Volume 63

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A Comparison of Growth Media for Cyclamens in a Controlled Environment©

Author: Pierre Adriaanse

PP: 3


Cyclamens are considered an important crop for winter to supplement the income of enterprises during the cold season. Container grown cyclamens are considered an expensive commercial horticultural crop where growth media is seen as a factor which contributes significantly to the production costs. The economic landscape in South Africa dictates that production costs are kept as low as possible without compromising on quality. Determining the most suitable growth media and maintaining quality would be beneficial for the cyclamen growers. It would not only enhance plant growth, decrease disease, and pest management but allow for competitive prices at the market. The focus of this study was on the comparison of seven growth media in order to determine the most suitable growth media for the South African environment. Existing scholarly and trade literature together with the existing growth media commercially available determined the selection of growth media for the study.

Improving Field Survival of Pine Seedlings and Cuttings: the Sappi Plant Quality Index©

Author: Craig Ford

PP: 11


Plant quality can be defined as ?fitness for purpose? and described as a plant?s ability to survive and grow after planting (Mattsson, 1996). Various morphological and physiological plant parameters have been used to measure plant quality in forestry and have been quantitatively linked to increased establishment success (Rose et al., 1990). Many factors can affect plant survival and subsequent growth; these include genetic variability, nursery practice, handling, and transportation of plants as well as silvicultural practices at planting. The potential gains from high quality planting stock in forestry in combination with good silvicultural practices are additive and lead to optimum stocking as well as volume growth ((South et al., 2005). The responsibility of nurseries is to ensure that plants with the highest possible chance of survival, that is plants of high quality, are supplied to end users. It is, however, also important to note that producing seedlings and cuttings which meet the desired plant quality specifications do not guarantee that plants will survive, but rather that it guarantees the probability of those plant surviving under normal conditions (Grossnickle, 2012). In much the same way, seed germination estimates the best possible germination under ideal conditions but does not provide a guarantee on the final nursery germination success as this may be confounded by many independent nursery factors.

Ornamental Plant Selection Using the "Shotgun Technique": a Complex Process Simplified©

Author: Adam Harrower

PP: 17

Currently there is very little commercial ornamental crop development in South Africa. There is unfortunately little stimulus or incentive to develop this industry and this in part this is due to the fact that floriculture is not offered at any tertiary institution in the country. Yet, South African plant genera are of the most commercialised in the world. Plant breeding can be a complex and daunting process, so the purpose of this paper is to introduce a simple low-tech method of multi-generational plant selection which can produce very rewarding results.

"Indigenous" often has the unfortunate reputation of being dull and difficult to grow, often because there has been little or no selection on the plant before its release onto the market. As a result, unselected and unbred wild plants will always pale in grandeur against the highly bred petunias, pansies, and practically every other plant you will find in a commercial nursery nowadays. One of the objectives of the horticultural operations at Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens is to promote indigenous plants by introducing new selections into the industry. Horticulturists at Kirstenbosch have undertaken limited plant breeding projects, like Plectranthus ‘Plepalila’, Simply Beautiful® Mona Lavender plectranthus PP13,858 for example, but generally the gardens don’t have the capacity to undertake in-depth plant selection programmes.

The Use of Meta-Topolin as an Alternative Cytokinin in the Tissue Culture of Eucalyptus Species©

Author: Annemarie van der Westhuizen

PP: 25

Meta-topolin (mT) is a relatively new cytokinin isolated from poplar leaves in 1975 and is closely related to 6-benzyladenine (BA). Research on the use of mT in tissue culture has been conducted on several species, including Hypericum, citrus rootstock, Aloe, banana (Musa acuminate), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and (Barleria). 6-Benzyladenine (BA) is the most widely used cytokinin in the regeneration stage of the tissue culture of most plant species, because of its availability and price, but it has a few drawbacks which include causing the hyperhydricity (vitrification) of shoots and it can have a negative effect on rooting. In light of this a series of trials were initiated to determine the effect of mT on the regeneration, hyperhydricity, and rooting of Eucalyptus species. In the initial trial various concentrations of mT (ranging from 1.2 to 14.5 mg·L-1) were tested with the resulting shoot growth compact and stunted. In a follow-up trial, a mT concentration of 0.2 mg·L-1 was found to produce shoots that were less vitrified and that resulted in better in vitro rooting. Further trials on rooting of other eucalypt species are in progress to determine the benefits of mT.
Plug and Liner Production: Are You a Grower or Manufacturer? ©

Author: Paul Fisher

PP: 31

Profitable production of young plants (seedling plugs and rooted cuttings) requires consistency, efficiency, and tracking of costs and revenue. Uniform quality across a tray, shipment, and over time is demanded by a market place that is characterized by increasing competition and tight profit margins. The artisanal perspective of horticulture has given way to plant factories, as economies of scale push young plant production towards highly specialized and mechanized operations. However, the requirement to minimize waste in terms of crop losses, or inefficient use of labor, space or materials, applies equally to large and small businesses.

Young plant production involves a series of processes in common with manufacturing in other industries, which include inventory control of inputs (trays, substrate, fertilizer, etc.), assembly (filling trays, sticking cuttings, or sowing seed), material transport (placement in the greenhouse), quality control (patching or fixing trays), order pulling, and shipping. Growing (irrigation, climate management, height control, fertilization, etc.) is the least standardized part of young plant production. However, even with growing processes, well-defined and standardized crop plans are more achievable in propagation than with most other horticulture products, because multiple crops are grown each season with short production times.

Attention to Detail Is a "Not Negotiable" for the Production of Pseudopanax Hybrids from Cuttings©

Author: Jan Velvin

PP: 37

Zealand amenity plantings. The main appeal of these taxa is their very varied, often unusual, leaf shapes. Commonly they have varying shades of green leaves but some hybrids have purple/brown leaves. One cultivar, Pseudopanax lessonii ‘Gold Splash’, has variegated green and yellow leaves giving a mottled effect. A range of Pseudopanax hybrids was introduced by Duncan & Davies, New Plymouth. Widely used and among this range are:
  • P. (Adiantifolius Group) ‘Adiantifolius’
  • (P. lessonii × P. crassifolius) P. (Adiantifolius Group) ‘Cyril Watson’ (P. lessonii × P. crassifolius)
  • P. lessonii (syn. discolor) ‘Rangatira’
  • P. ‘Purpureus’ (P. lessonii × P. discolor)
  • P. lessonii ‘Gold Splash’
Commercially Usage of Geothermal Energy for Growing Gerbera in Rotorua©

Author: Harald Esendam

PP: 43

For more than 10 years Connie and Harald Esendam from PlentyFlora have been making use of geothermal fluid to heat their 2,688 m2 glasshouse used to produce Gerbera for the New Zealand cut-flower market. PlentyFlora’s glasshouse is located on the Central Plateau, where the winter conditions can be very harsh, with an average of 20 to 30 frost days with -8°C (17.6°F) as the lowest measured temperature. Gerbera is a subtropical plant originating from South Africa, and requiring a minimum temperature of 14°C (57°F).
Breeding Clivia©

Author: Lindsey Hatch

PP: 45


The first things needed in the fundamentals of plant breeding, in my opinion, is to have a passion for what you are doing and an enjoyment of working with the particular plant group you have chosen. Secondly, know your topic. Have some knowledge of the where, how, and why the plants you have chosen grow where and the way they do. Once you have a background to your topic you will need some mature stocks that are flowering. This is the time to go hard and try anything, have an idea of what you think you want to achieve but try all combinations and see what results occur from a little experimenting. The final product may be amazing or a complete failure, but whatever happens at least you will have given it a go.


The genus Clivia is a relatively small group in the plant kingdom, consisting of six species from Southern Africa.

Interpreting Plant Architectural Design©

Author: K.A. Funnell

PP: 49


Using examples of both herbaceous and woody perennial plant species, this presentation profiles research focused on plant architecture currently being undertaken at Plant & Food Research. At this time, the primary focus of these investigations is branching. In terms of most crops of interest, but especially those grown for ornamental purposes, the extent of branching directly relates to our ability to deliver plants of high quality, by their visual "fullness" (Funnell, 2011).

Before exploring our recent experiences, it’s worth considering a little background information about branching in plants. We accept that plant growth regulators, which naturally occur in plants, effectively control the amount of branching that occurs (Shimizu-Sato et al., 2009). Auxins, one of the key groups of plant growth regulators involved, are produced within the apical buds and developing leaves of plants. Once produced, these auxins are transported downwards within the plant. At the same time, however, cytokinins are often produced by the plant in its roots, and are transported upwards. If we try to keep it simple, the net result of this production and transport of both auxins and cytokinins is that whether or not a bud grows out to become a branch is the net result of the antagonistic effects of auxins and cytokinins.

Lessons Learnt from the USA Nursery Industry©

Author: Dave Harris

PP: 53

In May of 2012, I was fortunate enough to be able to travel through California looking at the wholesale nursery industry and how it might relate to the industry in New Zealand. My trip was funded in part by a scholarship from the International Plant Propagators’ Society — New Zealand Region, and a grant from The Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture’s Education Trust. I spent close to a month visiting a wide range of growers and retailers in California from San Diego to San Francisco.

Straight away one of the most obvious and common themes from all of the growers I visited was that the industry was generally in a depressed state with lower demand, due to the ongoing recession. This was visible everywhere I went to varying degrees, with growing sites partially bare and abandoned growing sites dotted around the countryside. One of the flow-on effects of a market in an oversupplied state is huge price point competition between companies; with some growers I visited wholesaling a no.1 potted shrub for as low as $2.30, and one of the big box chains selling three, no. 1, potted perennials for $9.99. These prices are so low that they would be completely unsustainable in New Zealand (even though many costs are also lower in the USA), and in fact many growers I spoke to felt they were also unsustainable in the USA. Many were focused not so much on producing profits as they were on surviving and maintaining market share for the time when the industry picks up again.

Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae-Virulent Impacts on the New Zealand Kiwifruit Industry©

Author: Linda Peacock

PP: 55

Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae-Virulent (Psa-V) was first detected in Te Puke in the Bay of Plenty in November 2010. Since then, the disease has spread to most New Zealand kiwifruit-growing regions, affecting 2,256 orchards [Kiwifruit Vine Health (KVH) statistics as of Sept. 2013]. This equates to around 75% of kiwifruit-growing hectares.

Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae-Virulent is a gram negative flagellated bacterium that can spread through weather, namely wind and rain, and through the movement of infected plants, rootstocks, plant material, contaminated orchard machinery, tools, equipment, and people. It causes disease to kiwifruit vines only, and poses no risk to human or animal health. Some kiwifruit cultivars, such as Hort16A, are more vulnerable to Psa-V than others. However all cultivars are susceptible to the disease. Therefore, best-practice management must be applied to all cultivars, in all regions, to help achieve successful growth in a Psa-V environment.

Conventional Propagation of Cordyline australis©

Author: Ian Duncalf

PP: 63

The New Zealand cabbage tree, Cordyline australis, rates internationally as one of our most famous indigenous plants. Its popularity is based not only on its distinctive habit, shape and deliciously fragrant flowers but also the relatively recent advancement of coloured foliage forms. The purple foliaged ‘Purple Tower’ was famously crossed with one of the first striped leaved forms ‘Albertii’ at Duncan & Davies in the early 1980s. The resulting Pandora’s Box of colours and variegations this cross produced was an eye opener in terms of what foliage possibilities existed in the genetics of the humble cabbage tree. Since this time, through either seed variation or sports from tissue cultured plants, a plethora of different forms have emerged here and overseas. There was a time when a nursery visit to a fellow grower always seemed to include a quick peek round the back at the owner’s latest Cordyline find. I, too, was one of those vigilant nurserymen on the lookout for new forms, and I found one. I called it ‘Whero’, which is Te reo (Maori) for red.
Pingao (Ficinia spiralis) History and Propagation©

Author: J.L. Oliphant

PP: 67


Pingao (Ficinia spiralis), sometimes called the golden sand sedge, is an endemic native sand-binding plant. It grows naturally on the most active of coastal foredunes and is not found anywhere else in the world.

Before European colonisation, pingao was widespread through the North and South Islands of New Zealand (Cockayne, 1911). It was used by Maori to decorate their wharenui (meeting houses), in the tukutuku paneling and in weaving kete (kits), and whariki (mats). However the introduction of farm animals and the spread of goats and rabbits decimated the colonies of pingao. The spread of maram grass (Ammophila arenaria) and lupins (Lupinus sp.) and other European grasses choked out pingao. More recently dune buggies and trail bikes have mutilated the sand hills.

