson was the recipient of the 2018 New Zealand Region/Western Region exchange fellowship. Megan traveled from her home in Waimate, New Zealand, to the IPPS-Western Region Annual Meeting in Hawaii to participate in the Pacific Rim Conference. Megan works for Headford Propagators. Megan shares some information about Headford Propagators, New Zealand native plants, her hometown, and her interests outside of horticulture.
Keywords: Astelia chathamica, medicinal plants, Leptospermum scoparium, Myosotidium hortensia.
Van Belle Nursery started the process towards certification in 1995, allowing the nursery to conduct their own inspections. The nursery began to write their own phytosanitary certificates in 2007. The nursery
At Lancaster Farms we love to innovate and strive to find better, more cost-efficient ways to produce our products. While we have implemented several of these innovations - we embrace home grown ideas and I hope that some of ours will spark you to come up with some of your own.
Keywords: Mechanization, labor efficiency, pruning, machine design, technology adaption.
Over the years I have seen many methods of propagation from the high tech to the simplest low tech you could have and interestingly enough some of the least thought-out have been the best methods that have the best results; maybe not the most productive but certainly some of the best return for money spent. The following are some of the methods used by our nursery and what we achieve. At our nursery, leaf cuttings, rhizome cuttings, root cuttings, stem cuttings, division, tissue culture, fern pups, spores, and seeds are used. Why
Biological control utilizes living organisms including insects, mites, fungi, or bacteria to control problem pests, and diseases. Utilizing beneficial control agents (BCAs) as insect and disease control procedures requires a different approach compared to pesticides and fungicides. To be successful, growers and managers need to deploy these BCAs early in the crop cycle, and not after an outbreak occurs. BCAs are used preventatively in most cases, and should be used when crops are young, pest numbers are low, and damage has not reached a critical level. This paper describes various BCA materials for use in propagation and greenhouse production.
Keywords: Diseases, fungi, fungicides, bio-fungicides, insects, IPM, mites, thrips, fungus gnats.
Plant mutations are very useful in a breeding program because they are sources of novel phenotypes that could lead to the development of new cultivars. There are several chemical, physical, and molecular techniques that are available to mutate plant materials in vitro. This research documents the effects of the mutagen, oryzalin (the herbicide Surflan), on tissue cultured plants of Vitex agnus-castus. in vitro cuttings were exposed to oryzalin at three different concentrations, 0.3 mM, 1.3 mM and 2.8 mM, with three different exposure times, 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. It was found that the lethal dose of oryzalin that causes 50% of death to Vitex in tissue culture to be at 0.3 millimolar of oryzalin at 30 minutes of exposure time. Higher concentration or longer exposure time increased the death percentage of the cuttings.
Keywords: Breeding, mutation breeding, woody plants, tissue culture.
This paper addresses the conservation work being done in the Hawke
Botanic gardens and arboreta have always played an important role in the maintenance and testing of novel germplasm. By their very nature, the diverse collections of plant material provide germplasm to the trade, an opportunity to assess cultural requirements and information regarding the adaptability of diverse plants to varying environments. There is an ever-increasing role for public gardens to maintain diverse collections and provide basic information on the adaptability of the collections. This paper focuses on winter hardiness and survival in broadleaf evergreen plants in the University of Delaware Botanic Gardens collection that may be questionably hardy in Zone 7a.
Keywords: Plant collections, germplasm, evaluation, winter hardiness, witchhazel, palms, Camellia, Magnolia, Itea, Osmanthus, Quercus, Viburnum, Agave.
The use of native Hawaiian plants as ornamentals has grown in the last two decades due to state laws aimed at promoting the use of natives in landscaping. Ilima is a culturally important species commonly used in leis and in landscaping. Although various forms exist, ranging from the prostrate coastal ecotype to the upright mountain ecotype, cultivar development has been limited. In this study, 19 accessions of ilima were collected from wild and cultivated sources on four islands (Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii) and grown in a common garden. Morphological characterization was done using a descriptor list and assessed using the Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index. High (> 0.67) to medium (0.34-0.66) levels of diversity in 15 quantitative and qualitative characteristics were observed. Characteristics exhibiting a high diversity index were leaf length (0.81), leaf width (0.71), plant canopy (0.72), stem diameter (0.79), and number of plant samples with open flowers (0.69). Morphological characteristics with medium level of diversity included position of the lamina (0.39), mature leaves (0.53), leaflets (0.52), plant height (0.41), number of branches (0.63), floral diameter (0.55) and number of open flowers (0.60). A low level of diversity (< 0.33) was observed in petiole color, petiole orientation, growth habit, and floral type.
