Volume 48

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Stimulating Natural Plant Defences for Disease Control

Author: T. Reglinski

PP: 43

There are problems associated with repeated pesticide use including the build up of toxic residues, the development of pathogen resistance, and adverse effects on nontarget beneficial organisms. The withdrawal of some very effective fungicides and a global trend towards lower pesticide inputs has generated greater interest in the development of disease control strategies that are safer and more environmentally acceptable. One possible alternative, induced resistance, involves the use of treatments which increase disease resistance in plants by stimulating their natural defence mechanisms. Induced resistance has been demonstrated to be effective in controlling disease development in several economically important crops. The integration of induced resistance with other biological control approaches such as the use of antagonistic microorganisms and antimicrobial natural products may offer practical methods for controlling plant diseases and reducing our dependency on synthetic pesticides.
In Pursuit of The Great New Zealand Garden

Author: Alan Titchener

PP: 84


It was while recently enjoying the company of Ian and Barbara Duncalf, two worthy members of your Society, at a certain hostelry just North of Tauranga, that the conversation drifted onto the topic of The Great New Zealand Garden. Does such a thing exist? If not, why not, and if so, what characteristics qualified it for such lofty consideration? The discussion that followed was inconclusive but we did agree that a paper entitled something like "In Pursuit of The Great New Zealand Garden" or "Would The Real New Zealand Garden Please Stand Up?" could make an interesting topic for this conference.

I've been designing gardens, among other things, for a little over 20 years. Over that period I've probably designed on average, about 20 gardens a year. By virtue of a simple calculation, that means I've probably designed approximately 400 gardens, give or take a courtyard or two. I can confidently say that, as a result, there are about 400 landscapes that are more presentable than

Practical Rooting Trays

Author: Paul Van Der Kroft

PP: 401

We utilize the plastic bulb trays used to ship bulbs from Holland to North America. The bulbs are used in greenhouses for forcing and as it is too expensive to return the trays, they are sold here for $3 (Cdn.) or less. The size of the tray is 60 cm × 40 cm × 18 cm (23.6 inches × 15.7 inches × 7 inches). All of our softwood propagation in the summer is done in these trays. They are filled approximately 9 cm (3.54 inches) with perlite. Depending on the leaf size of the cutting, the trays contain 150, 95, or 75 cuttings.

The cuttings are made about 13 cm (5.1 inches) in length making sure that they do not stick out over the top of the tray. This makes it easier to stack them later. Cuttings are treated with 0.8% IBA powder. Misting is controlled by an electronic leaf sensor. After rooting the cuttings are hardened off.

In November after the leaves have fallen off and the cuttings have been treated with a fungicide, the trays are stacked up to 12 high in a cold storage at 1C;

Innovation in Propagation

Author: Dave Bakker Sr

PP: 401


How do you recognize a propagator in a crowd? Among other things, you look at his or her hands, and, on careful examination, you will see scars on their fingers from cuts made when when they learned to graft and make cuttings. Upon talking to them further, you will hear of their successes of 200% rooting, and 120% catches!! But also, you will hear of their ongoing battles with certain plants and their undeserved failures.

At one time, we grew tree roses. In order to protect them during the winter, we would bend them down and cover the budded 1.25-m stems with soil. This was cumbersome, but if we could protect the buds from windburn, we would be successful in growing standard roses

I started with a Kotex® pad, and eventually wound up with a bookmailer—a thick-walled Kraft envelope. The Kotex sanitary pad got a lot of laughs, but later on was used successfully as a moisture-carrying insert in the hot callous tube.

A New and Inexpensive Rooting Medium Amendment: Paper Mill Biosolids

Author: Calvin Chong

PP: 404

Paper mill waste (biosolids) was used as an alternative rooting medium amendment in various investigations. With few exceptions, cuttings from a wide assortment of deciduous shrub taxa rooted good to excellent in media consisting of perlite mixed with up to 60% by volume of biosolids in outdoor summer trials under mist. Despite differences in manufacturing processes and end-uses of four sources of biosolids, or in the rooting variability of woody taxa, there was no clear indication that any one of the sources was consistently or substantially better as a rooting medium amendment. Results from parallel winter trials with evergreen cuttings in fog-humidified green-houses with bottom heat were contrastingly poor due to hardening and shrinking of the biosolids-amended media under these circumstances.
Field Propagation of Cercis and Hamamelis

Author: Harald Neubuaer

PP: 409

My nursery is a small family operation in middle Tennessee located in U.S.D.A. Zone 6. We produce both common and unusual budded and grafted bareroot liners.

Our production fields consist of a rocky, well-drained soil with a pH of approximately 6. I have always enjoyed the challenge of growing difficult-to-propagate plants, such as Cercis and Hamamelis, which I will now discuss.

Clematis Propagation

Author: Szczepan Marczynski

PP: 412

Clematis is the queen of climbing plants and its popularity is constantly increasing. I think it is important that we become aware of the various ways that clematis can be propagated.
Innovative New Plants and Future Trends

Author: John E. Elsley

PP: 415


I will attempt to outline some of the present and future trends in the field of ornamental horticulture in North America and illustrate these trends with a selection of new plant introductions which I personally feel are of potential outstanding ornamental landscape merit. My personal instincts regarding trends have been formulated from information gathered from a range of sources including: commercial growers, professional and amateur horticulturists, and especially from customers of our retail mailorder company.


Author: Ralph Shugert, Bruce Briggs

PP: 424

RALPH SHUGERT: Question for Mark Bricker. Your have touched a nerve! Why, given the tremendous nursery industry in Ohio, does the City of Columbus have to compete with private industry?
The Ethics of Plant Exploration

Author: Paul W. Meyer

PP: 428


Throughout recorded history, man has collected plants from foreign lands and utilized them in agriculture, industry, medicine, and for garden uses. Indeed, worldwide, most of our crops originated in places other than where they are being cultivated. In the U.S.A. for example, wheat has a center of origin in western Asia, and soybeans, little known until this century, have a center of origin in China. Similarly, many of our most important landscape plants originated in foreign lands. Frank Meyer first introduced the callery pear in the early 1900s (Cunningham and Meyer, 1984). The original Kurume azaleas were first shown in this country at the 1915 San Francisco Exposition Japanese Pavilion. Today, introduced plants are a critically important component of landscapes, particularly in urban and suburban areas. Without introduced plants our cities and suburbs would be far bleaker and more hostile environments. Thomas Jefferson wrote in 1790, "The greatest service

Propagating in The Information Age: Does Our Nomenclature Provide Enough Information?

Author: Dale Hendricks

PP: 431

Do your customers really know what they are buying? Are we doing a good enough job of describing our products? Are there opportunities awaiting those who better educate their customers, thereby building loyalty and increasing value?

First we'll discuss problems with the prevailing nomenclature and catalog description practices. In the perennial trade it seems that nearly everyone grows Penstemon ‘Husker Red’. For the first few years after we acquired the plant, we propagated it vegetatively and everyone was happy. I then found out from a customer that most growers were growing theirs from seed, as the lovely seed flats they sold me testified, they were doing fine from seed, as the plants had consistent good deep red color. All went swimmingly for a few more years until our seed batches became inconsistent. We had to "rogue" the seedlings out, but the results were more inconsistent than we would like. As of this year, we're growing them vegetatively, letting our customers know that,

A Diversity of Hydrangea

Author: Timothy Wood

PP: 434

The genus Hydrangea is one of the richest and most diverse group of plants known to horticulture. In the most recent taxonomic review 37 different species and 17 subspecies were identified. L.H. Bailey had the count at roughly 80 species. As you can clearly see taxonomists tend to lump, while horticulturists prefer to split. In any case the classification of Hydrangea is muddy at best. Please forgive me if my classification differs from yours.

My intention today is to give you a very brief overview of the genus Hydrangea and those species that have the greatest potential as landscape ornamentals. For each species I will discuss several of the more interesting cultivars to show the wonderful diversity available for horticultural use.

Novel Developments for the New Zealand Floriculture Industry into the Next Century

Author: Garry Burge, John Seelye, Ed Morgan, Glenn Clark, Alison Evans

PP: 88

Pioneering New Zealand growers and researchers have successfully developed exotic crops such as summer-f lowering Zantedeschia and Sandersonia. The New Zealand floriculture industry requires an ongoing supply of new products that can command premium prices on international markets. This will require the ongoing introduction of new germplasm and the development of new crops, as well as breeding existing crops to introduce new forms and colours. Most new flower cultivars in New Zealand have been produced by conventional breeding techniques. In future, in vitro breeding techniques will increasingly support conventional breeding approaches. Many of the cultivars produced will need to be vegetatively propagated and so improved tissue culture techniques will be required to ensure that New Zealand's floriculture industry remains competitive.
Production and Marketing of Ilex Opaca for the Northern Market

Author: Paul Hanslik

PP: 438

Our search for the most cold hardy cultivars of Ilex opaca (those which could withstand -15F temperatures) took us to many midwestern and eastern nurseries, arboreta, and private gardens. We encountered over 200 named cultivars and discovered that only a handful were in commercial production in the eastern United States.

The limited commercial offerings of American holly may be attributable to the following:

  1. Limited container adaptability.
  2. Introduction and overwhelming acceptance of the I. ×meserveae hollies.
  3. Slow growth pattern in the north (only one flush per season).

We still feel that I. opaca cultivars are worthy of consideration in the marketplace because of their handsome conical shape, tolerance of urban settings, soil adaptability, and deer resistance, not to mention their traditional role as a holiday plant.

The I. opaca cultivars we find most acceptable for Zone 5a (-15 to -20F) are the following: Arlene Leach, David Leach, Carnival, Arthur Pride, Clarissa,


Author: Jack Alexander

PP: 440

Aster oblongifolius ‘October Skies’. A shorter, bushier, bluer sister of ‘Raydon's Favorite’. A strong-growing low mound of bushy 18-inch-tall foliage spreading 18 to 24 inches. Highly tolerant of drought and poor soils. An excellent groundcover potential native plant hardy in Zones 3 to 7.