Options for Successful Establishment of Native Species©

Author: Jaap van Dorsser

PP: 73


The two options that come to mind are:

Option 1

You allow poor planning, management deficiencies, and poor execution to ruin your results, or

Option 2

You do everything well and on time. The seasons don’t wait.


In common with exotic species there are six aspects to the successful establishment of natives.

Planning and Site Preparation

Plan in advance. Site preparation involving fencing, weed spraying, and animal control may have to start 2 years in advance. Machinery may be required. Order planting stock in advance so that species you want are available and of the quality that you require and nurseries have time to grow them.

October 2012 IPPS Japan — New Zealand Exchange©

Author: Juliette Curry

PP: 75

My trip to Japan began by car from Taupo to Auckland, a flight to Narita airport and then a very quick transfer to a domestic flight from Narita to Osaka. I was met there by Akimi and Naoki, who had both travelled some distance to collect me. I then spent two nights at Shin Osaka with Akimi, doing a bit of sightseeing around Kyoto and Osaka.

A highlight of those 2 days was seeing the Golden Temple just as the sun was setting. Absolutely beautiful. We also visited the Kyoto Botanical Gardens.

We then caught the Shinkansen to Toyohashi and I spent another two nights there. Akimi showed me around her business, Verde, and we also visited some other members of the IPPS and a large garden centre.

On Day 5, after some more sightseeing and visiting members, Akimi drove me to the home of the Uchida family in Suzuka. I stayed with them and worked in the nursery for the next 4 days. I mainly worked with the strawberry crops but also helped to pack some figs and take them to the farmers market.

The Himalayas — Source of Many of Our Ornamentals©

Author: Peter Cave

PP: 77


At the core of this amazing plant source is the holy trinity of Magnolia, Camellia, and Rhododendron. How many gardens do you know without any of these key plants? I could make a very long list of other Himalayan plants. The large conifers: Picea (spruces), Larix (larches), Abies (firs), Pinus (pines), and Cedrus (cedars). There are many palms, bamboos, and many orchids, including Cymbidium, from this area. Lots of garden trees and shrubs including roses, Viburnum, Cotoneaster, Daphne, Michelia (see Magnolia), Philadelphus, Deutzia, Pieris, Acer, etc. There is a huge range of beautiful herbaceous alpine plants such as Primula. In fact when you are in this zone you could easily imagine you are in a garden. Many of our garden centres would have Himalayan plants for nearly half their stock.

Drugs and Alcohol in the Workplace©

Author: Sheena Kane

PP: 81


Thank you for attending the NGIV-IPPS presentation on drugs and alcohol in the workplace. This can be a confusing and controversial issue in any workplace, so we?ll look at some of the main areas of workplace law so see what you may need to consider if you have a problem, or are looking to develop a policy before trouble strikes.

Many people will think of accidents, particularly for employees in dangerous roles such as driving or operating heavy machinery, as a potential outcome of being affected by drugs or alcohol. Although Occupational Health and Safety may be the primary concern and motivation, there are other problems, such as taking "sickies" if hangover or affected by drugs and alcohol, other co-workers becoming disgruntled at a known problem "getting away with it," mistakes in paperwork, or your company being seen as unprofessional. There can be claims such as unfair dismissal or discrimination if a policy is badly drafted, or inequitably implemented or not supported in the workplace.

Enhancing Phytonutrients to Change the Game: Vitalvegetables©

Author: Russell Sully

PP: 84


The food industry is grappling with the impact of globalisation of world markets and the competition which comes from that. The industry is facing a revolution not dissimilar to the industrial revolution experienced by our predecessors over a century ago. The evolution of technologies like biotechnology, real time non-destructive sensing, data processing and communication technology, and the speed of communication have accelerated the pace of change.

The productivity growth in agriculture and horticulture in recent years is due to the ability to converge these technologies into systems that deliver productivity gains for these industries like no other sector of the economy.

Forty years ago the catch cry in agriculture was get big or get out. This is now an outdated paradigm. The new paradigm is to innovate and create points of difference to distinguish your product from the pack. With globalisation it has now become competition for market share, reflected by competition between supply chains which can take business into new, unexplored markets through strategic collaboration and partnerships. The question becomes what does each organisation bring to the partnership to create competitive advantage in the supply chain to offer the consumer value which no one else can?

Myrtle Rust in Australia©

Author: E.J. Minchinton, D. Smith, K. Hamley and C. Donald

PP: 89

In April 2010 myrtle rust initially described as Uredo rangelii, a member of the eucalyptus/guava rust complex called Puccinia psidii, was detected on a myrtaceous host Agonis flexusosa ‘After Dark’ by a cut flower grower on the central NSW coast. For many years P. psidii has been a high priority quarantine fungus. Myrtle rust spread rapidly and was detected in south east Queensland in late December 2010 and in Victoria in late December 2011. The incursion into Victoria was human assisted. Myrtle rust has only been detected in nurseries, private gardens and amenity plantings in Victoria but is widely distributed in native forests along the east coast from Batemans Bay in southern NSW to the Daintree in far north Queensland. The host range has expanded rapidly to over 240 species from 34 genera of Myrtaceae. Several species are highly susceptible with severe consequences for native fauna.
Ornamental Eucalyptus — Something for Everyone©

Author: Kate Delaporte, Michelle Wirthensohn and Cassandra Collins

PP: 91


This research was conduct in conjunction with Dr Justin Rigden, Adelaide Research and Innovation, Adelaide, SA, and collaboration with Humphris Nursery (Victoria), Narromine Transplants (New South Wales), and Yuruga Nursery/Clonal Solutions Australia (Far North Queensland).

It is an example of a long term breeding program with lots of collaboration, funding, hard work and passion that is starting to bear fruit.


The Eucalyptus genus contains unique flora with over 700 species throughout Australia (and its closest northern neighbours) and represents one of Australia’s greatest floral icons. Eucalyptus is the primary tree genus in Australia, and plays a vital role in all Australia?s ecosystems providing habitat for native birds, insects and animals. There are a great number of species that are rarely seen in cultivation, with highly ornamental flowers, leaves, buds, and fruit. Harsh climatic extremes such as those experienced in many places in Australia and other parts of the world have prompted a renewed interest in Australian trees and plants, especially for street and urban landscape plantings, due to their resilient nature.

Our Passion, Your Future Leaders©

Author: David Parlby and Brooke Hallett

PP: 95


Most nursery owners in today’s tough times are concerned about the business today and not about the future. This is completely understandable, we all have bills we have to pay.

I don’t know how many nursery owners consider the future, will you still want to be managing the business in 10 years, would you like to enjoy your days fishing or playing a round of golf? Without competent staff to run your business this might be difficult. Ideally you would love to hand down the business to one of your children, what happens if this isn’t possible, where does this leave you?

This is where I would suggest looking towards the future of developing your staff to the best of their abilities. I’m sure you?re thinking that I don’t have staff that are that interested in doing anything else and that’s a valid point, however have you actually asked them what they want out of their job.

So you might ask what I should do to…?

Using Eye Tracking to Understand Consumer Behaviour in Garden Centres©

Author: Stella Minahan, Stuart Orr, Bridget Behe, R. Thomas Fernandez, L

PP: 97

The Nursery and Garden Industry of Victoria (NGIV) with an international team of horticulture and retail researchers have been using eye tracking technology in stores to evaluate consumer reaction to point of purchase displays and signage. Eye technology captures exactly what the customer looks at and these data can be downloaded and analysed. For example:
  • What first catches the attention of a customer?
  • How long does that element hold their attention?
  • How many gazes does it attract?
  • What area gets the most attention?

This information can be directly related to customer demographics, expressed preference and sales data. The research can provide information to plant producers and garden centres with evidence of what the customer looks at, what factors determine the decision and what they ultimately buy. This research aims to provide the nursery supply chain with unique information on customer behaviour leading to improvements in the shopping experience and enhancing profitable sales.

The Design and Construction of Oman Botanic Garden©

Author: Buthaina Al Ruhaili and Hanan Al Moqbali

PP: 101


Oman Botanic Garden (OBG) is currently under construction in the Arabian Peninsula. It is located close to Oman’s capital city, Muscat, and will be open to the public in a few years. The garden is a governmental project and part of the Diwan of Royal Court. The aim of the project is to conserve the biodiversity and botanical heritage of Oman for a sustainable world. The project will do this by displaying the entire flora of the country in naturalistic habitat-style plantings and will include extensive exhibitions about plants and how they are used. The 420-ha site of the botanic garden was selected for its beauty, dramatic landscape and plant diversity, with 10% of Oman’s native flora already naturally present.

Micropropagation of Sphagnum Moss for Peat Land Regeneration©

Author: Neal Wright

PP: 115


The author has been involved in micropropagation since 1976. He undertook a PhD in the technique at Nottingham University before starting his own laboratory and nursery in partnership with his wife, Barbara and, as an IPPS member for all that time, has shared most of the supposed "secrets" of micropropagation.

Micropropagation is labour intensive and is now largely undertaken in regions with cheap labour such as Eastern Europe, India, and China. However, with very careful management and integration into niche markets, there is still a place for it in the U.K. The basics of micropropagation have not changed much over the last 30 years but there has always been a need to control costs and, in the traditional IPPS manner, low investment innovations have been developed by the author both for the laboratory and nursery at Micropropagation Services. These include home-made sterile air cabinets and alternatives to scientific apparatus wherever possible, and the use of gantry mounted mowers for trimming plug plants to improve bushiness and uniformity. Early adoption of innovations, such as the Evaposensor for mist control in weaning has also proved essential to maintain an edge over the competition.

Propagation and Reintroduction of Two Rare Plant Species in the South-Eastern United States of America ©

Author: Judson S. LeCompte

PP: 121

The habitats of Sarracenia rubra subsp. wherryi (Wherry?s pitcher plant) and Symphyotrichum georgianum (Georgia aster) have been declining as a result of human population growth, poor land management, invasive exotic species, and fire prevention. Through a partnership with the U.S. Forest Service and the Beattie Foundation measures have been taken to protect these species through a propagation and re-introduction program.
Propagation in New Zealand for Northern Hemisphere Markets©

Author: Adrian Ayley

PP: 125


The New Zealand nursery industry has a long history of supplying plants to Europe, particularly to the United Kingdom. Partly this is because of the historical links to "the old country" through the Commonwealth; but New Zealand ’s climatic and geological conditions mean that plants grown there do well in Europe and North America, despite the long distance from these markets. Native plants for the export trade remain a mainstay of production for many New Zealand nurseries, such as Naturally Native and NZ Liners, and will no doubt continue as long as there are European growers looking for new cultivars, forms, and species to introduce and grow.

This paper describes the author ’s experiences of supplying plants to Europe and the U.K. from New Zealand.

Production of Cuttings at Alkemade Brothers: Observations on Quality Control and Use of Light Emitting Diode Lights©

Author: Marius van Duijn

PP: 127


The business was established by Theo Alkemade in 1990 as a cut flower nursery and then began producing rooted cuttings on a small scale as a second crop. A few years later his twin brother Wil joined the company and they started specialising in rooted cuttings. As the company developed it expanded to four locations approximately 5 miles apart, which was not very efficient. An opportunity to relocate the whole company to one location arose in 2011. The new location is 30,000 m2 and includes 28,000 m2 of greenhouse. In 2012, approximately 17 million cuttings of more than 1,000 taxa were produced, half of them are sold in the Netherlands the other half is exported, mainly across Europe. This is achieved with a workforce of 12 and there are up to 15 part-time workers during the busiest periods.

Theo and Wil don ’t want to expand further, so the business will develop by producing better quality cuttings and using the space more efficiently. This can be done by growing the cuttings in a bigger size tray, producing a bigger plant which will give our customers a head start and the chance to produce an extra crop each year.