Keywords: Malvaceae, Hawaiian plants, herbaceous plants, native plants.
The University of Delaware Botanic Gardens (UDBG) is generally described as encompassing the grounds surrounding the academic, greenhouse, research, and support buildings on South Campus. This translates into a range of soil types, moisture properties, and sun/shade exposures, which include wetlands, open lands, full shade areas, special collections, a garden of herbaceous perennials, and a Lepidoptera Trail, to name but a few. The Trial Gardens are relatively new to the UDBG complex and are situated just east of Fischer Greenhouse Lab and just north of Roger Martin Drive. They were established approximately 10 years ago by Director John Frett, who converted a transient-purpose space into a traditional arrangement of linear beds patterned after trial gardens found at many universities. The gardens contain informal plant evaluation trials and official All America Selections trials for annuals and perennial plants.
Keywords: volunteers, vines, annuals, tropical, color, cultivar evaluation, All-American selections, Proven Winners.
There is a need for preemergence herbicides in the container nursery industry due to the high cost of hand weeding, but few preemergence herbicides are labeled for sensitive herbaceous ornamental crops. Currently, Snapshot (isoxaben + trifluralin) is the only granular formulated preemergence herbicide labeled for many sensitive herbaceous ornamental crops. Fortress (isoxaben + dithiopyr) is a new granular preemergence herbicide made by OHP, Inc. for use on sensitive herbaceous ornamental plants. In this experiment, four species of ornamental herbaceous crops in #1 containers were treated with Fortress at 150, 300, and 600 lbs/A, a spray combination of Gallery (isoxaben) plus Dimension (dithiopyr) at 0.75+0.38 lbs ai/A, and Snapshot (isoxaben + trifluralin) at 150 lbs/A. Also, #1 containers filled with amended 6 pine bark : 1 sand substrate were treated with Fortress at 100, 150, and 200 lbs/A, Gallery (isoxaben) plus Dimension (dithiopyr) at 0.75+0.38 lbs ai/A, and Snapshot (isoxaben + trifluralin) at 150 lbs/A and then overseeded with 25 seeds of either oxalis, bittercress, eclipta, phyllanthus, spurge, or crabgrass. Fortress had no effect on size index and caused no significant phytotoxicity of crops tested. Fortress had excellent control of bittercress and oxalis 30 and 60 DAT, and significantly better control than other treatments 90 DAT. Fortress controlled eclipta well 30 and 60 DAT. It provided good control of spurge 30 DAT, but almost none 90 DAT. Fortress provided poor phyllanthus control 60 DAT while Snapshot provided excellent control. All herbicide treatments provided excellent crabgrass control 90 DAT. Fortress had no effect on size index and caused no significant phytotoxicity of crops tested.
Keywords: Container nurseries, sensitive crops, Fortress, preemergence.
The UKREC Botanical Garden is a 5-acre setting located at the University of Kentucky-Research and Education Center, Princeton. It was created in 1980 to evaluate and select superior environmentally sustainable plants for enhancing Kentucky's environments and landscapes. The garden is visited by master gardeners, extension county agents, students and residents of nearby communities. Being an enclave in a rural region, with limited resources; the garden has the potential as a learning center to teach science-based knowledge and outreach. This project has offered hands-on activities for fourth and fifth grade students of Caldwell County and Lyon County Schools. Topics included plant diversity in different categories (natives, invasive, ornamentals, small-fruit crops, and vegetables), insect-plant and plant-soil interactions, and the importance of environmental protection for a sustainable future. Science teachers and University of Kentucky Faculty and Staff have prepared, organized and delivered planned activities.
Keywords: Education, botanic garden, pollinators, educators.
This paper discusses the roles that plants play in water, soil, weather, and climate and links this new science and understanding with emerging opportunities for horticulturalists. Plants, when assembled into ecosystems, either naturally or assisted by conscious design, can thrive, bank carbon, clean water and provide habitat for humans and many other creatures. Plants looked at or managed individually or in monocultures have requirements or needs, and when assembled into holistic systems they can all contribute, benefit from mutualistic relationships and contribute to the whole. Ecosystem restoration, diverse perennial crops, edible landscapes, agroforestry, food forests, permaculture, green roofs and more are not only fashionable and increasingly popular but may help point the way forward to a time when motivated and hardworking people seeking meaningful work is important.
Keywords: Carbon cycle, carbon dioxide, environment.