Euonymus fortunei ‘Interbolwji’, Blondy® euonymus. A bold new shrub with big, bright yellow splotches in the center of the leaf and bright yellow stems. Very popular in Europe,where it has literally replaced ‘Sunspot’. Discovered by Bolwijn Nursery in the Netherlands as a sport of ‘Sunspot’. Great impulse color provides year-round color.

Hosta ‘Eola Salad Bowl’. Eola salad bowl plantain lily is a

A New Computer-Controlled Multifertilizer Injector for Recycling Nutrients and Water Run-Off in Nurseries

Author: Peter Purvis, Calvin Chong, Glen Lumis

PP: 444


Nursery production practices can cause pollution if nitrate and other nutrients leach into the groundwater and surrounding environment.

Growth and Adaptation Potential of Flowering Shrubs under Climatic Conditions of Quebec and North Eastern Ontario: REPLOQ

Author: Claude Richer, Pascale Marquis

PP: 447


The Réseau d'essais des plantes Ligneuses Ornementales du Québec (REPLOQ) is a woody ornamental trial network. Its objective is to show the importance of qualifying the hardiness rating of ornamental plants when they're placed in different weather conditions to determine their real potential. This research permitted the compilation of data for more than 400 species of trees or shrubs over a 5-year period, through the eastern Canadian Zones covering the areas of Quebec and northeastern Ontario. For this poster, four species have been studied.

Propagation of Amelanchier by Softwood Cuttings

Author: Brian Bunge

PP: 450


In the nursery market place, Amelanchier has become very popular, thus increasing its demand. For years seed propagated Amelanchier was available for lining-out stock. In recent years selections and cultivars with superior landscape characteristics have been made. This creates a need for clonal propagation. The two methods most widely used are micropropagation and softwood cuttings.

LaPorte County Nursery propagates the following Amelanchier taxa by softwood cuttings: A. ×lamarckii, A. ×grandiflora ‘Cole's Select’, A. ×grandiflora ‘Princess Diana’, and A. laevis.

I.P.M. at Zelenka Nursery

Author: Randall M. Cooper, Mike Corbett

PP: 451

Zelenka Nursery, Inc., a large wholesale operation located in Michigan and North Carolina, has developed unique strategies for implementing I.P.M. With a peak work force of 700 employees, comprised of local and migrant workers, there are many challenges to maintaining an awareness of I.P.M. and utilizing some of its methods. Toward this end, Zelenka promotes a broad base of direct employee involvement in I.P.M. issues, and has created ways to educate and encourage all employees in the practice of pest management.

Zelenka's I.P.M. program is characterized by how it is organized, and by the means used to encourage effective and accurate scouting, pest identification, and decision-making. Central to the organization is an I.P.M. core group, which manages interdepartmental I.P.M. issues. Led by the nursery's I.P.M. coordinator, members of the group represent each production department, staff horticulturist, and the shipping docks. The core group meets twice a month.

Because of Zelenka's

Simple Acceleration

Author: Murray Alward, Rachel Martinkevicius

PP: 452

Materials and Methods. Our softwood cuttings are taken starting in early July into August. This was the schedule for our softwoods, mostly being deciduous shrubs in 1997 at Riverbend Farms.

In March of 1998 we took our rooted softwood cuttings from the shallow K1020 flats filled with perlite or perlite and Pro-Mix and transplanted into Jiffy 220 plugs of Pro-Mix BX. We don't have enough room for direct sticking efficiently due to space limitations.

The plugs develop rapidly under clear double poly and minimum heat provided by propane heaters. Applications of 10N–52P–10K fertilizer, and a couple of prunings create a well branched 6- to 8-inch liner for May–June transplanting to the field or into containers.

In addition, in March 1998 we transplanted some of the rooted cuttings directly into 1-gal containers in Pro-Mix BX. We fertilized the 1-gal pots along with the regular Jiffy 220 plugs with 10N–52P–10K fertilizer approximately at 2-week intervals and with 20N–20P–20K a couple

Increasing Flowers on Container-Grown Hybrid Rhododendrons with Uniconazole Sprays

Author: Richard E. Bir

PP: 453


Problem: Container-grown hybrid rhododendrons produced for garden center and spring landscape sales have their value enhanced by the presence of flowers or flower buds. However, certain cultivars are difficult to bud as young plants under commercial production conditions.

Possible Solution: Spray with the commercially available anti-gibberellin uniconazole-P (Sumagic) to limit late season vegetative growth, increase foliar pigmentation, and the number of flower buds per plant.

How and When Herbaceous Cuttings are Stuck Influences Winter Survival

Author: Richard E. Bir

PP: 455


Herbaceous perennials are frequently purchased as dormant, leafless rooted cuttings or liners for potting into larger containers for spring and summer sales. Occasionally these liners produce no new top growth yet roots appear to be healthy.

United States National Arboretum Plant Profiles

Author: Susan E. Bentz, Ruth L. Dix

PP: 457

How should the U.S, National Arboretum effectively publicize its plant releases and products to its customers? The Plant Profiles system evolved to meet this long-recognized need. A group of award-winning plant materials and a high level of administrative support gave impetus to the development process.

A review of marketing materials generated by other institutions and commercial companies led to the formulation of a plan adapted specifically to the USNA. The targeted audience was identified as the arboretum's primary customers: commercial growers and the gardening public. It was determined that the information should be brief but accurate and accompanied by visually pleasing photographs showing the desirable characteristics of the plant or product.

The format for the Plant Profiles is a single, easily read sheet printed on both sides. The front of the sheet contains eye-catching color photographs plus a short, enthusiastic paragraph on the product. The back of the sheet contains

Plant and Environmental Factors Limiting Vegetative Propagation

Author: Bruce Christie

PP: 93


Successful vegetative propagation of plants may occur by chance but it is more likely to occur consistently where there has been a systematic consideration of the factors that could be limiting root formation.

Screening Commercial Peat and Peat-based Products For the Presence of Ericoid Mycorrhizae

Author: Nicole R. Gorman, David A. Heleba, Mark C. Starrett

PP: 458

Pieris floribunda, mountain andromeda, belongs to the family Ericaceae. This species, along with other members of this family, including Rhododendron, Vaccinium, Kalmia, and Calluna, are important plants in the landscape trade, especially in the northern regions. Many of these species are evergreen and, therefore, provide color in an otherwise stark winter landscape. Members of the Ericaceae lack root hairs. Instead, it is hypothesized, the roots form a unique association with ericoid mycorrhizal fungi. These fungi have been demonstrated to: aid in nitrogen and phosphorous availability and uptake, increase water uptake capability, increase lateral root branching, extend the overall root mass, and protect from certain toxic substances.

In this study, trials were conducted using seedlings of P. floribunda, as a model plant, to determine the presence or absence of these fungi in various commercial brands of peat and peat-based products. The geographical source and strata of harvest was

Some Ways to Acclimate Various Culture-Rooted Microcuttings

Author: J. Mike Henrietta

PP: 460


Culture-rooted microcuttings (CRM) are micropropagated plants that have been exposed to root initiation media in culture. Basically, these are just small softwood cuttings with the hormone already on them, ready to stick and root. They are different in that the plants have been grown in optimal environmental and nutritional conditions and have not developed the protection of a cuticle on the leaf surface. The key to success with these plants is to provide an environment that maintains cutting turgidity. The variables are humidity, light, and temperature.

CRMs can be an affordable and quick way to include a new (or old) plant into your production line without any more special equipment than most conventional propagation greenhouses already contain.

CRMs are also free from environmental pests, therefore they are generally easy to acquire from any micropropagation lab in the world.

Propagation Methods for the New Millennium

Author: Paul A. Hubbs Jr

PP: 464

To all concerned, the following summery and its findings are based on facts and data collect from production-grown plants. The help of several grower's on the East Coast and Mid West areas of the U.S.A. have my deepest "THANKS" for their belief in myself and my products. Along with those actual growers we are actively looking for university help in trials for two very important reasons. The first is to eliminate the stigma that biologically produced products can not replace chemical or synthetic products in actual production based on past results and costs. The second is to find out which products now on the market and which companies can produce results and, are not just marketing masterpieces.

When I set out to find a more natural method other then traditional or conventional chemical means of propagating my thoughts were to list the goals I hoped to achieve. Those thoughts were of faster production from the viewpoint as a grower, and also as a backyard breeder. I also wanted it

Evaluating Nursery Plant Performance in Biosolids Amended Soils

Author: James R. Johnson

PP: 466


Soils in southern New Jersey have low native levels of organic matter, sometimes dropping below 1% and rarely exceeding 2%. This experiment examined the potential for use of biosolids materials as an organic matter source and the effect of amendment on growth. Sludge and co-compost were used in this study. Co-compost is the combination of municipal solid waste (the portion of garbage) and sludge that is composted.

Biosolids when added to native soils should increase the cation exchange capacity, reduce the leaching potential of fertilizers, enhance the water-holding capacity, and reduce heat and cold injury to the roots. One must, however, weigh the benefits against the cost. There have been restrictions on food crop procurement placed by processors on biosolids-amended land. This research project was designed to assist growers in making an educated decision regarding its use.

A loading rate study was initiated in 1993 that evaluated three rates of co-compost, three

Low-budget Grafting of Japanese Maples

Author: Ted Kiefer

PP: 470

Rivendell Nursery is a 190 acre B&B nursery specializing in landscape-sized plant material. About 50% of our lined-out material is produced in-house. Japanese maples are one of the plants we produce by bench grafting.

I started grafting maples in January about 8-years ago. After a few years, I had two problems:

  1. With only one heated house I was out of room with many grafts and many cuttings.
  2. I needed more time in January and February for dormant pruning.

We switched to grafting maples at the end of August because:

  1. It kept the help busy during a slow time
  2. We created a grafting house with materials we had on hand using no heat.
Propagating Native Cool Season Grasses for Conservation Use

Author: Jennifer L. Kujawski

PP: 471


Part of the USDA's Natural Resources Conservation Service, the National Plant Materials Center (NPMC), is concerned with developing plant species and technology for conservation applications. Erosion control, water quality improvement, upland and wetland wildlife habitat enhancement, and grazing land improvement are focus areas for the NPMC as well as the other 25 plant materials centers which make up the NRCS Plant Materials Program. The goal of the Program is to make improved plants and information available to land owners and managers.