Connecting with the Gardening Public©

Author: Mark Taylor

PP: 131


Kernock Park Plants was established in 1976 by Richard Harnett (then a horticultural advisor), along with his wife Jan. Since then, the nursery has expanded to just over 4.5 ha of polythene and glass on three separate sites. There is a workforce of around 80 during spring and summer, falling to around 50, including permanent staff for the remainder of the year. The nursery produces nearly 1,200 taxa including summer bedding, patio plants, alpines, herbs, hardy and herbaceous perennials, grasses, and shrubs. It is primarily a wholesale business, the main product being plug plants — a range of 9-cm liners having been added recently following the take over of some of the lines previously grown at nearby Hewton Nursery. The nursery has been supplying Proven Winners® brand plants since 1999.

The Quest for a Pinker Planet: Breeding, Production and Marketing of Hybrid Dianthus at Whetman Pinks©

Author: Andrew Spilsbury

PP: 135


Whetman Pinks is a family-run nursery in south west England which has specialised in breeding and production of hybrid pinks, sometimes known as show pinks. These hybrids between Dianthus caryophyllus and Dianthus plumarius are a "typically English" garden plant. Whetman has developed these and other hybrid dianthus cultivars as attractive modern garden plants and promoted them in many other countries. In April 2013, Whetman Pinks Ltd was awarded the Queens Award for Enterprise: International Trade, for its achievements in exporting pinks worldwide.


Whetman Pinks is located in a sheltered valley near Dawlish on Devon?s south coast. The climate is mild and light levels quite good despite the surrounding hills. There has been a horticulture industry in the area since the 1800s. As well as apples for cider (the nursery used to be a cider factory) the nursery used to grow fruit and vegetables, particularly during the two World Wars when flowers were grown in the hedgerows, as all productive land had to support the war effort. Flower growing expanded after World War II and the cut flowers were sent to the London wholesale market at Covent Garden by steam train, including bunches of locally grown Devon violets and pinks.

The Development of Responsibly Sourced Growing Media Components and Mixes©

Author: Neil Bragg and Wayne Brough

PP: 141

The U.K. Government White Paper on the Natural Environment of June 2011 set quite specific targets for ending the use of peat in horticulture in England and Wales. The result of an initial consultation on these targets led to the formation of a task force with a remit covering a number of inter-related project areas. The task force responded to the White Paper in October 2012. In February 2013 Richard Benyon, minister at the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, acknowledged the work of the task force and encouraged the industry to continue the work programmes it had set.

One of the main projects to emerge from the task force was a 5 year programme of R&D and knowledge transfer jointly funded by the government and the industry to advance the responsible use of all growing media materials so that the industry could either meet peat reduction targets or demonstrate the constraints imposed by the targets.

This paper reviews progress with the programme of development work and summarises the work that remains to be done.

Raising Consumer Awareness of Your Nursery?s Products©

Author: Graham Clarke

PP: 145


It takes years of hard work to develop and commercialise new plants but that is just the start — then you have to market them. This paper outlines some of the key ways to get your plants in front of the consumer.


Excite Them

It is crucial when selling any plant — either to the consumer directly, or the retailer in volume, that you pique their interest. Explain how the customer will benefit from owning it. For example, if you are selling a new type of fern (not necessarily the most visually stimulating of plants), explain how there is no better a group of plants than ferns for dealing with those "problem corners."

Inspire Them

Sell the promise of what the plant will provide, and how it can be grown with other plants. Sticking with ferns as our example, show that they are easy, low maintenance plants that need minimal care. They are virtually immune to attack from slugs and other pests. They deliver a lot while asking for very little in return.

Conifer Grafting at Iseli Nursery: Fundamentals to Creating Great Product©

Author: Peter Gregg

PP: 151


The foundation of Iseli Nursery is an unwavering focus on delivering high-quality plant material to many of the best independent garden centers in North America. Grafted conifers are a significant part of our business. I will share the steps and methods we take for grafting during the calendar year as a seasonal outline. Before we start grafting we work on the production plan. It is rather complex and time consuming to create, but the end result is the blueprint we use to determine how many of which items to graft. Using historical metrics, current demand, and forecasting we hone the list of cultivars to propagate. Our list of production items for 2013 was 266 cultivars from 17 genera. Additionally, we grafted 260 evaluator cultivars last season that are in various stages of development. A select few will become new introductions after years of evaluation.

Teaching Plant Propagation Online©

Author: Richard P. Regan

PP: 155


Responding to the ever-changing opportunities offered by the Internet, the Department of Horticulture at Oregon State University (OSU) decided to offer an online degree in General Horticulture. With assistance from the College of Agriculture and Extended Campus, the first few courses were available in 2009. One of the required courses for this new degree was HORT 311 — Plant Propagation which would be offered Winter Term.

Since 2008, I taught the on-campus course in plant propagation, which includes a lab section where the students experience hands-on grafting, seed germination and seedling growth, cuttings, and layering. When asked to develop the online class in plant propagation my response was "How do I teach plant propagation online? What about the labs?" Frankly, I felt that this type of course could not be taught online and I resisted developing one.

As the number of online, degree seeking students continued to increase, I realized that I must come to terms with developing a plant propagation course. So I let go of what I was doing for the on-campus students and put myself in the position of the online student. My daughter had taken several online high school courses that gave me a little more insight into what was possible. In addition, support from Ecampus and other faculty who had developed online courses helped me to shape a vision.

Ornamental Plant Breeding at Oregon State University©

Author: Ryan Contreras

PP: 159

The Ornamental Plant Breeding Program at Oregon State University was established to develop new cultivars, primarily of woody taxa that are adapted to Oregon and beyond. The program is diverse and has active projects in more than a dozen genera. The goals of various projects are as diverse as the taxa and include developing sterile cultivars, improving growth form, or other traits for production and landscape use, novel ornamental traits such as flower color or form, and insect or disease resistance. Examples of projects discussed here include sterile Norway maples (Acer platanoides) and rose-of-Sharon (Hibiscus syriacus) and mutation breeding in flowering currant (Ribes sanguineum) and sweetbox (Sarcococca confusa).
Investing in Germplasm to Generate Value for the Nursery Industry©

Author: Mark P. Widrlechner

PP: 163


The economic success of nursery production is intimately connected with the array of plants being grown for sale. This array is a constantly changing mix of species and cultivars. Tastes change, resource availability and costs change, pests and pathogens evolve, and, every day, those involved with breeding and cultivar development deliver new choices bred and selected from a very diverse range of plants to propagators and growers. The ultimate goal for each firm is to develop an inventory of selected plants that gives value and satisfaction to their customers while ensuring profitable production.

If we look carefully at this situation, it’s clear that plant biodiversity is the foundation of the new cultivars that feed changing tastes, allow for more efficient resource use, and hold the keys to pest and pathogen resistance. That diversity, which I’ll refer to as germplasm, exists in many forms and places, from natural plant communities to public gardens, private collections and genebanks. In this paper, I’d like to present information about how the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) has gone about involving its customers in the process of building valuable, comprehensive germplasm collections for plant genera of interest to IPPS members, along with a few budding success stories.

Review of Root Manipulation in Containers©

Author: John Cooley

PP: 169

Plants were not designed to grow in containers and, as a result, there are many potential problems growing plants in containers such as the possibility of poor quality root system and drainage aeration issues. This can lead to poor performance of plants at any time in their life even many years later. In my opinion there are many root-related problems in standard containers that hold back plant performance. Problems like circling roots are some of the worst type of bad roots created in containers (Fig.1).

I believe the objective should be to produce as natural a root system as possible with straight, non-circling or even deflected roots in the liner leading to a good long-term root system with lateral support/feeder roots and some straight roots going deeper to create support. The Eucalyptus transplant root system in Figure 2 is almost indistinguishable from a natural root system.

Oregon’s Horticultural Success Story: the Hazelnut©

Author: Polly Owen

PP: 175

Hazelnuts (Corylus avellana) survive in many varied climatic and soil conditions; however, to consistently yield enough for a commercial crop they require more suitable conditions. The soil must be good quality and although hazelnuts love rain, the soil must be well-drained as they are not fond of wet feet. The climate must be mild without long periods of extreme cold or extreme heat. It appears that the 45th parallel provides excellent conditions. In the Northern Hemisphere the current production areas include the Black Sea region in Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Italy, Spain, and Oregon. In the Southern Hemisphere hazelnuts are being cultivated in Chile, South Africa and Australia.

Turkey is the largest producer of hazelnuts by far with about 70% of world production. Oregon produces from 3% to 5% of the world’s supply. In Turkey the cultivars grown are smaller in stature, bearing smaller nuts that are more conducive for use as kernels than as inshell. Trees are grown as bushes that grow on the sometimes steep hillsides along the Black Sea. There are thousands of growers that have 1 or 2 ha of hazelnuts planted. The hazelnuts are harvested by hand and spread out to dry in the sun. When dried and husked they are transported to very large modern processing facilities where most are shelled, further processed and shipped throughout the world. Notably, the dependency on the weather for the drying process can be disastrous for the industry. Timely drying is imperative for top quality product.

Nursery Certification©

Author: Bruce McTavish and Carol Barnett

PP: 179

Preventing, or at least slowing down, the spread of invasive alien species has become a difficult challenge for government agencies worldwide. Between 1996 and 1999, North America, including Canada, the United States, and Mexico, were invaded by six major alien species that were and still are serious pests of plant crops. By 2010 the number of alien pest species that have inadvertently been introduced into North America has more than quadrupled. Three of these alien pest species are serious pests of nursery crops: sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum), Asian long horn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

The North American Plant Protection Organization conducted an analysis of the pest introduction data. The research concluded that the following factors have resulted in ineffective prevention of stopping the introduction of serious pest species.

The PlantRight PRE: a New Screening Process for Invasiveness©

Author: Christiana Conser and Bob Adams

PP: 183


Sustainable Conservation’s initiative to stop the sale of invasive ornamental plants in California’s horticultural industry, PlantRight, is introducing its Plant Risk Evaluation (PRE) tool to commercial leaders in the horticultural industry. We are working to promote adoption by the industry and have launched a pilot project with a handful of leading growers and propagators who introduce new horticultural plants to determine how our tool can fit into their new plant development process. We developed the PRE tool, which has a 98% accuracy rate in predicting invasive plant characteristics, in collaboration with University of California, Davis (U.C. Davis) and the University of Washington to screen plants with the long-term goal of industry wide adoption to prevent the introduction of new ornamental invasive plants in the nursery supply chain.

Screening new ornamental plants to determine the risk of invasiveness is the most costeffective way to prevent the introduction of invasive plants (Leung et al., 2001; NISC, 2001). The PRE tool estimates the risk of an ornamental plant species becoming invasive in a defined geographic or climatic region, which can help a company determine not only where a given plant species (or subspecies) poses a potential invasive risk, but also where it does not represent an invasive risk and could potentially be grown and sold.

Nuggets of Knowledge: Rose Thorn Disease©

Author: Mike Evans

PP: 189

We all agree propagators should be concerned with the health of their plants in all stages of propagation and production. We know that the three points on the disease triangle are: Susceptible host, virulent pathogen, and favorable conditions. We have the most control over the presence (ideally the absence) of pathogens and the actual conditions for our crops, striving always to prevent conditions favorable to harmful organisms. We talk a lot about sanitation and plant health in propagation.

Today I want to share, from personal experience, a story about the health and vigor of a certain propagator (me), and how a "plant-based" disease caused no little consternation for over 4 years until it was properly diagnosed and treated.

The Power of Intention©

Author: Gayle Suttle

PP: 191

The following is the most powerful and important tool I have in my personal and professional toolbox. It is the central driver that has allowed us to overcome amazing obstacles in order to develop Microplant Nurseries into a successful company focused on the commercial micropropagation of (mostly woody) plants.


During our IPPS meeting in Portland this year, I asked our entire group to help illustrate my message and they did it with gusto. When I asked everyone to get up and move to one side of the room, it took 23 s for about 100 people to get there. I didn’t even ask them to do it quickly! The challenge given was for each person to cross the room in a different way than those who went before them. How many ways are there to cross a room? It took about 20 min, helped along with some lively rock and roll music and the results were often hysterically funny. Cartwheels, jumping jacks, zigzag, with cell phones, bumping into walls, hopping, skipping, hopping backwards, oogling your spouse with binoculars (thanks Mike Evans!) reading a newspaper, yoga, queenie waves…on and on it went.

Construction of a Bench Plastic Cover for Maintaining High Relative Humidity©

Author: Paul Winiarski

PP: 193

Fall Creek Farm and Nursery is a wholesale grower of blueberry plants. Most of our plants are derived from tissue culture. The plants we grow are made from Stage 2 in vitro plants. This means the plant is a microcutting without roots. In order to acclimate these plants to life outside the test tube they are planted into trays that are then kept in incubation tents inside the greenhouse. These tents are basically a small greenhouse that can be sealed to keep the humidity high and the temperature warm mimicking the in vitro environment.