Ginger and turmeric are traditionally used as spices in powder form, especially in curries and masalas. Ginger is also used as an ingredient in beverages such as ginger ale or ginger beer, and to make candies, preserves or tea. Fresh or dried ginger rhizomes can be easily found in most supermarkets and ethnic grocery stores. However, fresh turmeric rhizomes are less widely available in New Zealand. This paper describes the potential for producing ginger and turmeric plants in containers from seedlings or tissue culture plants.
Keywords: Edibles, Zingiber, Curcuma.
The Rutgers University Woody Ornamental Breeding Program began in 1960 under the direction of Dr. Elwin Orton. The early focus of the program was the breeding of hollies, with work on big-bracted dogwoods starting in the 1970s. Over 40 cultivars have been released since the initiation of the program, and a number have become widely grown in the nursery and landscape trade. The most noteworthy Rutgers introductions are the hybrid dogwoods. These were largely the results of crossing Cornus kousa with C. florida to create a series of unique plants that combined traits of both parental species to create attractive, high-value landscape specimens. The hybrids generally exhibit increased vigor over their parental species and better drought tolerance than C. florida. However, their most important attribute is likely their resistance or increased tolerance to diseases such as dogwood anthracnose (Discula destructiva) and powdery mildew, Erysiphe pulchra). They also tend to get significantly fewer stem borers, extending their lifespan and reducing maintenance needs in the landscape.
Keywords: Holly, Ilex, Cornus, hazelnuts, Corylus, Erysiphe pulchra, woody ornamental breeding, clonal propagation, budding, seedlings, molecular tools, novel cultivars.
Native fruiting species provide an interesting opportunity for sustainable diversification by fruit growers. However, efforts to develop commercial fruit production using the blue elderberry have been hampered by difficulty in propagating this Western North American species. Semi-hardwood cuttings collected from wild-grown plants at full bloom and treated with a commercial NAA formulation had rooting success greater than 60%. Hardwood cuttings taken from greenhouse-grown stock plants and then cold-callused for 70 to 120 days had success rates ranging from 50 to 100%. Survival from wild-grown cuttings was very low (< 10%) for all collection dates/callusing times. For cuttings from field-grown plants, survival was higher using earlier collection dates (longer callusing period) but did not reach commercially viable levels. For greenhouse-grown stock plants, survival ranged from 75% to 100%, with the highest survival rate for plants collected in February and cold-callused for 60 days.
Keywords: Cold-callusing, Sambucus cerulea, specialty food products.
Flower Association was founded in 2009 and is one of 14 branches of the CFA. The Nursery Stock Branch focuses on its 300 corporate, nursery stock-producing members and covers almost 62% of the horticulture business in China. In China, the government and society play quite different roles. The government focus on the policy making, which is a powerful section and takes active position. Society helps the government to standardize industry development without any authority and simply links business partners together by activities, conferences, exhibitions, etc., which is passive behavior. Since 2015, China has changed the approach from a government-led position to a market-leading position and provided policies to meet supply-side reform. The horticulture industry has much room for further development. The Chinese government pays much attention to environment protection, including water, soil, and even air improvement. A greening industry will be more prosperous.
Keywords: Chinese nurseries, international horticulture, nursery exports, nursery imports, Photinia.
When it comes to pest management the best place to start your program is from the beginning, and this means in propagation. If your young plants are not clean of insects and disease, it is going to be an uphill battle. To start, if you have your own stock plants, keep them clean. This can be challenging because these plants are often allowed to grow large and dense in order to produce many cuttings. Getting good spray coverage on plants with dense growth can be very difficult. Often pest populations seemed to be under control, but their numbers are frequently just knocked back. In these situations, systemic insecticides can be useful but remember they may not control all pests present - and in some cases, create more problems. Always make sure you have correctly identified the pest or pathogen before you start any pest management program.
Keywords: Stock plants, scouting, biocontrol, integrated pest management (IPM), two-spotted spider mites, whitefly, aphids, western flower thrips, inspect cutting material, insecticide soaps, oils, microbials (bacteria), Beauveria bassiana, predatory mites, Neoseiulus cucumeris.
Coastal sand frostweed is a southeastern USA native plant with ornamental and restoration potential. Propagation information for this plant is lacking. However, other species of Cistaceae have seeds with physical dormancy that can be alleviated by scarification. The objective of the present study was to test the effects of scarification via sandpaper abrasion with an electric seed scarifier and photoperiod on germination of coastal sand frostweed. Scarification for 50-200 seconds with an electric seed scarifier lined with sandpaper was sufficient to break physical dormancy with ?90% germination for graded seed. Additionally, no difference in germination (63-64%) was detected between non-graded seeds exposed to a 12-hour photoperiod or left in the dark.
Keywords: Physical dormancy, Helianthemum, beach dune, scarification, endemic.