The NPMC and the Plant Materials Centers in Big Flats, New York; Cape May, New Jersey; and Rose Lake, Michigan, have initiated a project to investigate propagation and seed production of selected native cool-season grasses for the Northeast United States. Very few native cool-season grasses are available for widespread use in the region, and the Plant Materials Program is trying to develop both untapped species and technology

Horticultural Research at The Holden Arboretum

Author: Robert D. Marquard, Charlotte R. Chan

PP: 472

Formal research at the Holden Arboretum began in 1991 with the hiring of staff with scientific training. Currently, the centerpiece of research is breeding woody ornamental plants to support our mission to develop improved plants for the landscape through breeding or selection and to make significant contributions to the plant sciences. Complementary research includes: studies of plant reproductive biology, measuring genetic diversity, estimating the heritability of important traits, utilization of biochemical markers, and developing alternative propagation methods. The current focus includes work within several genera (Aesculus, Cercis, Hamamelis, Magnolia, and Rhododendron).

Acquisition of germplasm has been an organizational and early research objective. In 1993, we began assembling a collection of Hamamelis cultivars and seed was collected from throughout the range of our native H. virginiana. By formal agreement, the Holden Arboretum acquired the property and germplasm

ABSTRACTS FROM RECENT PUBLICATIONS; Horticultural Research at the Holden Arboretum

Author: Charlotte R. Chan, Robert D. Marquard

PP: 473

The Holden Arboretum established in 1931, is the largest arboretum in the United States. Its mission is to promote the knowledge and appreciation of plants for personal enjoyment, inspiration, and recreation; for scientific research; and for educational and aesthetic purposes. Of the Arboretum's 3100 acres, 800 acres support collections and display gardens, while the balance comprise natural areas. The collections include nearly 8000 accessions from 76 plant families; about 700 plant species, some rare or endangered, occupy the natural areas. The education component of the mission connects the Arboretum with the public through school programs, classes, horticultural therapy, and seasonal internships. Two research fellowships are also available. The Holden Arboretum has expanded the research emphasis. The David G. Leach Research Station, part of the Arboretum since 1986, focuses on Rhododendron and magnolia breeding and research. Built in 1993, the Horticulture Science Center is a modern research and production facility able to more fully impplement and support a broad range of formal horticultural research. The main objective of the research program is to develop superior woody ornamentals for the landscape through hybridization. Additional research emphasizes reproductive biology and using biochemical markers (isozymes and RAPDs) to answer basic questions about the genera under study (Aesculus, Hamamelis, and Cercis).
Use of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Propagation

Author: Sarah E. Bruce, Bradley Rowe

PP: 475


Chlorophyll fluorescence is the small portion of light that is re-emitted from chlorophyll during the processes of photosynthesis. It is an estimation of photosynthetic efficiency and in turn provides an indirect measure of plant stress which is important because stress levels detrimental to the plant are usually present before they are visible to the naked eye. Current applications include the detection/ evaluation of environmental stresses such as: cold tolerance (Westin et al, 1995), heat stress (Ranney and Peet, 1994), water stress (Eastman and Camm, 1995), nutrient deficiencies (Strand and Lundmark, 1995), irradiance levels (Layne and Flore, 1993), and air pollution (ozone) (Patterson and Rundel, 1995). It has been used in micropropagation of transvaal daisy (van Huylenbroeck and Debergh, 1992) but until now there have been no experiments involving conventional propagation by stem cuttings.

If a quick, reliable method of determining potential rooting of cuttings

Softwood Propagation of Platanus ×hispanica ‘Columbia’

Author: David Schmidt

PP: 479


Platanus ×hispanica (syn. P. ×acerifolia) is a hybrid cross between P. orientalis and P. occidentalis. It is a large, widely branched fast-growing tree known for its beautiful exfoliating bark. It thrives in a rich moist soil but this plant will also tolerate polluted city conditions. It was so widely planted in London, England, because of its adaptability that it became known as the London planetree.

A combination of disease problems coupled with overplanting have tempered the use of P. ×hispanica. Superior cultivars such as ‘Columbia’ and ‘Liberty’ which are resistant to anthracnose and powdery mildew are now grown.

Goals. In 1986 the Royal Botanical Gardens in Hamilton received a few plants of P. ×hispanica ‘Columbia’ and ‘Liberty’ which we lined out in our nursery to size up. As so often happens in many nurseries some plants for various reasons are forgotten or left behind. Before we knew it ‘Columbia’ had grown too large too move. Our goal was to secure propagules which would

Will You or Won't You Propagate Genetically Engineered Plants?

Author: Paula Jameson

PP: 96


Worldwide plants are now being genetically engineered to provide such characteristics as herbicide resistance, insect resistance, delayed ripening, and altered flower colour. While the question many people are asking themselves is whether they wish to eat genetically engineered plants, the question plant propagators worldwide must ask themselves is whether they will propagate genetically modified plants. In this short paper I have focused on three of the more common questions that are asked relating to genetic engineering:

  1. What is the technology underpinning genetic engineering?
  2. How do we genetically engineer a plant?
  3. What are the risks associated with genetically engineered plants?
IBA-K Induced Rooting in Perennials

Author: Shelton R. Singletary, Stacy A. Martin

PP: 480

The effects of lBA-K treatment on the adventitious root rate and root number of cuttings of three herbaceous perennial species were determined. Cuttings were submerged in 500, 1000, or 2000 ppm IBA-K for 2 min or were quick-dipped in 1000, 3500, or 7000 ppm lBA-K for 20 sec. After 2 weeks rooting success was determined by root rate and root number. Root rate was evaluated by assigning cuttings numbers 0 to 3 (0-dead, 1-no callus, 2-callus, and 3-roots longer than 1 mm). Rooting success depended on season, method of lBA-K application, cutting technique, and concentration of 1BA-K. However, response to these four factors was mostly inconsistent within and between species. Phytotoxicity was observed at high concentrations of 1BA-K. Therefore, no recommendations for optimal treatment can be given without quantitatively measuring phytotoxicity as well as root rate and root number.
The Effect of Temperature on Trillium grandiflorum and Trillium erectum

Author: Stephanie Solt

PP: 486


In the early 1940s, Lela V. Barton (1944) did research investigating the dormancy of Trillium grandiflorum and T. erectum and concluded that both species exhibited double dormancy. Two periods of cold interrupted by a warm period were needed for complete germination — the first period for root emergence and the second for cotyledon emergence. The first period in Barton's experiments was expressed in "months" (3 months for T grandiflorum and 6 months for T erectum). It was the goal of these experiments to more precisely define the first period in days.

Propagation and Field Production of Daphne ×burkwoodii ‘Somerset’ and ‘Carol Mackie’

Author: Victor Swanson

PP: 489

Daphne ×burkwoodii is a cross of D. caucasica × D. cneorum. The place of origin was the nurseries of Burkwood and Skipwith, Kingston-on-Thames, England, about 1935.

A versatile shrub, the extremely fragrant flowers are creamy white flushed with pink, ½ inches in diameter, and forming dense terminal clusters about 2 inches in diameter. The foliage is semievergreen, I have observed mature plants, depending on the severity of the winter months, retain their leaves for the duration of the winter in northeast Ohio.

‘Somerset’ was patented in the U.S.A. on 28 Feb 1939, by Wayside Gardens, which at that time was located in Mentor, Ohio.

A beautiful clone of Daphne ‘Somerset’ is ‘Carol Mackie’ which has cream-edged leaf margins. Both plants can reach 4 ft tall and 6 ft across with a very round and dense growing habit. Plants respond well to pruning.

Although Daphne taxa are exquisite and very hardy (-30F, University of Maine's display garden) they are sometimes overlooked in the nursery

Use of Digital Analysis of Radicle Extension of Marigold Seedlings as an Early Indicator of Seed Vigor

Author: K. Oakley, R. Geneve, G. Siriwitayawan, S. Kester

PP: 491


Radicle extension has been shown to be an accurate, early predictor of Vigor in several horticultural crops (Bingham et al., 1994). Digital imaging of the radicle has potential to meet the criteria for an ideal vigor indicator. Several seed producers and seed testing laboratories are presently using or exploring this technology. In this study, MacRhizo® software was used to analyze digital images of the radicle captured on a flatbed scanner. This study attempts to correlate the computer-generated marigold vigor data with results from commonly used vigor tests.

In order to examine the correlation between radicle length and the standard tests that predict seed vigor, seed from a single, high-vigor lot was mildly (24 h AA) and moderately (72 h AA) deteriorated by accelerated aging (AA) in a high temperature and relative humidity environment (McDonald, 1977). Once significant differences in vigor between groups of seed was achieved, several measurements commonly used

Production of Wetland Plants in Constructed Wetland Cells Designed to Treat Nursery Runoff

Author: Thomas Holt, Brian Maynard, William Johnson

PP: 493


Containerized nurseries and greenhouses produce nutrient-laden runoff which may contribute to the nutrient loading of surface waters (HWQA, 1992; Alexander, 1993). This occurs when liquid fertilizer is applied through irrigation systems, or when nutrients are leached from fertilized fields or containers. In some operations it is estimated that up to 78% of applied irrigation water ends up as runoff (Furuta, 1978).

Constructed wetlands have emerged as effective, low-cost methods of water treatment which have the potential to reduce agricultural nonpoint source pollution. The role of wetlands in pollution and flood control has been recognized since the 1960s (Young, 1996). Beginning in the 1970s Congress adopted a wetland policy of "no net loss" and mitigation, which required that new wetlands be created or restored as natural wetlands were lost to development (Young, 1996). However, the costs of implementing treatment wetlands are relatively high, with little

Advances in the Cultivation and Popularity of Chrysanthemums in the Edo Era

Author: Ryo Ogasawara

PP: 499


From the Nara era to the early part of the Hiean era (700 to 750), the chrysanthemum (Dendranthema) was introduced from China to Japan and became acclimated. Chrysanthemum had been cultivated as a medicinal plant, but subsequently became an ornamental one. It is mentioned in innumerable literary works, especially Japanese poems, and also used in other works of art as a symbol of the fall season.