There are many different styles of tents that can be used for this process, from simple to elaborate. Since we grow so many plants in this manner I looked for a repeatable, simple-to-access, and easy-to-sanitize system. I found that portable outdoor canopy makers have a straightforward system utilizing pre-made connections that can be used to assemble these incubator tents. I use electrical metallic tubing (EMT) to attach the canopy connectors to form the structure of the tents.

All-America Selections Winners for 2013: Outstanding Performers for the Home Garden©

Author: Diane Blazek and Eugene K. Blythe

PP: 195

Eight cultivars became All-America Selections (AAS) Award Winners in 2013. All-America Selections includes a network of over 50 trial grounds all over North America where new, never-before-sold introductions are "Tested Nationally and Proven Locally®" by skilled, impartial AAS judges. Only the best performers are declared AAS Winners. All-America Selections continues as the oldest, most established international testing organization in North America. The All-America Selections winners for 2013 are as follows:
Comparative Rooting Response of Cuttings Using a Basal Quick-Dip in Two Water-Soluble Forms of IBA©

Author: Eugene K. Blythe

PP: 197

A question posed by commercial nursery growers as to whether rooting results obtained in cutting propagation using auxin solutions made with Hortus IBA Water Soluble Salts [an EPA-registered product which forms the potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA) when dissolved in water] would be comparable to results obtaining using technical grade K-IBA (available for research use, but not EPAregistered for commercial use) prompted this study. Solutions were prepared using these two products at five rates of IBA: 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 3000 ppm. Subterminal (3-node) cuttings of Ligustrum japonicum ‘Texanum’ (Texas privet), single-node cuttings of Rosa ‘Moorcap’ Red Cascade® (rose), and subterminal (2-node) cuttings of Trachelospermum jasminoides (star jasmine) received a 1-s basal quick-dip in one of the 10 auxin solutions. Cuttings of all three crops showed no significant difference in rooting response between the two products. Results indicate that commercial propagators can switch from K-IBA to Hortus Water Soluble Salts for a basal quick-dip without an adjustment in IBA rate.
Innovative Techniques to Capture and Re-Use Water for Small Scale Nurseries in Washington State©

Author: Charles A. Brun

PP: 201

The Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE) has set very strict standards for utilization of both ground water and surface water. In the absence of a valid Water Right Permit rural landowners can only draw up to 5,000 gal per day from a well. In 2009, however, WSDE passed a new law stating that the landowners can capture rainwater (rain water harvesting) from their farm buildings and use it for irrigation purposes, without having to go through the elaborate process of applying for and possibly being denied a Water Right permit. By digging a relatively small water collection basin on their land, ornamental plant growers can collect and re-use rainwater thus ensuring adequate water for their operations.
‘Ebony Fire’, ‘Ebony Flame’, ‘Ebony Embers’, ‘Ebony & Ivory’, and ‘Ebony Glow’: Five New Dark-Leaved Crape Myrtles©

Author: Cecil Pounders

PP: 207

The Agricultural Research Service, USDA, has developed and released five dark-leaf crape myrtles: ‘Ebony Fire’, ‘Ebony Flame’, ‘Ebony Embers’, ‘Ebony & Ivory’, and ‘Ebony Glow?. The cultivars are predominantly Lagerstroemia indica in heritage. As with most hardy crapemyrtle cultivars, selections are generally top hardy in USDA Hardiness Zone 7 and root hardy to Zone 6 if properly hardened for winter conditions. Plants have exceptional flowers and outstanding disease resistant foliage which maintains its dark color throughout the summer. Plants start flowering in south Mississippi in late June, with best flowering and most intense foliage color displayed when plants are grown in full sun. ‘Ebony Fire’ is first to flower while ‘Ebony Embers’ is last to begin flowering.

Cutting Propagation of Little-Leaf Mountain Mahogany©

Author: Larry A. Rupp

PP: 209

Superior selections of little-leaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius var. intricatus) (CLI) have potential for use in water-conserving landscapes in the Intermountain region of the USA. The potential for propagating CLI by cuttings was determined by selecting specimens from a range of sources and growing conditions at different seasons and with different rooting conditions in a series of individual experiments.
Development of Autopolyploid Syringa reticulate subsp. pekinensis for Breeding©

Author: Joseph J. Rothleutner

PP: 213


Tree lilacs are generally considered to be popular and smart choices for street and utility plantings because of their hardiness, rugged nature, and ability to thrive under adverse urban conditions. In particular cultivars of the Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulate subsp. reticulate (Blume) H. Hara) and Peking lilac (S. reticulate subsp. pekinensis Rupr.) are often promoted for municipal plantings and for home use. Virtues of these trees include the ability for use in U.S.D.A. hardiness from Zones 3(4) through 7, tolerance to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses; as well as, ornamental flowering and in some cases exfoliating bark which adds to aesthetic appeal. Under cultivation in North America, garden escapes have been documented in Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Wisconsin, Wyoming, and in Ontario (Canada). To prevent garden escapes and to decrease land management inputs, the use of sterile or low fertility cultivars from some "weedy taxa" have been promoted within some regions. One technique used to develop sterility is ploidy manipulation.

New Frontiers in Magnolia Hybridization©

Author: Dennis Ledvina

PP: 219

On my visits to the West Coast of the USA, I was always impressed with the early blooming magnolias of subgenus Yulania with their gorgeous display of precocious flowers in early spring. These included M. campbellii, M. sargentiana, M. sprengeri, and of course the well-known M. denudate. Most of the USA that has a continental climate, experience freezes that badly damage these early bloomers. Hybridizing the early bloomers in subgenus Yulania with some of the later bloomers in the subgenus, such as M. liliiflora and M. acuminate, can resolve that problem. We are all familiar with M. × soulangeana, a cross of M. liliiflora × M. denudate that was made over 100 years ago. These include noted cultivars such as ‘Lennei’, ‘Brozzonii’, ‘Alexandrina’, and other more recently selected forms.

Having this vast genetic pool available to me, I began my work with three primary goals in mind when hybridizing in subgenus Yulania:

  • Develop later blooming magnolias that will not be harmed by late spring frosts.
  • Develop magnolias that will be hardy in a U.S.D.A. Zones 4 and 5 environments.
  • Extend the blooming period of magnolias.
Grafting Rhododendron on pH Neutral Understocks©

Author: Brian M. Decker

PP: 227

Recently, I was vacationing in the Smokey Mountains and the mountains around Asheville, North Carolina. I was amazed by the vigorous growth of the wild rhododendron. The plants were small trees and were best pruned from the hiking paths not with propagation pruners but with bushhogs. Unfortunately many parts of North America lack a gardening soil even remotely close to the well-drained acidic organic mountain soils that allow these plants to thrive; hence the origin of this journey.

Before I begin to discuss grafting of rhododendron it might be best to introduce our company. Decker Nursery was founded in 1921 by my Grandfather, Paul Offenberg. He was a professionally trained horticulturalist from Holland and brought with him, along with many other European immigrants, the propagation skills necessary to found the Paul Offenberg Nursery. Through the Great Depression, World War II, and the emergence of horticulture in the post war era, Offenberg Nursery grew into another generation with Bernard Decker, Paul’s son-in-law, as President. In 1981 the Offenberg Nursery relocated, reorganized, and changed its name to Decker Nursery, Inc.

Progress in Carpinus caroliniana Propagation and Selection©

Author: Michael Yanny

PP: 231

In 2001, in Lexington, Kentucky I presented a paper for the IPPS ? Eastern Region entitled, "Carpinus caroliniana Production at Johnson’s Nursery, Inc.". I would like to give you a brief review of that work and update you on the new developments I have encountered in the last 12 years.


Seedling Production

Over the past 32 years, through Johnson’s Nursery in Menomonee Falls , Wisconsin, I have worked on developing a seedling strain of C. caroliniana that has a high percentages of seedlings (70% +) with brilliant orange-red fall color for the Upper Midwestern part of the country. It has been called C. caroliniana J.N. Strain. This strain has incredible vigor when compared to seedling plants grown from wild collected seed from our area. Because of this, production times for this species have been significantly decreased at our nursery. It takes 2 years less to finish a 5 ft shrub form B&B plant than it did when we used wild collected seed from what we had suspected were inbred ecotypes in the mid-80s.

More Cheese Please©

Author: Mike Gates

PP: 237

At Mckay Nursery we use a polycarbonate greenhouse to root some of our more difficultto-root softwood cuttings. We root them in square flats in a peat and perlite medium. We were having problems keeping the cuttings turgid while maximizing our mist interval. Instead of increasing the frequency of misting, which could lead to increased disease, we are using cheesecloth.

In the past cheesecloth has been used mostly for shading and moisture distribution. Our use of cheesecloth distributes moisture evenly and also brings the moisture to the surface of the leaves and stem. Our use of cheese cloth differs from the use in the past because we are laying the cloth directly on the cuttings not using a structure to support the cloth above the cuttings.

Upping Our Labor Game©

Author: Gail F. Berner

PP: 239

For the past 5 years, Spring Meadow Nursery has been actively seeking and implementing more efficient ways to work. We have made changes throughout our production departments, but most of what I am going to talk about today focuses on the propagation department which includes making and sticking cuttings and transplanting.

Figure 1 shows one person sticking cuttings in their own flat, a method that we used for 20 years (pre-lean flow). Following training in lean flow methods in 2009, we found that by changing to progressive or an assembly-line sticking method, we were able to increase productivity by 15% (Fig. 2). This method uses three people sticking flats. The first person removes the medium-filled flat from the upper conveyor and sticks approximately one-third of the cuttings. The second person sticks approximately one-third of the cuttings. The third person will finish sticking what is needed and place a plant label on the flat and move the finished flat to the lower conveyor. This method works very well when training new workers or trying to bring slower workers up to speed by placing the slower person in the middle so that they are pushed by the worker on their right and left sides.

Incentive Driven Tasks at Prides Corner Farms©

Author: Mike Emmons

PP: 245

The challenge for a large wholesale nursery with a limited growing area is to perform all the necessary tasks required to produce the best quality plants in the timeliest manner.


  • Fertilizing: Measured per spoon application with 4 to 5 individuals in a fertilizing crew.
  • Potting: Measured in number of plants potted per day with approximately 12 to 14 people in a potting crew.
  • Covering houses in the fall: Measured in amount linear feet covered per day; approximately 12 individuals in a covering crew.
  • Spacing: Measured in number of plants spaced per day, made up of 3 person crews.
  • Consolidation: Measured in number of plants put away each day, made up of 3 person crews.

Space at Prides Corner Farms is always at a premium and requires careful planning so that everything gets done as quickly as possible in a way that the plants are never compromised.

Light Emitting Diodes Lights Make Rooting Micro-Cutting Lilacs Easier and Safer©

Author: Jean-Marc Versolato

PP: 249


Minnesota in the winter is not the ideal place to try to propagate woody ornamental cuttings. Cold temperatures and low light conditions make rooting cuttings a real challenge. So when Bailey Nurseries (www.baileynursery.com) in St. Paul, began reading about how European growers were using light emitting diodes (LED) lights to root cuttings it piqued our interest.

In 2011, we worked with Philips and Hort Americas (our supplier and technical support — the contact info is Chris Higgins at chiggins@hortamericas.com) to design a separate propagation room not in the greenhouses to trial the LED lights.


We started our trial in Feb. 2011 and ran a range of crops under the lights. We used three Cannon carts tied together side by side to form one large shelf that can hold up to 15 trays.

Clonal Propagation of Oak Hybrids Using a Modified Layering Technique©

Author: Bryan R. Denig, Patrick F. Macrae Jr., Xian Gao and Nina L. Bass

PP: 253

Oak (Quercus) hybrids were created using over 40 diverse parent species. The developed hybrids were used as stock plants and asexually propagated annually over 4 years. This was done to measure the effectiveness of a modified stool bed layering technique on diverse members of the oak genus, and this study is part of a long-term project to select superior urban-tolerant oak hybrids for introduction as named cultivars into the nursery industry. The number of shoots produced by a stock plant each year and the probability for those shoots to root were found to vary between different maternal parent species. Results suggest the shoots of the hybrids that are the progeny of rhizomatous shrub Quercus spp. are more likely to develop roots when propagated using the described technique. This article also identifies and describes in detail a reliable technique to clone oaks.
Mechanized Seedling Production at Bailey Nurseries©

Author: Nathan Maren

PP: 263

Consistently producing line-out stock for species shrubs and trees and understocks for budding have been a part of Bailey Nurseries, Inc. since the beginning. It is great to be a part of that tradition of starting durable and dependable seedling line-outs. Most of those line-outs are developed solely for bare-root field planting, sales and for container planting. At the propagation facilities in Cottage Grove, Minnesota (MN), the seedling department is a small dedicated operation that focuses on cost effectively managing the production of roughly one million seedling line-outs in single year production cycle. What follows is a description of what we do to make that happen.

At our Minnesota seedbeds we are growing 80 species of trees and shrubs from seed. Seedling crops are regularly monitored in the seedbeds throughout the growing season to evaluate acceptability for continued use as a seed source for the future.

Plant Propagation for the Breeding Program at Chicago Botanic Garden©

Author: Jim Ault and Cathy Thomas

PP: 265


The Chicago Botanic Garden, The Morton Arboretum, and the nursery consortium Ornamental Growers’ Association of Northern Illinois ((OGA) are the corporate members of the Chicagoland Grows®, Inc., plant introduction program. Founded in 1986, the introduction program is dedicated to the development, testing, and introduction of landscape plants to the industry, gardens of the Midwest, and comparable climates in the USA, Canada, and Europe. In support of Chicagoland Grows, Chicago Botanic Garden initiated a perennial plant breeding program in 1995, which has developed to date the Prairieblues false lupins, the Meadowbrite coneflowers, and other selections.

Plant propagation at Chicago Botanic Garden supports the breeding program in two general ways. The breeding program produces seed from controlled crosses, which are then germinated in-house and grown on for further breeding. Once individual plants are selected for testing as potential introductions, then vegetative propagation protocols are applied to ensure the genetic integrity of the propagated plants. The remainder of this paper will present the seed and vegetative propagation protocols we have utilized for selected genera in the breeding program. The Chicago Botanic Garden is in northern Illinois in U.S.D.A. Zone 5a, for comparison of propagation dates in other regions.

Breeding Better Aronia Plants©

Author: Mark H. Brand

PP: 269


The genus Aronia, commonly known as chokeberry, is a genus of deciduous, multistemmed shrubs native to eastern North America. Three species of chokeberry are commonly accepted: A. arbutifolia, red chokeberry; A. melanocarpa, black chokeberry; and A. × prunifolia, or purple chokeberry. The third species, A. × prunifolia, is generally considered to be a naturally occurring, interspecific hybrid between A. arbutifolia and A. melanocarpa.


Aronia is widely adaptable and performs well under a range of cultural conditions. It is a multi-season ornamental which produces showy white flowers in spring, red or black fruits in the summer or fall, and showy orange and red fall foliage color. The chokeberries have been recommended as native replacements for exotic invasive shrubs including Euonymus alatus and Berberis thunbergii.

T-Budding and Chip Budding at Kankakee Nursery©

Author: Richard C. Worth

PP: 273

Kankakee Nursery is a family owned and operated wholesale nursery located in Aroma Park Illinois, 60 miles south of Chicago. I am honored to share our production methods with the IPPS here today. My uncle, Phil Worth started budding trees around 1975. In 2013, 34,500 shade and ornamental trees were budded.

Seedlings are purchased from various vendors and shipped to us in February and March. The seedlings are typically 1 year old and are ¼ caliper. The tops and roots are trimmed to prepare the seedlings for planting. Tops and roots are trimmed so that they will fit into the planter. Then they are bundled and palletized until planting.

We typically plow the ground that the understock is planted on in the fall of the previous year. If the soil is lighter a field cultivator can be used. Before planting in the spring, Treflan herbicide, a grass preemergent herbicide, is applied at a low rate. No other herbicides are used until fall.

Softwood Cutting Propagation of Northeast United States Native Shrub Species©

Author: Jessica D. Lubell

PP: 275


There is strong consumer interest in native plants for landscaping to create natural gardens that attract wildlife and are not invasive. For growers to capitalize on the native market, they must expand their product lines by adding new species. Landscape plants are often used in locations with challenging environmental conditions including reflected light, high temperatures, inadequate water supply, infertile soil, road salt, and pedestrian pressure. Expanded use of native species will be most successful if growers, landscapers and consumers know which native species will perform well in challenging landscape situations. Research I have conducted at the University of Connecticut has identified underused native shrubs that are adaptable and have the potential to become revenuegenerating crops for the nursery industry. Each plant offers gardeners multiple ornamental attributes such as interesting summer foliage, refined habit, edible fruits, attractive flowers, and respectable fall foliage color. These native shrubs have been unused in the landscape because their landscape adaptability was unknown and because production systems have not been developed. Some native shrubs are already being successfully produced by the nursery industry and are widely used in the landscape. Growers must be able to produce these newly identified native shrubs using production systems whose efficiencies are on par with those already used to produce successful native shrubs crops. The goal of the research presented here is to develop commercially viable propagation systems for these novel native shrubs.

New Plant Forum©

Author: Jim Ault, Gail Berner, Allen Bush, Bill Hendricks, Brent Horvath

PP: 277

Acer triflorum ‘Jack-O-Lantern’, Orange Aglo threeflower maple
Aquilegia canadensis ‘Pink Lanterns’
Betula nigra ‘Dickenson’, Northern Tribute® river birch
Clematis integrifolia ‘Blue Ribbons’
Deutzia ‘NCDX2’, Yuki Cherry Blossom deutzia ppaf, cbraf
Echinacea pallida ‘Hula Dancer’
Fatoua villosa
Geum ‘Gimlet’ PPAF
Geum ‘Sea Breeze’ PPAF
Hydrangea macrophylla ‘SMHMTAU’, Let’s Dance® Blue Jangles hydrangea ppaf, cbraf
Ligustrum × vicaryi ‘KCLX1’, Golden Ticket ligustrum ppaf, cbraf
Mirabilis multiflora
Nyssa sylvatica ‘WFH1’, Tupelo Tower black tupelo PP22976
Phlox ‘Forever Pink’
Physocarpus opulifolius ‘SMPOTW’, Tiny Wine ninebark ppaf, cbraf
Picea abies ‘Noel’, Royal Splendor® Norway spruce
Sambucus racemosa ‘SMNSRD4?, Lemon Lace sambucus ppaf, cbraf
Syringa reticulata subsp. pekinensis ‘Zhang Zhiming’, Beijing Gold tree lilac
Vernonia ‘Southern Cross’ Acer saccharum ‘Morton’, Crescendo sugar maple
How Plant Hormones Work — Auxin©

Author: Robert L. Geneve

PP: 293


Plant hormones (also phytohormones) are naturally occurring organic chemicals that are active in low concentrations. The traditional definition of a hormone is that they are synthesized at one location and translocated to their site of action. However, there are some exceptions for plant hormones. The five major plant hormones are auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, and ethylene. Additional compounds considered plant hormones include brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and polyamines. Plant hormones are important to propagation because they act endogenously to regulate plant function and can be applied to induce specific responses such as root initiation in cuttings and dormancy release in seeds.

It is beyond the scope of this paper to describe all the actions for each of the plant hormones, but because of the importance of auxin to plant propagation, it will serve as the example for hormone action. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide some background for the use of auxin in cutting propagation and then describe the advances in hormone action that relate to the control of adventitious root initiation.

Willoway Nurseries Production©

Author: Jeff Lee

PP: 299

Willoway Nurseries was founded in 1954 by Les and Marilyn Demaline. Although in the early days it was geared more towards a landscape nursery the owners always produced some of their own material.

Over the years we have accumulated records of when it was the best time to take the cuttings. With some plants it didn’t matter as to when the cutting was taken. Some of the more difficult plants were based on a date as to when to evaluate the cuttings. These plants would take precedence over the other cuttings scheduled in that time frame. We have looked at tying the stick date to degree days but have found that the 2 week window we currently use works just as well. The other issue tied to the stick date was getting cuttings done early enough to meet the production schedules that we have set.

Due to the fact that a lot of things were remembered by several key people it was decided to use a database (FileMaker®) to form a "recipe card" to produce the plant. It was set up similar to a note card system. The demo that you will see has evolved over time. Just like everything else we have adapted and changed to create something that gives us what we want or what we think we want at that point in time. We were fortunate to have Dan White to oversee the FileMaker system. He has done all of the custom work we’ve requested over the years.

Grafting for Quick Turn — Bigger Can Be Better©

Author: Bill Hendricks

PP: 303

Klyn Nurseries produces a wide range of plant material serving the landscape industry in Ohio and surrounding states. Customers include landscape contractors, municipalities, and rewholesalers with a minimal focus on the garden center market.

To this end we produce a diverse range of plant material both in containers and in the field. We already were doing most of our own propagating by soft and hardwood cuttings, root cuttings, seed, divisions and had developed a successful bed system for developing a sizeable liner as well as finished size boxwood and other plants for B&B or to containerize. We look on the open market to find the unusual plants we are interested in producing as well as sources of liners for plants we find difficult to produce internally.

We did not have a grafting program and had to locate all grafted liners. We had a 30 ft × 100 ft polyhouse with bottom heat we were using for summer propagation of softwood cuttings but were using for minimum heat overwintering in winter. The individual managing our bed production had abilities with budding that we were choosing not to use because he was too busy managing the 15 acres of beds through the growing season but had little to do in the winter months.

In January of 1999 and again in 2000 I sent him to help a conifer grafter to learn how to graft and paid him to work for "free." He learned quickly grafting small evergreen scions on seedling understock in tree bands using a side veneer graft. He saw how a great number of plants could be produced by this method in a limited amount of space for sale as liners, but that the resulting plants were of a small size adding time to grow a finished product.

Root Performance … Doing More, with Less©

Author: Don Willis

PP: 307

Starting with a good quality substrate that promotes a good level of porosity is the first step, followed by choosing the right container design that will promote air pruning of the lateral root system. With the right container design in combination with quality substrate, air porosity will develop a strong root system providing increased uptake of water and nutrients resulting in faster growth, better caliper, improved drought tolerance, and high seedling quality. This is the key to keep good customers returning and having them pay the higher value for your seedlings. "Root performance," is the objective for managing for what you do not see, enabling you as owner, grower, manager, or propagator to produce your crops "with less" input but receive "more output."

Root system health is dependent on a good balanced level of oxygen and air porosity. The necessity of O2 is required to deliver the needed nutrient balance to the surface of the root tissue. Too much water in your medium over a given time can create anaerobic conditions in your containers creating off-gases that are unhealthy for O2 production and fine root system development. Uptake of nutrients is dependent on a healthy root system tissue, rooting environment, and continual production/branching of a lateral root system (unobstructed). Ideally, you want to increase your root-to-soil surface area as quickly as possible in the early stages of plant development, whether you are starting from seed, cuttings, or tissue culture (look at lateral root growth as your total catch basin, like an umbrella effect). To achieve this goal, container design and media quality are required at the start of your propagation.

Stress: the Silent Killer©

Author: James R. Johnson

PP: 311


Plant stress is a problem that can have immediate or longer-term consequences. While individual stressors, such as hail damage, can be identified as a single cause of plant problems it’s more common to have more than one stressor involved. Multiple stressors can result in damage either concurrently or sequentially.

My definition "stress" is the condition where an environmental factor or factors exceed the natural regulatory capacity of a plant and results in decreased growth or performance. Why do growers become frustrated when told that the problem is due to stress? To maximize returns, nurserymen need to control as many production variables as possible and stress is typically unpredictable and not always manageable.

Plants are adapted to their native habitat so a key factor in diagnosing stress-related injury is to understand environmental factors that make up the habitat in which they perform best. Important environmental factors include temperature, moisture (including humidity), light quantity and quality, wind or the lack thereof, soil characteristics, and nutritional needs. Each part of the plant’s native environment when compared to a new environment helps identify how well a plant adapts.