The importation of chrysanthemums from China did not occur just once, but many times during this period when Japan was on friendly terms with China. From horticultural literature written in the early part of the Edo era (1603–1868), there is limited evidence that some cultivars, for example ‘Kinsangindai’, retained the same name as used in China.

From the Muromachi era to the Adzuchi-Momoyama era (1400 to1600), the growing popularity of ikebana (Japanese flower arranging) promoted the horticulture industry, so that more and more beautiful flower material was required. But there

Wild Flowers In Brazil

Author: Goro Hashimoto

PP: 501


Brazil is located in the eastern part of South America and in area covers nearly half of that continent (85,110,000 km2). Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and second largest in the Americas. Its area is about 23 times that of Japan and the population is about 160 million, the sixth largest in the world following Indonesia. The country lies from 5'16N to 33'45S across the equator. The northern region of Brazil, the Amazon, has a tropical climate, while the southern part is temperate and it snows there every year. Apart from the highest mountain, Mt. Neburina located on the border with Venezuela, the other mountains are below 3,000 m high and are concentrated around the southeast coastal region.

The largest area in vegetation is the tropical rain forest along the Amazon river and it covers 54% of northern Brazil. The central part of the country is savanna, called Cerade, which is covered with weeds and low scrub and comprises 22% of the country,

Green Plants to Improve the Quality of Indoor Environments

Author: Margaret Borchert

PP: 503

It has been found that in urbanized society, people spend about 90% of their time indoors, separated from the air, soils, water, and natural surroundings of our ancestors. The quality of the indoor environment has, therefore, become a major issue in determining the health and well being of building occupants. Some connection with the "real" environment needs to be maintained or restored. It has been found, for example, that patients recover from surgery more rapidly when their hospital windows look onto planted landscapes. It is also well-known that buildings surrounded by beautiful gardens or scenery are more highly priced (i.e., valued by buyers and users) than those with no pleasant vistas.

Indoor plants can also make a substantial contribution to improving the indoor environment, which has yet to be fully realized by building designers, owners, and managers. They greatly assist in the aesthetics of the internal surroundings, provide more satisfactory surroundings for

Hybridization, Selection, Propagation, and Introduction of Multi-Season Flowering Evergreen Encore Azaleas™

Author: James Berry

PP: 504

Evergreen azaleas have been admired and enjoyed for many centuries. The first reported plants grew wild on the islands of Japan. In the late 16th century, the beauty of the azalea's flowers captivated early traders from the Western World (the English and Dutch). This quickly led to the exportation and spread of early azalea cultivars from Japan to Europe and then eventually to North America. Today, azaleas are still admired for their spectacular blooms and are popular in the Southeastern, Pacific West Coast, Ohio Valley, and East Coast regions of the United States.

Southern Indian hybrids are adapted to and popular in the warmer Deep South and Southern California. The Kurume hybrids were imported from Japan mostly in the early 1900s and they were most popular because of their cold tolerance and intense flowering. American horticulturists were most productive in creating many new hybrid groups, many of which have become commercially successful. Some of the most popular American

I.P.P.S. in New Zealand "Seek and Share"

Author: Peter F. Waugh

PP: 508

Firstly what is "Seek and Share". I would like to take a few moments to go into the meaning behind this phrase. The success of the I.P.P.S. and it's well being and future involves all members taking to full heart the Society's motto "Seek and Share".

In English the word "Seek" has a number of meanings:

  • to search or inquire.
  • try or want to find or get.
  • endeavor or try.
  • hunt or attempt.

Seek will have slightly different meanings for academics and craftsmen. The academic researcher is after facts, proving ideas right or wrong, and wants answers to questions. The craftsman is more concerned with finding a better way to carry out a task and is not so much concerned with the reasons - but is still very interested. His role is to constantly improve.

The word seek, therefore, means we are constantly striving to find out more information.

In English the word "Share" means:

  • to give and receive.
  • to contribute so others can benefit.

We must be first to share as through sharing we discover

Developing New Australian Plants

Author: Mark G. Webb, A. Max Crowhurst, Digby J. Growns, Kevin A. Seaton

PP: 101


The Australian flora is fascinating and diverse. It is estimated that there are some 25,000 plant species in Australia (Elliot and Jones, 1989) with over 12,000 species in Western Australia alone (Hopper, 1997). The development of the Australian flora for cut-flower production and amenity horticulture has primarily focused on those plants that are interesting and relatively easy to propagate from seed or vegetative cuttings.

The Australian export flower industry is small by world standards, but has grown gradually since the early 1980s. In 1981–82 the export of cut flowers and foliages was valued at $1.5 million, increasing to $27 million in 1996–97 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1997). The three main export lines are Geraldton wax (Chamelaucium uncinatum), kangaroo paw (Anigozanthos), and banksia (Banksia).

Since 1994–95, the growth rate of Australian cutflower exports has been slowing, with overall exports declining from $30 million in 1995–96 to $27 million in 1996–97.

Picloram-induced Plantlet Regeneration of Cypripedium calceolus Through Root Tip Culture In Vitro

Author: Masanori Tomita, Margaret M. Ramsay

PP: 511

Picloram has auxin action similar in effect to 2,4-D. It can serve as the auxin source in tissue culture with a number of species, but its primary value has been that it is effective at lower concentrations than 2,4-D and thus less likely to cause genetic changes.

Cypripedium calceolus is an endangered species and one that is difficult to propagate vegetatively via in vitro culture. Techniques were investigated to achieve a rapid propagation system for this species and we were successful in regenerating plantlets from root tips exposed to Picloram.

Seedlings of C. calceolus raised from immature seed were used. These had been removed from aseptic culture and kept in sealed vinyl bags in the dark at 5C for about 3 months. After surface sterilization with CaOCl for 20 min, root tips (ca 5 to 10 mm long) were cultured on half-strength MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of Picloram or 2,4-D (0, 10, and 50 mg liter-1) combined with BAP (1 or 10 mg liter-1 ). All

Effects of Basal Medium and Concentration of Sugar and Banana Flesh on the Growth of Oncidium Protocorm-like Bodies Cultured in Vitro

Author: Mamoru Kusumoto, Yasuaki Takeda, Hirosi Anzai

PP: 512


We have reported previously that the growth of in vitro plantlets of Cymbidium and Cattleya was promoted remarkably when organic supplements were added to the basal medium (Kusumoto, 1969; Kusumoto and Furukawa, 1977; Kusumoto, 1979a; Kusumoto, 1979b; Kusumoto, 1980). In our last report we described the effects of basal medium and the concentration of added sugar or banana flesh on the growth of Oncidium plantlets cultured in vitro (Kusurnoto and Takeda 1997). In the present experiment, the effects of the same factors as the last experiment were investigated on the growth of separated Oncidium protocorm-like bodies (PLB) which were not cut up.

Studies on Micropropagation of Odontoglossum Alliance

Author: Y. Murase, S. Nagata, S. Ichihashi

PP: 517

Odontoglossum alliances are south American native, epiphytic, cool-temperature-growing, tropical orchids consisting of more than 200 species. There are many nice hybrids with beautiful flowers, but it is difficult to cultivate them in Japan because of the hot summers. Recently, however, heat-tolerant hybrids have been bred and production of these has started in Japan. Mericlonal plants are available and on sale now, but there is only limited information on the micropropagation of these orchids. In the present experiments, sterilization methods, culture media, and culture conditions were investigated.
The Effect of Cytokinin on the Micropropagation of bulblets of Lilium japonicum

Author: Wang Yongmin

PP: 522

Lilium japonicum is a Japanese native plant and a favorite because of the beautiful pink flowers. However, L. japonicum has a low multiplication rate by scale propagation, therefore, micropropagation is used for the propagation of this plant. Although many papers have reported on the micropropagation of L. japonicum, there are few papers on the effect of cytokinin. In this paper, we report on the effects of various cytokinins on scale multiplication in culture.

Bulblets in vitro were used because L. japonicum from the wild is likely to be contaminated by bacteria. The scales were collected from the bulblets and were cut into 2-mm pieces. Three cytokinins; 2iP, BA, and kinetin were used for the experiment. Many green adventitious buds were differentiated when 2iP was used and these adventitious buds rooted and grew when culture was continued. The addition of NAA with 2iP enhanced rooting from adventitious buds, although the number of buds decreased. Benzyladenine enhanced the

Propagation of Nobile-type Dendrobium

Author: Nobuyuki Asai

PP: 523

Dendrobium nobile can be multiplied by several methods. In this report the methods of propagation, their various characteristics, and important points are presented.
The Cultivation of the Aquatic Plant Fontinalis antipyretica and the Red Bee Shrimp

Author: Hisayasu Suzuki

PP: 524


Fontinalis antipyretica occurs between the tropical zone and temperate zones of the world. It is a species related to sphagnum moss and grows around wetlands or in water. The linear stem has many small branches between 1 to 2 mm. in length. This species develops many branches and these branches intertwine with one another forming a complex plant. Fontinalis antipyretica attaches itself firmly to stones and drift wood and by making use of this characteristic, aquarists can arrange various layouts in their aquariums. The plant is also a good refuge for young fish, so many aquarists use this species for that purpose.

Culture Conditions. Water temperature, 18 to 28C; water quality, weakly acidic or weakly basic with a pH 6.2 too 7.5; soft or medium hard water of a hardness rating between 0 and 5.

The Original Home of the Tea Plant and its Utilization

Author: Satosi Matushita

PP: 525

The original habitat of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) was thought to be the mountains dividing the Chinese province of Yunnan and other southeast Asian countries. However, verifying this information was not possible as access to these areas was restricted for foreigners.

In 1980, the open-door policy of China made it possible to go to Yunnan and search. As a result of my investigations spread over nine visits to the region, I consider the mountains of Yunnan to be the natural habitat of the tea plant. However, the culture of processing tea leaves and tea drinking seems to have originated in Wolingshan, in a mountain area called the land of Bashu, at the north end of Yungui-Gaoyuan in the northern part of Yunnan.

At Wolingshan in the land of Bashu, the Chinese and Chinese culture come together with the tea plant and the culture surrounding tea seems to have had its genesis. The next group of Chinese people to start using tea were the Yaozu, who subsequently spread the use of

An Attempt to Introduce New Kinds of Flowers for use in the Tea Ceremony

Author: Sigeru Yokouchi

PP: 525

The Tea Ceremony is an integral part of Japanese culture. It is carried out in a tea room, chasitu, and traditionally an alcove in the room is adorned with a flower arrangement. This arrangement is known as chabana (flowers for the tea ceremony), and the idea is that these flowers should look as natural as they would in the wild. This idea was handed down from the originators of the Tea Ceremony and fresh flowers collected from the wild are the most sought after.

Traditionally some 200 wild species have been used most often in the Tea Ceremony, along with Camellia japonica, Hibiscus syriacus, and Prunus mume. Some 20% of the plants included are endangered. Not all of them are collected in the wild, for obvious reasons it is no longer permitted to utilize wild plants for chabana when one fifth of these plants are endangered.

The purchase of flowers for chabana is the new trend. However, the use of nontraditional flowers such as roses and carnations does not have the same appeal to people

Accelerating Rooting by the Pretreatment of Direct Stuck Cuttings of Chrysanthemum

Author: J. Nisio

PP: 526


The cultivation of Dendranthema ‘Seiun’, a summer-autumn flowering cultivar, by the direct planting of shoots before rooting is widely adopted for savings in labor costs. However, the rooting of autumn-flowering cultivars grown for late season sale using light-culture techniques and production is not reliable because the planting season in mid summer is too hot. To solve this problem, methods to stimulate the initiation of root primordia by the pretreatment of shoots were investigated.

The Production and Supply of High Quality Vegetable Plants in Aichi

Author: Shinji Sugawara

PP: 528

The supply of virus-free plantlets produced by meristem culture has increased the productivity and promoted the production of clonally propagated vegetables. In Aichi Prefecture, plants produced in this manner include strawberries (Fragaria), Japanese butterbur (Petasites japonicus), and Japanese yam (Dioscorea batatas). Fifteen years ago, it was expected that the large-scale production of micropropagated plants and seeds would become a commercial reality. However, even today, these propagation methods have yet to overcome the problems of high cost and mutation. This report covers the supply method for virus-free plantlets.
Exploiting Variation in Boronia

Author: Julie A. Plummer

PP: 104

Boronias are well known for their perfume and floral displays. Plants are grown for cut flowers and ornamental plants. Cut-flower production is dominated by one cultivar of Boronia heterophylla, which has deep pink (red) petals. Flowering usually occurs over a short period and these factors restrict sales. The remaining natural populations of Boronia heterophylla in the south west of Western Australia were surveyed for new forms. A breeding program was commenced at the University of Western Australia. New cultivars with different colour forms and different flowering periods have been selected and these are undergoing further trials.
Vegetation Control in a Community Complex of Drosera indica

Author: Tadashi Nakanishi

PP: 530


Drosera indica (known in Japanese as nagaba no isimotiso) is facing extinction and was classified in 1997 as a 1B species by the Environmental Agency in Japan. It only grows naturally in a few places in Ibaraki, Chiba, Miyazaki, and Toyohashi City as well as at two locations in Aichi. This species is an insectivorous plant belonging to the Droseraceae. Plant height is between 10 and 20 cm and leaf length between 4 and 6 cm. Glandular hairs on the leaf secrete mucus in which insects become trapped. The insect-catching capability of the leaf is strong enough to catch a medium-sized butterfly.

The habitat in Toyohashi city is located on the north side of Miyuki Park in Satohcho, near the center of the city. They grow wild near the Cho-San Pond and the Ishida River running from the pond. About 2500 m2 of this area is protected by a fence.

This site was discovered by Hoshino in 1971. According to pictures taken at that time, the amount of vegetation cover in the area

Isolation and Culture of Mesophyll Protoplasts from Asarum takaoi

Author: Kentaro Kitahara, Shogo Matsumoto, Hirokazu Fukui

PP: 532

Although plant regeneration from protoplasts has succeeded in many plant families, there are no reports on protoplast isolation and culture in the Aristolochiaceae. Within the Aristolochiaceae, Asarum, sensu lato, is well known as the only food source for Luehdorfia japonica, which is faced with extinction from indiscriminate hunting (Iwatsuki, 1994). Since Asarum is slow to propagate, improving its growth rate is significant for maintaining both it and L. japonica. One of the procedures for this is to produce a somatic hybrid of Asarum by protoplast fusion with other plants possessing a high growth rate. In this paper, we describe the isolation and culture of a protoplast from Asarum takaoi leaves, as a first step in the process.

Young leaves (2 to 4 weeks after unfolding), old leaves (5 to 10 weeks after unfolding), and petioles were used as the source materials for protoplast isolation. All materials were surface sterilized in 2.5% (w/v) sodium hypochlorite solution for

Propagation and Seed Germination of Erythronium japonicum

Author: T. Tomita, T. Tomita, J. Kato

PP: 535

Erythronium japonicum is a perennial bulb plant in the Liliaceae, the only member of the genus endemic to Japan. In early spring, E. japonicum produces a pale purple flower in which the sepals and petals recurve as in cyclamen flowers. In the wild, flowering occurs 7 to 8 years from seed germination but in cultivation, bulbs can be large enough to flower within 5 years and normally bloom within 6 years. Erythronium japonicum occurs naturally throughout Japan but is rather rare in the west. Recently, its natural habitats have been decreasing because of land development; therefore, propagation by tissue culture has been adopted.

In Aichi prefecture, Asuke-cho is well known as having a large wild population and another population is reported around the Moor Imou in Toyohashi city.

In 1994, the late Takeshi Tomita found some E. japonicum growing spontaneously in his orchard of Japanese chestnuts at Ishimaki Nisikawa-cho, Toyohashi city. The site is on a north facing slope of about 30°,

The Natural Habitat and Breeding of Iris laevigata

Author: Hisao Furuhashi

PP: 536


Kakitubata, Iris laevigata, a wild flower found in Japanese wet lands, has been appreciated for a long time; it is mentioned in the old anthology of Manyoushu as well as the old story Isemonogatari. However, there are fewer cultivars available than of I. ensata, and it has not become a commonly grown garden plant because the spread of cultivars and the culture technique were prohibited. I started the pot cultivation and breeding of I. laevigata in 1977 with the intention of popularizing the plant and at the same time I began investigating its natural habitats.

Root Rot Caused by Pythium helicoides in Ebb and Flow Culture of Potted Roses

Author: Hirokazu Fukui, Koji Kageyama, Tomoaki Aoyagi, Terence Paul Mcgo

PP: 537

Miniature roses growing in an ebb and flow watering system showed die back during the summer growing season in Gifu Prefecture.

The main diagnostic symptoms were leaf chlorosis and a brown water-soaked rot of the roots which finally caused die back. The root rotting occurred from August to September 1997. In a greenhouse in Kaizu, Gifu, the disease incidence peaked from the 18 Aug. until 13 Sep. However, no root rot disease was found when minimum temperatures fell.

Both B-5 and H-5 isolates from the rotted roots of the roses showed similar growth rates at all tested temperatures. They did not grow below 10C or above 45C. Hyphal growth increased with rising temperatures in the range of 15 to 35C. The optimal temperature was 35C and the growth rate was 34 mm. per 24 h. There was a sudden drop to about 15 mm per 24 h in hyphal growth at 40C.

The sporangia were terminal, ellipsoidal, papillate, and proliferating inside and outside sporangia. Oogonia were terminal, lateral or

Energy Savings in Cutting Propagation Using a Floating System

Author: Satoshi Yamaguchi, Yukie Murakami

PP: 538


The mist propagation system is very popular for the production of nursery stock, however, the maintenance of the water and electricity supplies and clean misting nozzles is very important. This report gives the results in energy savings of a trial of cutting propagation using a floating garden.

The Effect of Interstocks on the Growth and Productivity of the Japanese Persimmon Cultivar Maekawa-jiro

Author: Mitsuru Sakano

PP: 539


The cultivation of Japanese persimmons is a high-cost and labor-intensive undertaking because of the large size of the trees. Dwarfing the trees will reduce labor costs and the use of dwarfing rootstocks is one method employed. Much research has been done on dwarfing rootstocks and the results have been published. In this paper, we will report on the dwarfing of Japanese persimmons using interstocks.

Enhanced Growth of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus-inoculated Celery Seedlings Transplanted to a Field

Author: Yoh-ichi Matsubara, Haruto Tamura, Takashi Harada

PP: 540

Celery (Apium graveolens L Cornell no. 619) seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus [Glomus etunicatum Becker and Gerdemann (GE), Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith (GI), and Gigaspora margarita Becker and Hall (GM)] were transplanted to a field in order to test the promotive effect of AM fungus infection on the growth of celery.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus-inoculated plants growing in a greenhouse for 8 weeks were superior to non-inoculated plants in height, leaf (blade and petiole), and root dry weights in each fungus species. The AM fungus infection level of the root systems differed among AM fungus species (Table 1).

The Effects of the Physical and Chemical Properties of the Growing Media on the Rooting and Growth of Herbaceous Plant Cuttings in Cell Tray Culture

Author: Y. Miura, S. Kuboi, H. Uematu, D. Igarashi

PP: 543

Though many media for cell-tray culture are now available, the physical and chemical properties of these media are not known and their effects on the rooting and growth of cuttings is not clear.

For this research we made nine media (Table 1) with three percentage air space levels at pF1.0 water tension and three levels of NO3-N. The minimum concentrations of phosphorus and potassium in the nine media were adjusted to 60 mg 100 g-1 and 100 mg 100 g-1, respectively, by the addition of super-phosphate and potassium sulphate.