Rose Rosette Disease and the Impacts on Propagation©

Author: Charles W. Martin

PP: 319

In order to have our businesses be successful forces in the plant industry, we need to be attentive to our environment and potential pests that might destroy our crops and landscapes. Throughout history we have witnessed many pests that have forever changed our thinking and our practices in horticulture. Pests like Japanese beetle, gypsy moths, emerald ash borer, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, sudden oak death, downy mildew of impatiens, and many others have spread rapidly causing plant lovers to reevaluate their plant palettes and practices. I am deeply concerned about a disease that is spreading quickly and that has the potential to change the way we grow and look at the beloved genus of Rosa.

Throughout history roses have been admired for their beauty, perfume, food, drink and medicinal properties. The rose has been admired through art in paintings, in china, architectural elements, and illustrations. Everyone seems to appreciate the beauty of the rose. At least 10 countries have selected the rose as their national flower including the United States of America. What would our landscapes be without roses adorning them?

There is a rapidly spreading disease that threatens the genus Rosa throughout the Midwest and has also been identified west of the Rockies. The disease of concern has been identified as rose rosette disease (RRD) also termed rose rosette virus ((RRV).

Gibberellins and Cytokinins: a Review©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 323


Gibberellins and cytokinins are considered to be part of the five major key hormones in plants. The others are auxins, ethylene and absisic acid (Chen and Shepley, 1975). All five interact with each other to directly affect cell systems and indirectly by signaling pathways to maintain balanced ratios (Perilli et al., 2010; Perniosava et al., 2011). Gibberellins ((GAs) and cytokinins, are instrumental in many growth processes (Bernier 1988; Chen and Shepley, 1975; Heldt et al., 2011) such as initiation of floral parts, flowering itself, fruiting, leaf and stem morphology, and seed germination. Changes in the ratios of GAs and cytokinins to each other and to the other hormones often result in distinct and divergent morphological features such as dwarfism, contorted or twisted growth, weeping forms, fastigate, and columnar forms and unique leaf forms.

Nurseries in Japan: a 20 Minute Tour©

Author: Sharee Solow

PP: 337


For the month of February 2012, my time at the Kosugi Garden Seminar, Atami City, Japan, was well spent in an intensive learning experience that I would recommend to professionals interested in Japanese gardening history and techniques. Partnering with the European Landscape Association, the "in English" session drew participants from around the world. Dr. Andreas Hamacher developed this course which he conducts fluidly by moving between in English, German, Japanese, and Chinese. The third week focused on hands-on demonstrations of maintenance, nursery operations, and nursery tours which will be the focus for this 20 min photography tour.

North Dakota State University Cold Climate Breeding©

Author: Todd P. West

PP: 343

Climate and soil conditions present a challenge in growing landscape plants in the northern Great Plains. Only a small percentage of woody plant genotypes may perform satisfactorily as a result of insufficient winter hardiness; pest susceptibility; and lack of resistance to drought, desiccating winds, and unfavorable soil conditions [e.g., alkaline (pH) and saline soils]. Historically, there has been a deficiency of adapted, winter hardy, pest resistant woody plants for shelter and landscape uses in the northern Great Plains. As a result of this deficiency, there is a need to breed, evaluate and introduce adapted woody plants to increase plant diversity for this region and avoid monoculture disasters in the future.

The northern Great Plains is a diverse intercontinental environment with limited woody plant species that have been evaluated for use in U.S.D.A. Hardiness Zones 3 and 4. Dr. Dale E. Herman developed the North Dakota State University (NDSU) Woody Plant Improvement Program in the 1970s. Over the years, the Program has introduced 51 superior woody plants for production with increased winter hardiness and cultural tolerances for landscapes throughout the northern Great Plains.

Comparison of Physical, Acid, and Hot Water Scarification on Seed Germination in Eastern Redbud©

Author: Kara Mylor, Sarah Holton, Robert L. Genevea, and Servet Cal?skan

PP: 347


Eastern redbud (Cercis Canadensis L.) is a common woody legume landscape tree with a hard seed coat that is impermeable to water ((Geneve, 1991). Legume seeds are classified as being physically dormant ((Baskin and Baskin, 1998). Most temperate woody legumes display only physical dormancy, but eastern redbud also has a physiological dormancy that requires chilling stratification for germination (Geneve, 1991).

Alleviation of physical dormancy in tree seeds usually involves scarification to mechanically abrade the seed coverings or more commonly seeds are treated with concentrated sulfuric acid to scarify the seed surface (Hartmann et al., 2011). Alternatively, redbud seeds respond to hot water treatments to relieve physical dormancy (Geneve, 2009). Young and Young (992) in the Seeds of Woody Plants in North America recommend treating redbud seeds in boiling water (100°C) for 60s. They also indicate that seeds have been placed in 82°C water and allowed to cool overnight, but do not indicate how effective the treatment was for alleviating physical dormancy. Hot water treatment would be preferable for scarification of large quantities of seeds because it avoids safety and disposal issues associated with sulfuric acid scarification. However, it is not known if heat treating redbud seeds to relieve physical dormancy impacts subsequent release from physiological dormancy during chilling stratification or seedling vigor during germination.

The major objective of the current study were to compare the effects of physical, hot water, and acid scarifications on seed germination and embryo growth in eastern redbud prior to and after chilling stratification.

Micropropagation of Uncaria rhynchophylla — a Medicinal Woody Plant©

Author: Katsuaki Ishii, Naoki Takata and Toru Taniguchi

PP: 353


Uncaria rhynchophylla (kagikazura or the cat’s claw herb) is a plant species used in traditional Chinese medicine and also kampo (Japanese study and adaptation of traditional Chinese medicine), and is a woody plant found widely in Japan and China. It contains alkaloids rhynchophylline, iso-rhynchophylline, hirstine, and others (Shi et al., 2003) which are good for treating high blood pressure and dementia. In addition (+ (-Catechin and (- )-epicatechin are also found in the plant (Hou et al., 2005). It is in four of the 148 Kampo medicine formulae. Kampo herbal medicines are regulated as pharmaceutical preparations and their ingredients are exactly measured and standardized. Access to Kampo herbal medicines is guaranteed as part of Japan’s national health plan for each of its citizens. For the purpose of micropropagation and development of a basis for useful substance production by breeding and cell culture, a tissue culture procedure was developed for this species.

Soil Conditioner FFC-Ace Effects on Growth and Quality of Berries of Wine Grapes©

Author: Kazuhiro Ichikawa and Tadao Fujimori

PP: 357


We have focused our attention on the behavior of certain ions, especially iron ion in water or interactions of water molecules with them. Since 1984, Akatsuka Garden Company has continued research on various solutions to not only accelerate plant growth, but also activate physiological functions of plants. Based on this research, we have developed FFC materials such as FFC-Ceramics (a water improvement device), FFC-Ace (a soil conditioner), and others. In addition, many agricultural producers in Japan have been utilizing FFC materials to rejuvenate plants and increase profits. Those producers have also explored many other original methods for using FFC materials, and consequently found good ways to fit them into their actual production sites. As a result, they have obtained many advantages over the years of use, such as, productivity enhancement, cost reduction, decreased amount of agricultural chemicals required, and others. In addition, it is reported that FFC-Ace enhances the growth of plants under laboratory conditions, improves disease resistance, and drought and salt stress tolerance of plants (Ichikawa et al., 2013; Fujita et al., 2010; Hasegawa et al., 2006; Konkol et al., 2012; Shiraishi et al., 2010; Toyoda et al., 2010). In this paper, we will report a part of the results on the effectiveness of FFC-Ace on wine grape vines under field conditions.

The Report of IPPS Exchange Program of New Zealand Region and Japan Region©

Author: Takumi Hidaka

PP: 361

From 12 to 29 April, 2013, I participated in the IPPS exchange program between New Zealand and Japan Regions. During my staying, many IPPS New Zealand (NZ) Region members welcomed me as hosts and treated me graciously. I had a profitable time and I gained inspiration and experiences that I had not gained in Japan. Additionally, I attended the New Zealand Annual Conference which was convened during my staying as a member of a 4-Pack. I enjoyed the various presentations and discussions, and gained an understanding of part of horticulture in NZ. I will present here what I experienced during my staying in NZ.
The Micropropagation Begonia boliviensis Crackling Fire© Series©

Author: Fang Li, Masaki Ochiai, Hirokazu Fukui, and Ryuichi Tachibana

PP: 363

In this research we used TDZ (0.1, 1.0, 10 μM), 4CPPU (0.1, 1.0, 10 μM), BAP (0.1, 1.0, 10 μM) with NAA (0.0, 0.1 μM) to test the formation ability of adventitious buds, and we found that NAA (0.1 μM) is essential for the formation of adventitious buds. For the explants, stem segment, petiole section, leaf lamina and pedicel section were chosen, and we found that stem segment had the highest formation ability of adventitious buds. Comparing different cytokinins and those concentrations with NAA, we found the index of adventitious bud formation in ½N MS medium containing TDZ (10 μM) and NAA (0.1 μM) was the highest, so we considered that TDZ (10 μM) and NAA (0.1 μM) is optimal for the formation of adventitious buds for Begonia Crackling Fire® series.
Micropropagation of Ornamental Aquatic Plants, Glossostigma, Microcarpaea, and Limnophila©

Author: Toru Niki and Wakanori Amaki

PP: 369

Three aquatic plants, Glossostigma elatinoides (Benth.) Hook.f., Limnophila sp. (unidentified), and Microcarpaea minima (K.D. Koenig ex Retz.) Merrill. were examined to clarify the optimal culture medium and cultural conditions for their micropropagation. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium strength (1/1, 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8), sucrose concentration (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 g·L-1), initial pH of medium (4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, and 6.5), and the kind and concentration of gelling agent (6, 7, 8, 9, 10 g·L-1 for agar and 3 g·L-1 for gellan gum) were examined. The optimal medium conditions for all of the examined plants was ½ MS, 20 g·L-1 sucrose, and 3 g·L-1 gellan gum. The optimal medium pH was 5.0 for G. elatinoides and 6.0 for M. minima and Limnophila. Water supplement during culture was effective on the growth and acclimatization of multiplied plants. The optimal timing of supplement was after 20 days for G. elatinoides and 30 days for M. minima and Limnophila from the explant inoculation.
Possible Use of Plant Peptide Hormone in Horticulture©

Author: Takuya Tetsumura

PP: 375

Plant hormones, phytohormones, are chemicals acting as signal molecules. They are produced in plants and occur in extremely low concentrations. They shape the plants and are environmentally responsive signal molecules. We accept that there are five major classes of plant hormones: abscisic acid, auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, and gibberellins. Recently, brassinosteroids, jasmonates, florigen (FT protein), plant peptide hormones, salicylic acid, and strigolactone have been identified as plant hormones by plant physiologists. However, I am sure that most people involved in horticulture do not know about plant peptide hormones and strigolactone.

Peptides are short amino acid chains and peptide hormones such as growth hormone, insulin, and vasopressin are well known as important hormones in animals. Peptides also exist in plants and, in recent years, many studies have demonstrated that peptide signaling plays a great role in various aspects of plant growth and development. Plant physiologists have found over 15 plant peptide hormones. Systemin is an 18 amino acid peptide and its main function is to coordinate defensive responses against insect herbivores through the production of jasmonic acid. Phytosulfokine is 5 amino acid peptide and promotes proliferation of plant cells. Stomagen is 102 amino acid peptide and controls differentiation of stomata. LUREs are 83 and 93 amino acid peptides that were identified as pollen-tube attractants.