Thirty stem cuttings of Campanula ‘Alpine Blue’, Petunia ‘Million Bells’, Impatiens New guinea hybrid ‘Prepona’, and Mentha spicata (syn. M. viridis) were taken on 27 May 1998, set in a 128-cell (five plants of each in each medium), cell tray and the rooting rate, root length, plant height, and fresh weight of the whole plants were recorded on 20 June 1998.

The Effect of a Photoperiod on the Flower Bud Development of Spinacia oleracea Seedlings Produced Under Artificial Light

Author: Hyeon-Hye Kim, Changhoo Chun, Toyoki Kozai, Junya Fuse

PP: 545


In general, long days cause spinach plants to develop flower buds, to elongate the stem (i.e., bolt), and to flower, all of which are detrimental to production in summer. In this study, the effect of a photoperiod on the flower bud development of Spinacia oleracea L. seedlings produced under artificial lighting conditions, was investigated.

Developing a Collection of Genetic Material

Author: Digby J. Growns

PP: 107


A systematic collection of plant material is normally done to improve crops which are already cultivated by adding such attributes as disease or insect resistance, higher yields, or cosmetic appearance, or to bring entirely new crops into cultivation. These objectives are part of the current focus of the Centre for Australian Plants, a cooperative venture between Agriculture Western Australia, the University of Western Australia, Kings Park and Botanic Garden, the Department of Conservation and Land Management, and industry.

The collection of plant material which will represent some of the genetic variance of a species needs to be well planned and well resourced. The reason for collecting the material should be clear, with some understanding of the biology and geographical location of the species.

Resources, both financial and physical, are needed for the actual collection, plus the maintenance of the collection for a number of years.

The Growth and Development of Cut-flower Rose Cultivars in Shoot-Tip Culture

Author: Z. Lin, S. Hatasa, H. Fukui, Y. Asano, S. Matsumoto

PP: 546

The shoot-tip culture and propagation in vitro of roses for cut-flower production was developed in order to test their resistance to crown gall. Terminal buds were taken from the shoots after they had grown 1 cm following flower harvest. These buds grew well and culturing in May was found to be the most suitable season for Rosa ‘Carl Red’. After the in vitro culturing of 25 cut-flower cultivars, MS medium containing BAP and GA3 was found to give the best results. The most suitable medium for maximum viability, leaf number, lateral shoots, and maximum shoot length was in most cases the same one for a given cultivar.
Plant Regeneration from Protoplasts Derived from Callus of Phalaenopsis Alliance

Author: M. Hirose, S. Sigemura, S. Ichihashi

PP: 552

Plant regeneration from protoplasts of orchids was very difficult and only succeeded when callus of Phalaenopsis was used. On a previous occasion, we reported the efficient isolation and refinement of protoplasts derived from callus, here we examine the cultural requirements.
The Root Production Method (RPM) System for Producing Container Trees

Author: Wayne Lovelace

PP: 556


The RPM system (root production method), is a multi-step system of producing container tree seedlings that places primary emphasis on the root system — which ultimately determines the trees survival and performance in the environment it is transplanted into. This particular container production system has been developed to facilitate mass production of high quality seedling trees with an optimum height-caliper balance. Approximately 80% of our production consists of native trees, many of which have transplanting problems using conventional nursery growing systems. We specialize in Quercus (oak) production and currently grow 26 taxa.

Top Ten Points of Plant Propagation

Author: Carl E. Whitcomb

PP: 558


Plants, like everything else, require energy. However, plants are self-sufficient and their energy comes from the complex process of photosynthesis which produces carbohydrates. Just as an automobile cannot run without energy from gasoline, neither can a plant "run" unless the energy products produced by photosynthesis are present to support cell division needed to initiate and develop plant parts. Anything we can do as plant propagators and producers, to assist in the energy and related hormonal output of the leaves and buds, helps improve the physiological condition of plant tissues, which is important for rooting of cuttings and subsequent liner plant growth.

Many things have changed since I stuck my first grape cuttings over 40 years ago. I have had the opportunity of instigating, testing, and/or refining many of the newer procedures. The following 10 points are a reminder of important factors involved in plant propagation.

Disease-Resistant Cultivars of Crapemyrtle and Dogwood

Author: Austin K. Hagan, Charles H. Gilliam, Gary J. Keever, J. David Wi

PP: 563

Severity of powdery mildew (Microsphaera penicillata) and spot anthracnose (Elsinoe corni) was assessed from 1995 through 1997 in a simulated landscape planting of 37 selections or cultivars in five dogwood (Cornus sp.) taxa. Concurrently, susceptibility of 43 cultivars of three crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia sp.) taxa to powdery mildew (Erysiphe lagerstroemia) and Cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora lythracearum) was recorded. Selected cultivars of both crapemyrtle and dogwood were resistant to both diseases and would be excellent candidates for low maintenance landscapes and nursery production.
Seedling Propagation in Bottomless Bands

Author: Roy McCorkle

PP: 571


S & S Nurseries, Inc., produces both container- and field-grown trees and shrubs for the landscape and garden center industries. For many years our tree production started with bareroot seedlings purchased from other nurseries. The quality of these plants was variable at best, and often poor. Because of the need to improve on the quality and the availability of bareroot seedlings, our own tree seedling production was started 11 years ago. It was determined from the beginning that a bottomless container for air pruning the roots was the way to go.

Seedling Containers. When we first started, a tray with 38 cone shaped cells 5.1 cm (2 inches) wide at the top and 12.7 cm (5 inches) deep, was used. After 3 years and numerous problems, we switched to the Anderson bottomless bands. This container is 9.2 cm (3.6 inches) square at the top by 15.2 cm (6 inches) deep with a very slight taper. Twenty-five of these fit in a Lerio 46-cm (18-inch) square tray.

Greenhouse Propagation

Pruning Liriope Leaves During Division Reduces Subsequent Growth

Author: Christine K. Hayes, Charles H. Gilliam, Gary J. Keever, D. Josep

PP: 578

Two experiments were conducted to determine if pruning the shoots of liriope [Liriope muscari (Decne.) L.H. Bailey ‘Big Blue’] at division affected subsequent growth of roots and shoots. Plants were divided into single bibbs and shoots were left uncut or cut 5 cm above the crown of the plant. Plants with shoots pruned at division took 42% more time to develop 25 new root tips, and had smaller root masses, and had fewer bibbs per container. Root system size at the time of division was also evaluated. Plants with larger roots systems (10 or more roots at division) developed 25 new roots faster, had larger systems at the end of the experiment, and produced more bibbs than plants with smaller root systems (3 to 5 roots at division).
Postemergence Control of Bittercress

Author: James E. Altland, Charles H. Gilliam, John W. Olive

PP: 584

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of postemergence applied herbicides for controlling bittercress (Cardamine sp.) in container-grown crops. ‘Big Blue’ and ‘Variegata’ liriope (Liriope muscari), China Girl™ holly (Ilex China Girl™ holly), and ‘Midnight Flare’ azalea (Rhododendron ‘Midnight Flare’) were also treated to evaluate herbicide phytotoxicity. When comparing bittercress control in variegated liriope in Experiment 2 and bittercress control at 15 days after treatment (DAT) in Experiment 3, Gallery™ provided excellent postemergence bittercress control (98% to 100%) at the recommended rate [1.1 kg ai ha-1 (1.0 lb ai acre-1)] with no injury to liriope, holly, or azalea. Manage™ provided good bittercress control (89% to 90%) at [0.03 kg ai ha-1 (0.03 lb ai acre-1)] but caused slight injury liriope. Image™ provided good bittercress control (73% to 99.5%) at 0.07 kg ai ha-1 (0062 lb ai acre-1), but caused severe injury to azalea. Trimec Southern™ provided good bittercress control(77% to 100%) at 0.31 kg ai ha-1 (0.28 lb ai acre-1), but caused severe injury to liriope and azalea.
The Plant Introduction Program of Chicagoland Grows®, Inc.

Author: Don M. Brennan, Kris R. Bachtell

PP: 590


In recent years, there has been an increased level of interest among the green industry in the development and activities of regional plant introduction programs. A number of botanic gardens, arboreta, academic institutions, and public as well as private research facilities, have joined forces with the nursery industry to select and introduce new plant cultivars for the landscape.

Following in the footsteps of recognized plant introduction programs at the University of British Columbia Botanical Garden in Vancouver, Canada, and the University of Minnesota Landscape Arboretum in Chanhassen, Minnesota, two botanical institutions and the nursery industry in the Chicago area have established a successful plant introduction program called Chicagoland Grows®.

The Program's mission is to introduce new and recommended plant cultivars that are well adapted to growing conditions of the Upper Midwest.

Successful Japanese Maple Grafting: From a Grafter's Apprentice

Author: Ken Tilt

PP: 595


Japanese maples (Acer palmatum) are among the aristocrats in our landscapes. We often consider them as status symbols in our yards. When a plant reaches this level of celebrity, it allows nurseries to get a little added value for their efforts. Japanese maples seldom fall into the category of hollies, junipers, or azaleas. These plants are often specified by the hundreds by landscape designers. Typically Japanese maples are specimen trees or shrubs with only one or two plants specified per landscape job. However, with some additional marketing and landscape demonstrations, mass planting of ‘Tamukeyama’ or ‘Waterfall’, a screen row of ‘Moonfire’ or a small border hedge of ‘Shaina’ could be a possibility. Like many of our other plant groups, there is probably a Japanese maple with a form, texture, size, color, and site tolerance to fit almost any landscape requirement. There are opportunities for imaginative, artistic nursery producers to create some unique plants by training limbs

Conospermum: A Cultivated Cutflower

Author: Kevin A. Seaton, Mark G. Webb

PP: 111

Conospermum is an Australian native flower being developed by Agriculture Western Australia as a cut flower. Conospermum is a diverse genus with genotypes varying in colour from white/grey to blue, and varying in forms from shrubs to small trees. Some Conospermum species readily propagate from cuttings with strike rates up to 50%, while others can only be propagated from tissue culture. Conospermum species respond favourably to cultivation.
Plant Propagation Research at Greenleaf Nursery

Author: Diane E. Dunn

PP: 602


Greenleaf Nursery has been propagating quality liners for 51 years. Currently at our Park Hill, Oklahoma location, we propagate about 900 taxa from cuttings, seed, division, or grafting. Cuttings constitute the largest source of new plant material with approximately 18 million on the 1998 propagation schedule. Due to the large numbers of cuttings we need to produce yearly, we are always conducting research in an effort to increase our rooting percentages.

Does Container Drainage Hole Size Affect Your Water Quality?

Author: Donna C. Fare

PP: 608

One component of production influencing water quality at container nurseries is the amount of container leachate from the container substrate. The potential exists for reduced water use and less leachate volume by altering the container design. This project compares container leachate volume from a standard, 11.3 liter (# 3), container with seven 1.9-cm (¾-inch) diameter drainage holes to containers with one, three, five, or seven holes with diameters of 1.9, 0.9 and 0.5 cm ¾, 3/8, and 3/16 inch). Leachate volume was about 41% less (312 ml to 182 ml) when the diameter of the drainage hole was reduced from 1.9 cm to 0.5 cm (¾, to 3/16 inch). Nitrate-nitrogen was about 70% less (6.4 ppm compared to 1.9 ppm) when container drainage holes were reduced from 1.9 cm to 0.5 cm (¾ to 3/16 inch). Plant growth of Lagerstroemia fauriei × L. indica ‘Hopi’, Forsythia × intermedia ‘Lynwood’, and Rhododendron ‘The Honorable Jean Marie de Montague’ was similar in all container modifications.
Needle Evergreen Alternatives

Author: Michael A. Dirr

PP: 611

Leyland cypress, ×Cupressocyparis leylandii, continues as the unchallenged leader for screening and hedging in the southeast. Diseases, specifically Seridium and Botryosphaeria species, have been associated with branch dieback. Few monocultures survive over time, therefore our Georgia Plant Introduction Program has been accessioning and evaluating needle evergreen taxa as possible alternatives. To date, Chamaecyparis thyoides, Thuja plicata, Calocedrus decurrens, Taxus chinensis, Cryptomeria japonica, and Cephalotaxus species have shown promise.

Plants are grown under greenhouse conditions, outside in containers, and in field plots to more holistically evaluate suitability for the nursery and landscape industries. Significant commercial application resides with C. thyoides and T. plicata clones.

Chamaecyparis thyoides - Atlantic white cedar

  • Over 50 clones under evaluation.
  • Roots readily from cuttings, especially in November–March.
  • Easy to grow in containers.
  • Great range
Exotic Plants for the Plains

Author: Mike Schnelle

PP: 613

Xanthoceras sorbifolia — popcorn shrub
  • Can also be found growing as a small tree.
  • More a large shrub than a small tree [2.7 to 6.1 m (9 to 20 ft)].
  • Clean, attractive, compound foliage and attractive white flowers.
  • Salt sensitive and can be easily overwatered — can be difficult to grow.
  • Can deteriorate in pots — grow bag or field candidate for production.
  • Easy to propagate from seed, even without pretreatment and can be rooted from cuttings.
  • Hardy in Zones 4–7.
  • Needs production work and marketing program to familiarize customers.
  • Plant material source: Heritage Seedlings, Inc., 4199 75th Avenue SE, Salem, Oregon 97301- 9242; phone 800-727-8744.

Tetradium daniellii (Euodia daniellii) — Korean evodia

  • Small tree 7.6 to 9.1 m (25 to 30 ft).
  • Pest-free, lustrous, compound foliage.
  • White flowers in July–August.
  • Reddish-black capsules (open to reveal brown-black seeds) that persists into late fall.
  • No fall color.
  • Bark smooth and gray with maturity — striking.
  • Adaptable to variable
Irrigation Water Retention and Recycling at Greenleaf Nursery Company

Author: Mark W. Andrews, Shanda K. Wilson, Sharon L. Von Broembsen

PP: 614


Greenleaf Nursery Company was founded in 1946 by Harold and Rebecca Nickel as a retail nursery in Muskogee, Oklahoma. In 1958, a wholesale production nursery was started in Park Hill, Oklahoma. Since that time, the retail nursery has been closed and the wholesale production has grown. Currently, Greenleaf Nursery Company consists of four wholesale divisions: the Oklahoma Division (500 acres in production), the Texas Division (300 acres in production), the Hidden Lake Division (150 acres in production), and the North Carolina Division (32 acres in production). The Oklahoma, Texas, and North Carolina Divisions are 98% containerized nursery production and 2% field production. The Hidden Lake Division is 100% field production.

Since 1989, the Oklahoma State Department of Agriculture (OSDA) has been monitoring nutrients and pesticides in runoff from ornamental nurseries in the Illinois River Basin (an Oklahoma designated Scenic River) to establish baselines for nursery

Starting a Nursery Business

Author: Bob Moore

PP: 616


I would like to share with you some things to consider when starting a small container nursery.

Effects of Dolomitic Limestone and Micronutrients

Author: Ted E. Bilderback, Stuart L. Warren

PP: 618


More than a dozen research studies have been conducted over the last 25 years related to addition of dolomitic limestone to pine-bark-based potting mixes. Many of the studies also investigated the effects and interactions between dolomitic limestone and minor element supplements. Results from these studies have been non conclusive, since amending potting substrates with dolomitic limestone and micronutrients has increased growth, decreased growth, and had no effect on growth of ornamental crops. Chrustic and Wright (1983) found that incorporation of dolomitic limestone decreased ‘Helleri’ holly and ‘Rosebud’ azalea growth and increased juniper growth only at 2.0 kg m-3 (3.3 lb yd-3). They concluded that lime addition increased pH leading to increased N4 adsorption in the pine bark. They also concluded that if Ca and Mg supplies were adequate in container solution, substrate pH had little effect on plant growth. The duration of the study was 8 weeks.

Southern Magnolia Propagation and Production

Author: Dan Batson

PP: 624


Rooting southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) has proven difficult for most propagators and relatively easy for a few. Important factors are humidity and heat [100% relative humidity and propagation temperature of 38C (100F)]. However, the key is proper watering by a very attentive propagator. At Green Forest Nursery, we propagate ‘Little Gem’, ‘Red Robbins’, ‘D.D. Blanchard’, ‘Claudia Wanamaker’, ‘Green Giant’, and have recently added ‘Bracken's Brown Beauty’.

Seasonal Timing for Optimal Rooting. Optimum time for rooting M. grandiflora cuttings seems to be late summer to early fall in southern Mississippi. Late enough in summer for cuttings to harden-off (no new leaf emergence), and early enough in the fall to maintain a high enough temperature in the greenhouse for the promotion of callus and root initiation.

Sticking cuttings in mid-summer (July in southern Mississippi) has also led to successful rooting. Advantages of propagating in mid-summer include having an earlier start,

Multiple Uses of Spin Out® in the Nursery and Landscape

Author: Mark A. Crawford

PP: 627


The benefits of using copper salts in a latex carrier to control root development in containers has been well documented in the literature and has gained widespread use in forestry and nursery crop production with the introduction of pretreated containers in the 1990s. Using copper to control root growth in containers to eliminate root spiraling first began in forest seedling production in the 1960s and has increased to where greater than 90% of lodgeple pines produced in British Columbia are grown in copper-treated containers. Horticultural research at Ohio State University demonstrated the benefits of controlling roots in container-grown red oaks (Quercus rubra). This caught the attention of Griffin Corporation, which is a major producer of copper fungicides. In 1994, Griffin introduced Spin Out® root growth regulator, which is the first EPA registered product for controlling plant root growth in containers.

Innovations at Lancaster Farms — AKA 30 Years of Trial and Error

Author: Charles Parkerson

PP: 632


When asked to present a paper on innovations at Lancaster Farms, I said to myself "no sweat". All I would have to do is take a few pictures, show several slides at the meeting, and write a short paper. However, when we really think about the subject — it is much more than a gadget!

For a multitude of reasons we seek out innovative approaches to our problems. The old saying that "need is the mother of invention" is indeed true, and is the principle reason for innovation in most nurseries. The entire concept of innovation is more that just simply a "gizmo," but is a mindset, a philosophy if you will.

This concept revolves around the opposite or converse of innovation, which is stagnation. I don't remember where I came upon the following list, so I can't give the originator the proper credit, but it has served as a valuable tool and guide for over 25 years when we think "innovation.

Western Australian Species as Summer Annuals

Author: Grady N. Brand

PP: 114


Western Australian flora is known worldwide as one of the most unique. However there is a perception, "that once spring is over there is nothing to be admired". One of Kings Park and Botanic Garden's current challenges is to prove to the world that this perception is incorrect. The strategy adopted has been to focus on the development of year-round native floral displays throughout the gardens. Annuals are proven winners when visual impact is the desired effect, so the move to develop the Western Australian summer annuals for their bedding potential was one logical way to improve perception of Western Australian plants as year-round displays.

Aging, Rejuvenation, and Propagation in Trees

Author: Peter Del Tredici

PP: 637


Plants and animals are structured along very different lines. Animals are considered determinate and entire in their development, while plants are considered indeterminate and open. Animals are organized around tissue and organ systems and develop at the cellular level, while plants are structured around meristematic zones and develop at an organismal level (Kaplan and Hagemann, 1991). The higher degree of morphological plasticity found in plants relative to animals is a manifestation of their more flexible developmental processes (Arber, 1950).

The challenge facing plant propagators is twofold: first to distinguish the variable, yet synergistic, roles that genetics, environment, and development play in shaping the form of the tree (Halle et al., 1978); and second, to use this knowledge to produce high quality, true-to-type plants for the market place.

Commercial Propagation of Southern Native Woody Ornamentals

Author: Jim Berry

PP: 643

Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia, was one of the earliest and most refined communities of our young country. Williamsburg was carefully planned and beautiful homes and commercial buildings were planted with gardens and landscaping. The majority of the plants used in gardens were native shrubs. Only occasionally would a non-native appear, perhaps roses or fruit trees which found their way from Europe. Another famous colonial site was George Washington's estate in Mount Vernon, Virginia. George Washington, Father of our Country, was also a famous horticulturist who established extensive plant collections and well designed gardens. Once again, the major source of available garden plants was native species.