Pollen Germination Ability of Acerola in Relation to Fruit Set©

Author: Naomi Amari, Yuuki Nakano and Naoto Iwasaki

PP: 377

The fruit of acerola (Malpighia) are known for their extremely high vitamin C content. However, the rate of fruit set by open pollination is generally low. Therefore, factors that might affect pollen germination rate such as temperature, humidity, and time of flowering during the day were investigated using several cultivars. The pollen germination rate varied depending on the time sampled, while treatment with humid air after flowering was found not to influence the pollen germination rate. Flower buds were sampled from acid-type trees about 3 days before bloom. They were maintained in an incubator at 25, 30, 35, and 40°C. For buds that bloomed after 2 or 3 days of incubation, the pollen grains were sown on agar medium and maintained at 27°C for 5 h. The pollen germination rate decreased significantly when the buds were placed under high-temperature conditions at 35 or 40°C. It can be inferred that the nutritional conditions of the tree, such as photosynthetic products during flower bud development, affect the pollen germination rate at flowering time.
Cut Rose Production under Supplemental Lighting with Super Bright White Light Emitting Diodes©

Author: Sumihisa Furufuji, Wakanori Amaki, and Hirokazu Fukui

PP: 383

Effect of supplemental lighting with a super-bright, white-light emitting diode (LED) on the productivity and the quality of cut flowers in rose (Rosa ‘Tint’) were examined and compared with that of a high pressure sodium (HPS) lamp. The LED lighting has an advantage that lighting is able to perform during rainy season in Japan when the weather is very cloudy but also relatively high air temperature because of the markedly low heat generation compared with HPS lamp. As the results of the experiment from June 2012 to March 2013, the LED supplemental lighting was shown to be remarkably effective in improving the productivity and maintenance of the high quality in cut flower production, especially during the June-July rainy season.
Characteristics of New Granular Rockwool©

Author: Toru Tanibe, Daisuke Ikezaki, Osamu Sakamoto, Masaki Ochiai and

PP: 387


Rockwool has been developed as a nutrient culture medium in the Netherland. The rockwool culture system was introduced to Japan in 1983 and has been expanding in tomato and rose culture. Rockwool as a culture medium has been used in a slab bed system. In this system the rockwool fibers are mixed with a binder and formed into a rectangular shape. In contrast to the rockwool slab, granular rockwool has not been popular, although granular rockwool for potted plant media is effective for improving of physical soil conditions. We believe the reason for granular rockwool’s lower popularity is high price. On the other hand, granular rockwool has attracted attention as an alternative construction material to asbestos and every year has been used at 200,000 tons in Japan. So we converted rockwool used in the construction field to the agricultural field, and developed a new granular rockwool for horticulture.

Wild Roses and Rose Industry in Iran©

Author: Yoshihiro Ueda

PP: 391

Iran is the original place of oil-yielding roses and the roses were cultivated in the mountains of southern Persia (Iran) for religious ceremonies in B.C. 12 century. I visited Iran in 2010 to research the long history of rose oil and rose water production, and explore wild rose species native to Iran. In Iran, there are about 14 species of genus Rosa reported to exist. Among them, Rosa persica Michx. is one of the most famous species and recently, the breeding using R. persica or the persica hybrids has been becoming popular. We went out into the field to observe wild plants which were located in 300 km west from Mashhad. During the observation I found R. percica and R. hemisphaerica Herrm. Rosa persica was growing in the dry slope. Rosa moschata Herrm. was used as a hedge plant and was planted lining a street.
Technical Sessions©

Author: Tom Saunders and Robert Lee

PP: 395


President Saunders welcomed everyone to Athens, Georgia, for the 38th Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators? Society-Southern Region of North America. He thanked Local Site Committee Chair, Matt Chappell and his committee and volunteers for the long hours in arranging the excellent tours, hotel, other planning activities and all their attention to detail. He welcomed students, first time attendees and new members, asking them to stand and be recognized. Saunders thanked the Executive Committee, and Maarten van der Giessen?s Sponsorship Committee, which raised $42,000 in cash sponsorships; this was outstanding with the challenging economic times. He asked sponsors to please stand and be recognized for their support. Saunders encouraged the membership to visit and show their support of our sponsors during the meeting. He encouraged all members to make new members and first-time attendees feel welcome — share with them and seek from them.

West Meets East on Ornamentals©

Author: Donglin Zhang

PP: 397


When talking about ornamentals, we did introduce the Magnolia grandiflora to Asian countries (East) more than 120 years ago and the plant has been widely cultivated in Asian gardens and landscape. But, until today, only two cultivars were developed in China, while we (USA) had at least 85 cultivars on the market. If comparing the natural species of Magnolia (narrow-sense), China has 38 species while only eight are native to the USA (Wu and Raven, 1994). Nandina domestica was introduced to the West in 1804 and more than 36 cultivars have been developed and marketed in USA (Dirr, 2009). In China, all N. domestica have been marketed as the species, with no cultivar development. Obviously, the natural resource of ornamental plants is much richer in East, than the West. In term of new plant breeding, we are more advanced than that of the East. The marriage of East and West is imperative in the field of ornamental horticulture. We can fully utilize natural ornamental plant resource (East) and traditional and advanced plant breeding technology (West) for breeding better ornamental plants for our nursery industry and gardens.

What’s Cookin’ with Southern Rhododendrons?©

Author: Stephen Krebs

PP: 403


Root rot caused by the invasive soil fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi is a major source of mortality in Rhododendron and many other popular ornamental genera (Benson and Broembsen, 2001). The pathogen may also restrict the natural occurrence or horticultural use of Rhododendron species and cultivars in the Southern USA. Phytophthora cinnamomi is more problematic in warmer climates because it is susceptible to frost and thrives in warm, wet soils (Brasier, 1996; Marcais et al., 1996). Epidemiologists predict that global warming will increase both the activity and northward migration of the pathogen (Anderson et al., 2004; Bergot et al., 2004).

Genetically-conferred host resistance to P. cinnamomi offers an additional and sustainable method of disease management in additional to existing cultural and chemical controls. Among some Rhododendron subgenera — notably Tsutsusi (evergreen azaleas) — resistance is found at relatively high frequency (Benson, 1980), which may explain why this group of plants thrives in the warmer regions of the USA (e.g., the Gulf South). In contrast, resistance among large-leafed, elepidote rhododendrons (subgenus Hymenanthes) occurs at less than 3% frequency (Hoitink and Schmitthenner, 1974; Krebs and Wilson, 2002), and garden use of this group is restricted to more northern, cooler regions of the USA. A notable exception is the elepidote species R. hyperythrum from Taiwan — it is resistant to root rot and both the species and hybrids derived from it perform well in southern Louisiana (Thornton, 1990).

What’s Chillin’ with Northern Camellias©

Author: Barry Yinger

PP: 409


Camellia japonica is a large shrub or small tree native to a broad band of territory in East Asia, including parts of China (Shandong, Zhejiang), Taiwan, Japan, and Korea. It is found in mountainous areas and frequently on rocky hillsides near the ocean.

Cultivated forms of C. japonica were introduced to Europe in the early 1700s and to the United States of America in the early 1800s, where they eventually became a familiar feature of southern gardens. The earliest introductions were mostly, if not all, Chinese cultivated cultivars, followed by many introductions from Japan.

Until recently, the outdoor cultivation of camellias in the eastern United States was limited to U.S.D.A. Zones 7 to 9. Washington D.C. was considered to be the northern limit of hardiness, and even there most camellias were killed or severely injured in the coldest winters. Unusually cold weather in the late 1970s and early 1980s killed almost all of the 900 cultivars of camellias at the U.S. National Arboretum. Except for a few plants in the most favorable coastal locations along the Atlantic coast as far north as Martha?s Vineyard, camellias were impossible to grow outside the South without protection from winter wind and cold.

Natives: the "In" Word in the Gardening World©

Author: Rick Webb

PP: 413


I was a Pre-Forestry major whose only formal plant materials courses were introductory Dendrology Horticulture classes. After working a summer at a wholesale nursery, my major was changed to Plant Science with a Bachelor of Science awarded in 1979. So Sylvaculture, Soil Science, and Agronomy were as important in my college education as Horticulture.

This was followed by an 8 year "graduate program" with a field-grown and container nursery where I worked in propagation, production, sales, harvesting, and shipping of mainline woody trees and shrubs and groundcovers.

In 1988, after deciding it was time to start my own business, I opened my own nursery and worked with plants that were from my earlier education: trees and shrubs of native woodlands and a few exotics. As I learned more of the landscape uses of these natives, impetus was placed on visiting and studying the diverse habitats and plants of the area and making germplasm collections.

Irrigation Volume and Fertilizer Rate Influence Growth and Leaching Fraction from Container-Grown Gardenia jasminoides©

Author: Amanda Bayer, John Ruter and Marc van Iersel

PP: 417


Over irrigating is a common problem in container-plant production because of poor uniformity and efficiency of irrigation systems (Fare et al., 1992) and the preference of growers to deal with the consequences of applying too much water vs. too little (Yeager et al., 2010). Along with this, many growers apply large amounts of fertilizer out of concern that lower fertilizer applications could negatively impact growth (Owen et al., 2008; Tyler et al., 1996). The combination often excessive irrigation and high fertilizer rates leads to significant leaching of fertilizers, which has a negative environmental impact as the leachate enters local ecosystems (Lea-Cox and Ross, 2001). Many states now have laws and regulations regarding nutrient runoff from nurseries necessitating that growers better manage the irrigation and fertilization applications (Beeson et al., 2004).

Growers have already adopted more effective irrigation practices including cyclic irrigation, drip irrigation, and grouping similar sized containers (Yeager et al., 2010; Tyler et al., 1996). Better management practices for fertilization and nutrient leaching have also been adopted, including using controlled-release fertilizers that last throughout the production period and monitoring substrate nutrient levels (Yeager et al., 2010). However, to irrigate and fertilize more efficiently more research is needed examining how plant growth is affected by reduced irrigation and fertilization.

Fertilizer Movement in Nursery Containers: What Happens during Irrigation?©

Author: Tyler C. Hoskins, James S. Owen, Jr., Jeb S. Fields and Julie Br

PP: 423

Recommendations for the efficient use of fertilizer resources in containerized plant production systems are largely based on season-long nutrient leaching dynamics under the impact of various fertilizer and irrigation management practices. To date, little research has been conducted to understand the principles of water and fertilizer movement through a nursery container during irrigation and how these principles may impact nutrient fate. A saturated solute transport study was conducted by passing a fertilizer solution and deionized water through a saturated pine bark substrate and measuring the electrical conductivity of the drainage. The result is a breakthrough curve, which is helpful to both growers and researchers in understanding the movement of water and fertilizers through the highly porous and relatively inert substrates used in containerized ornamental crop production.
Classic City Garden Awards: Best New Plants from the Trial Garden at

Author: John M. Ruter and Meg Green

PP: 427


The Trial Gardens at the University of Georgia (UGA) were started in 1982 by Dr. Allan Armitage and Dr. Michael Dirr. Dr. John Ruter took over as Director of the Trial Gardens from co-founder Dr. Armitage in July of 2013. The mission of the UGA includes teaching, research, and new plant introductions. The UGA is an essential trialing site for heat and humidity tolerance for many of the world?s breeding companies. During most summers there are 50-60 days reaching & #8805;32°C (90°F).

Teaching in the garden focuses on two classes taught by Dr. Ruter, HORT 3500 taught during the fall semester which focuses on annuals, vines, and fall-blooming perennials, and HORT 3510, taught in the spring which focuses on bulbs, spring ephemerals, and early-blooming perennials. Both classes are taught as half-semester courses. The Trial Gardens are also utilized by classes from Agricultural Communications, Entomology, Landscape Architecture, Plant Pathology, and other departments from the Arts & Sciences.

As for research and trialing, we work with over 20 of the major breeding companies from around the world. In 2013 we evaluated over 750 annual taxa in ground beds, hanging baskets, and containers. Trials also include numerous perennials and 180 landscape roses. Overall there are approximately 2,000 different taxa growing on less than 0.3 ha (0.75 acre). Several plants have been introduced to the trade via the Trail Gardens over the past 20 years (http: / /ugatrial.hort.uga.edu/). This tradition will continue in the future as Dr. Ruter releases plants from his breeding program at UGA.

Breeding Ruellia and Trialing for Sterility at the University of Florida©

Author: Rosanna Freyre, Sandra B. Wilson, and Gary W. Knox

PP: 431


Ruellia is one of the largest genera in the Acanthaceae, consisting of approximately 250 species of perennial herbs, subshrubs, and shrubs, which are found mostly in tropical and subtropical areas. There are many accepted synonyms for Ruellia simplex (R. brittoniana, R. coerulea, and R. tweediana) with the name R. simplex being the first documented, therefore having taxonomic priority. Ruellia simplex ( "Mexican petunia") is found in sunny areas on periodically inundated soils in Mexico, the Antilles, and southeastern South America (Ezcurra and Daniel, 2007). It was introduced to Florida sometime before 1940 (Hupp et al., 2009), and since then has become a very popular landscape plant in southern USA due to its high and continuous flowering and low maintenance requirements (Gilman, 1999). However, this introduced plant has escaped cultivation and become invasive in natural areas. For several years, ‘Purple Showers’ with tall habit and purple flowers was the only sterile commercial cultivar. Since 2007, the breeding objective at University of Florida (UF) has been to develop sterile cultivars with different flower colors such as pink, white, white with a purple corolla tube, and potentially different growth habits, such as, tall, semi-dwarf, and dwarf. Breeding approaches are ploidy manipulations and interspecific hybridizations.

Plant Trials and Evaluations: Communicating Results to Consumers©

Author: Allen Owings

PP: 437


Home gardening consumers want new and improved ornamental plants for their landscape. One of the focus areas for ornamental horticulture over the years has been the development of new plant cultivars. New plants spark interest among retailers, landscapers, and especially consumers and provide diversity in the landscape. One of the challenges of trial gardens, plant companies introducing plants, retailers, nursery growers, and others, is developing innovative ways of providing a way to effectively communicate results showing ?real world? production and landscape performance of these new cultivars to their customers and the gardening public.

Growing Native Azaleas from Seed©

Author: J.P. Jackson and Lindy Johnson

PP: 441

INTRODUCTION Appalachian Native Plants Inc. is a 501(c) (3) organization dedicated to preserving and propagating native azaleas and rhododendron from seed. We are located near Mountain City in the Blue Ridge Mountains of north east Tennessee. The U.S.D.A. Plant Hardiness Zone is 6A.

In practice there are many different native azalea seed propagation methods that yield relatively successful results. One of our goals is to produce healthy, fully rooted 50-cell plugs from seed in 6 to 8 months. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) methods are used throughout our plant production.

Growing azaleas and rhododendron from seed is an old topic which has been presented several times to International Plant Propagators Society meetings. Our plant mentor, Zophar Warner, gave a presentation titled "Azaleas from Seed" at the Forth Annual Plant Propagators Society meeting on 4 Dec. 1954 in Cleveland, Ohio.

Methods of Propagation of New Selections at Nurseries Caroliniana©

Author: Ted Stephens

PP: 443


Since Nurseries Caroliniana specializes in many new and unusual plant selections that are not typically on the market, many plants are acquired where little to no propagation information is available. One must determine whether methods used should be similar to other plants in the same genus or family or whether completely new procedures should be explored. Methods which are investigated are seed, cuttings, grafting, budding or layering.

Laser Tag: Intelligent Sprayers Change the Pest Management Game©

Author: Amy Fulcher, Diana Cochran, Robin Rosetta, Randall Zondag, and H

PP: 447


Pests pose a substantial threat to the sale of nursery crops (LeBude et al., 2012) and increase the cost of producing ornamental crops. For example, losses due to plant disease in Georgia nurseries were estimated at $43.4 million in 2007 (Martinez, 2008). Application of pesticides, as part of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program, can serve an important role in decreasing plant mortality, maintaining plant quality to a market acceptable level, and complying with plant trade requirements (Cloyd, 2008). However, pesticide use by its very nature can pose a threat to human and ecosystem health. By refining pesticide applications, environmental and human risk can be reduced.

Air-assisted sprayers are conventionally used to apply pesticides to nursery crops. However, less than 30% of pesticide applications are intercepted by the intended nursery canopy (Zhu et al., 2006). Increasing spray application efficiency could improve worker safety by reducing active ingredient residue on plant surfaces and air contamination. Additionally, because of the increased efficiency, the tank would be refilled less frequently, reducing opportunities for the spray applicator to come into contact with concentrated pesticides during mixing. Increasing efficiency would not only reduce the total amount of active ingredients applied but also decrease the water footprint of each pesticide application, improving environmental quality.

Fungicide Resistance in Pythium and Phytophthora from Ornamentals in Georgia©

Author: Jean L. Williams-Woodward and Max E. DeMott

PP: 453


The majority of root and crown diseases on ornamental crops are caused by oomycete pathogens, including species of Pythium and Phytophthora. Both Pythium and Phytophthora cause root, crown, stem, and foliage blights. Symptoms often include root softening, sloughing, darkening of roots, crowns and stems, wilting, foliage chlorosis, leaf drop, stem dieback, and leaf and petiole blighting.

Oomycete pathogens or "water molds" as they are commonly called, which also includes downy mildew causing pathogens, are unique and are not true fungi. They are more closely related to brown algae than fungi. One of the major differences between oomycetes and true fungi is in their cell wall components. Oomycete cell walls are composed of β-1,3 and β-1,6 glucans, whereas true fungi cell walls are composed of chitin. This is an important distinction because the mode of action of many fungicides is to act on and inhibit chitin cell wall biosynthesis. Since Oomycete cell walls do not contain chitin, these products have no activity on these pathogens. This has resulted in a limited number of commercially available fungicides with activity against Pythium, Phytophthora, and downy mildew diseases.

Shrub Evaluation at Stephen F. Austin Gardens©

Author: David Creech

PP: 457


Stephen F. Austin (SFA) Gardens is a collector’s garden, one that adds hundreds of new taxa each year to the plantings. Those that survive, perform well, and impress visitors make their way into propagation, promotion, and distribution. This program has introduced and promoted numerous plants through a wide range of print and electronic media, many of which have made an impact in the nursery industry, well been documented in past IPPS Proceedings.

Seed Germination of Rhododendron calophytum Planch. in Response to Temperature, Light, and GA3©

Author: Bing Zhao, Jin-Ying Dong, and Donglin Zhang

PP: 463


Rhododendron calophytum Planch., commonly named large leaf Rhododendron or meili Rhododendron is in the Ericaceae family, Rhododendron genera. It is an endemic evergreen plant with beautiful flowers, found in high mountains at altitudes of 1,300 to 4,000 m in south-west China (Ran et al., 2010). This includes the Qinling Mountains, where the species is beneficial for helping to maintain the stability of the ecosystem. Rhododendron calophytum germplasm is endangered because of excessive excavation activities. Additionally, few cultivars are cultivated and utilized in modern city landscape.

In order to protect R. calophytum from extinction, help maintain its diversity, and utilization of its multiple-color landscape cultivars, it is necessary to develop propagation systems for R. calophytum. Seed propagation can be used to protect germplasm and enrich genetic diversity of the species (Zhang et al., 2010). More importantly, for wild resources, seedlings of diverse populations are more easily adapted to new environments than seedlings collected and transplanted from the mountains.

Propagation and Cross Compatibility of Abutilon©

Author: Fanghua Niu, Donglin Zhang, John Ruter, and Zhihui Li

PP: 469


Abutilon, flowering maple, is a large genus in the mallow family. The genus comprises of 100-150 species and is distributed in the tropics and subtropics (Servin et al., 2013). Leaves are lobed, maple-like, and light green. Flowers come in red, pink, yellow, white, and pastel shades (Kim and Suh, 2013). The diversified and long-lasting flowers are very attractive and have brought a lot of attention from all over the world (Matlawska and Sikorska, 2005), especially in the southeastern United State of America.

Flowering maple should be placed in areas of full sun to light shade in well-draining moist soil. Light shade will prevent wilting during the hottest parts of the day. A fast grower in warm climates, Abutilon is generally hardy in U.S.D.A. Zones 8 and 9 and thrives in the cooler temperatures of spring and fall. As for problems, flowering maple is sensitive to temperature fluctuations, which can cause leaves to drop. Higher temperatures experienced in some parts of southeastern USA can be detrimental to growth and development of flowering maple. In Georgia, temperatures can range from 27-38°C (80-100°F) in the summer. Consequently, wilting can happen to plants directly grown in the sun. This problem can be made worse if plants are grown in containers that hold small volumes of water and substrate (Yeager et al., 2010). Flower color, size, form, and longevity can also be compromised by extreme summer heat.

Sanitation Can Be a Foundation Disease Management Tool: Potential of Spreading Binucleate Rhizoctonia from Nursery Propagation Floors to Trays Containing Azalea Stem Cuttings©

Author: Warren E. Copes

PP: 475


Many people see sanitation as simple control techniques with limited application. However, a technical definition of sanitation is any control action that lowers the initial pathogen level so that the amount of final crop loss is reduced or a damaging threshold of disease is delayed. The resulting reduction in disease, whether from a single control action or integrated disease management, can be dramatic and desirable (Daughtrey and Benson, 2005; Jones et al., 2001; Williams-Woodward and Jones, 2001(. Ultimately, pathogen reduction is a desirable goal that reduces the need for other controls or magnifies their effectiveness. The potential for pathogen reduction (sanitation) to be beneficial is greater in ornamental plant production than any other commodity system, yet this potential has not been imaginatively explored using current research concepts.

Binucleate Rhizoctonia species (BNR), the cause of web blight, are present all year on stems, in dead leaves below the canopy, and in the pine bark media of many containergrown azalea cultivars in the southern USA (Copes et al., 2011). Azalea shoots collected for stem cutting propagation can harbor the pathogen, thus allowing the pathogen to be carried into the propagation house. Temperature and moisture conditions in propagation houses are favorable for plant root development and pathogen growth, which allows Rhizoctonia to infest next year’s crop. Copes and Blythe (2009) showed binucleate Rhizoctonia can be eliminated prior to vegetative propagation by submerging stem cuttings in 51°C (123°F) water for 21 min. Root development progressed normally for 12 azalea cultivars.

Influence of Propagation Environment on Rooting of Sparkleberry (Vaccinium arboretum) Stem Cuttings©

Author: Andrew B. Baker, James D. Spiers, Glenn B. Fain, and Eugene K. B

PP: 479

Trials were conducted to determine whether propagation environment and/or substrate would encourage adventitious root formation of juvenile sparkleberry (Vaccinium arboretum) cuttings. The first experiment was designed in a 3×2 factorial to test the effects of three substrates (100% perlite, 2:1 perlite/peat, 1:1 perlite/peat) and two different environments ( "mist tent" and "sweat tent"( on rooting of softwood cuttings. The second experiment was designed in a 2×2 factorial to test substrate (Faford® 3B mix and a 2:1 peat/perlite mix( and ± wounding on rooting of hardwood cuttings in two separate environments (mist tent and sweat tent). Due to the low number of cuttings that rooted in all experiments, there were no significant effects of treatments on any of the parameters measured. Previous research indicates that the time of year cuttings are collected is a determining factor for successful vegetative propagation of sparkleberry.
Physical Properties of Varying Rain Garden Filter Bed Substrates Affect Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity©

Author: Elizabeth D. Riley, Helen T. Kraus and Ted E. Bilderback

PP: 485

Both water flow through and retention time (Ksat) in filter bed substrates in combination with plants remediate polluted stormwater runoff in rain gardens. Two commonly used rain garden filter bed substrates were evaluated: sand (80% washed sand, 15% clay and silt fines and 5% pine bark v/v/v( and slate (100% expanded Dtank slate). Regression analyses showed that slate banded with increasing amounts of composted yard waste (CYW) resulted in a linear decrease in Ksat while, increasing amounts of pine bark (PB) banded resulted in a linear increase in Ksat. The amount of organic matter added to sand did not alter Ksat. Particle size distribution regression analyses showed that increasing the amount of CYW incorporated in sand caused coarse ( >2.0 mm) size particles to increase linearly while, there was a quadratic effect on medium (0.5-2.0 mm) and fine ( <0.5 mm) size particles. Amendment amount of CYW or PB with slate had no impact on particle size distributions in the coarse, medium, or fine particles.
Seed Set and Germination for Interspecific and Intergeneric Hybrids in Two Genera of Fabaceae©

Author: Susan M. Hawkins, John M. Ruter and Carol Robacker

PP: 491

Interspecific and intergeneric crosses were performed between species in the genera Baptisia and Thermopsis in an attempt to create hybrids with the best qualities of both parents. Interspecific crosses produced a higher percentage of fertile crosses and number of seeds per fertile cross than intergeneric crosses. Germination rate was not different between interspecific and intergeneric crosses. When comparing species to determine the best female parents, we found no difference between female parents for percentage of fertile crosses or germination rate. However, Thermopsis female parents produced a higher number of seed per cross than Baptisia female parents. When comparing species to determine the best male parents, crosses with Thermopsis male parents produced more seed per cross than those with Baptisia male parents, but were not different for percentage of fertile crosses or germination rate. Since seedlings could be obtained from both interspecific and intergeneric crosses, production of a Baptisia-Thermopsis hybrid is feasible. Steps to increase the percentage of fertile crosses and number of seedlings include new species as parents, use of bridge parents, embryo rescue, and selection of the male and female parents that produced the most fertile crosses for further breeding efforts.