As our country grew both westerly and southerly, most of our gardens were decorated with native shrubs and trees. Gardening focused on food production.

In the Southern U.S., these trends continued until early in the 20th Century because of the lack of industrialization, the complications

Question and Answer Period: Thursday Morning General Session I


PP: 650

BruceBriggs: What effect, if any, did the recent hurricanes have on southern nurseries?

Jim Berry: It could have been a hair-raising experience, but it wasn't for me. One of our nurseries is on the shore of Mobile Bay. Hurricane Frederick emptied the Bay in 1979, but Hurricane George filled the Bay up and we had lots of rain, lots of high tide, and we had quite a few plants go under water. It was slightly salty, When it receded we checked the EC and we did leaching. Some of the azaleas were affected, but by next spring we think they will be alright. We had minimal plant damage.

Mary Irish: Can pollarding actually shorten the life of a tree?

Peter Del Tredici: Pollarding and coppicing were developed as agricultural systems in Europe to promote the continuous yield of firewood. Pollarding is essentially coppicing at a higher level so that grazing animals cannot destroy the new developing wood. If it's done right by starting the technique at a young age, it can increase the life span of

The Benefits from Protecting New Plant Introductions

Author: Evelyn Weidner

PP: 651

Open any wholesale plant catalog today or take a close look at the label that is attached to the plant and you will almost surely see those little letters next to the plant name (Pat., PPAF, or the small symbols ®,™) that indicate the name is trademarked.

The next thing you will often see is "Propagation Prohibited"; you might even see "Propagation Strictly Prohibited". Perhaps propagation is permitted under license only. Whatever you see, it means that the breeder or his assignee has gone to the time, trouble, and expense of protecting his rights to that particular plant cultivar.

Why is this done? What has caused the sudden proliferation of all these plant patents and trademarks? Who gets the money? How many entities have their hand in the pot? And of course, the final question, how many of you out there will abide by the rules and how many of you will be illegally propagating on the side?

There are a number of factors that have fueled both the proliferation of plant patents and new

Question and Answer Period: Thursday AM General Session II


PP: 653

Andrew Davis: How is it determined when a "new" plant warrants patenting? What are the current costs for coming up for a genetic fingerprint of a plant?

Evelyn Weidner: A new plant whose protection is being applied for has to be grown alongside other plants. It has to show significant differences in at least one and up to seven to eight different ways. I don't know what the cost is for determining the genetic fingerprint of a plant.

Eunice Messner: What right does the United States have to patent the neem tree that is native to India?

Evelyn Weidner: I don't think they have the right to do that. This is one of the problems we face since we work under two systems of plant patent rules, the U.S. and European. There are many loopholes.


Author: Lynne Caton, Dennis M. Connor, Kathy Echols, Dennis Perry, Peter

PP: 654

Abelia &timesgrandiflora ‘Sunrise’ Sunrise variegated abelia PPAF
     Zones: 6–10.
     Category: Shrub.
     Origin: A chance sport found September 1992 on a single branch of an Abelia &timesgrandiflora growing at Taylor's Nursery, Inc. Raleigh, NC.
     Size: 3 to 5 ft tall and 4 to 6 ft wide.
     Habit: Compact growth habit, slightly slower grower than Abelia &timesgrandiflora ‘ Edward Goucher’.
     Foliage: Spring coloration is bright gold surrounding dark-green center. Summer color is cream surrounding dark green. The variegation holds year round in full sun to heavy shade (heavy shade produces a lighter variegation) bright orange and red fall color.
     Flowers: White flowers appear throughout summer and fall.
     Uses: Mass planting, foundation, or containers.
     Culture: Grow in a warm, sunny situation in any fertile soil. Provide shelter from cold winds. In cold areas, grow against a south-or west-facing wall. ‘Sunrise’ holds up better in full sun tolerating a medium to heavy shade.
     Pest & Diseases: None known.
Control of Soilborne Pathogens in Containerized Ornamentals

Author: Donald J. Merhaut

PP: 661

The propagation and production of woody ornamental plants often involves the use of containers during part or all of the production life of the plants. Containers inevitably restrict the development of the root systems and expose the rhizosphere to environmental stresses that would normally not be encountered if the plants were grown in the ground. Secondly, the manipulation of shoot and root growth that sometimes occurs during plant production presents additional internal physiological stresses to the plant. All of these stresses weaken plants and make them more susceptible to attack by various pathogens and pests. Therefore, containerized plants must be treated differently so these stresses can be minimized or eliminated, thus reducing the likelihood of diseases.

The following is a general synopsis of plant growth and development and the challenges faced by growing plants in containers, with a strong emphasis on understanding whole plant growth, development, and physiology. This review is organized into three topics: (1) the basic physiology of plants and how different cultural practices affect the major metabolic pathways; (2) pathogens encountered in nursery production; and (3) cultural control practices that can minimize plant stress and reduce the incidence of pathogens and pests.

Growing Mycorrhizal Native Plant Species

Author: Shengjun Lu

PP: 665


Since its establishment in 1986, Bitterroot Restoration, Inc. (BRI) headquartered in Corvallis, Montana has been doing ecological restoration on severely disturbed lands. The focus of much of our work has been on arid, semi-arid, and sensitive, high-elevation areas, as well as sites severely disturbed by mining and pollution. Many mining companies, the National Park Service, the Environmental Protection Agencies, other federal and state agencies, and the private sector in the western United States of America work with us because we offer comprehensive restoration services and provide site specific native plants for our restoration projects. During the past several years, we have been trying to incorporate root-associated microorganisms into our restoration processes. Today, I will share with you our philosophy and approach to the restoration process, and our successful mycorrhizal program.

Propagation of Indigenous and Endemic Ornamental Hawaiian Plants

Author: Richard A. Criley

PP: 669

Hawaii's nurseries have been stimulated to begin production of indigenous plants as a result of a state policy requiring the use of these plants in public landscapes. While many native plants can be grown from seed, vegetative propagation of ornamentally attractive selections is necessary to maintain these ornamental qualities. In this paper, propagation practices are described for Hibiscus arnottianus, H. clayi, H. brackenridgei, Gossypium tomentosum, Sida fallax, Wikstroemia uva-ursi, Heliotropium anomalum, Osteomeles anthyllidifolia, Vitex rotundifolia, Artemisia australis, A. mauiensis, Erythrina sandwicensis, Metrosideros polymorpha, Pittosporum spp., and Psydrax odorata.
Propagating in the Desert Southwest: What We Do and Why We Do It

Author: Elizabeth Davison

PP: 675


An important challenge in the American Southwest is to introduce newcomers to the exciting variety of landscape plants adapted to the desert climates. A major effort on the part of water companies is directed to reducing landscape water use. Commercial growers, botanical gardens, highway plantings, and public displays all showcase species that can be successful in landscapes with less than 10 inches of rainfall. For this reason, commercial propagation efforts focus mostly on species unique to areas of the world that have similar high light, low relative humidity, and extreme diurnal temperature ranges.

How Do Your Daisies Grow?

Author: D. Cheongsaat, J.A. Plummer, D.W. Turner

PP: 116

Rhodanthe chlorocephala ssp. rosea (pink paper daisy) and Schoenia filifolia ssp. subulifolia (yellow strawflower) are Western Australian daisies with potential for use as bedding plants and pot plants. The influence of irrigation on seed production was examined in field trials. Water deficit reduced branching which limited sites for terminal flower development and seed production. Rhodanthe chlorocephala seed was dormant at harvest but 97% germinated after 3 months storage at 30C. Schoenia filifolia seed was still dormant (8% germination) after 3 months storage. Dormancy could be overcome by application of gibberellic acid (GA3, 30% — 87% germination) or by exposure to 80C for 11 days (79% germination).
The Best of New and Old California Native Perennials

Author: Bart C. O'Brien

PP: 678

In this short paper, I would like to introduce or reacquaint the reader with a number of cultivars of Californian perennials and subshrubs that certainly deserve to be more widely propagated and grown. These beautiful Californians are riding the waves of interest in perennials and native plants. Most of these plants are also well matched to today's smaller gardens. This paper differs from the oral presentation in two ways: (1) Plants that were covered in the presentation and are not covered in this paper (Lessingia filaginifolia ‘Silver Carpet’, Romneya ‘White Cloud’, Salvia spathacea ‘Pilitas’, Epilobium septentrionale ‘Select Mattole’, E. canum ‘Sierra Salmon’, and E. ‘Solidarity Pink’) and (2) two older cultivars and one new selection that were not covered in detail in the presentation are included in this paper to clarify information regarding their origins (Achillea millefolium ‘Island Pink’, Sisyrinchium bellum ‘San Simeon’, and Verbena lilacina ‘De La Mina’).

Achillea millefolium ‘Island Pink’.

The New Cultivars of New Zealand Flax

Author: Randy Baldwin

PP: 684


My interest in flax had its roots in a childhood of viewing large green or bronze New Zealand flax, paired with tree ferns and Philodendron, planted in "modern" 1960s landscapes. In structure and form this plant had no equal yet its use had become so prevalent that the plant was on the verge of becoming overly common and boring. Fortunately, new cultivars making there way into the horticultural trade in the mid 1980s rescued New Zealand flax from this mediocrity. San Marcos Growers has had a major role in the introduction of this plant into the U.S. and I would like to share some of what we have learned about this group of plants.

The common name "flax" is applied to several different plants with a fibrous nature that are used for items such as rope and clothing. Thus, such unrelated plants as the "true" or Asian flax (Linum usitatissimum) are often confused with New Zealand flax (Phormium sp.). As the common name implies Phormium come from New Zealand. The name Phormium come

An Overview of a Computerized Production Program

Author: Martin E. Stockton

PP: 687

How does a complete software package for the horticulture industry work? What are the basic components and concepts that need to be understood to purchase and implement a successful package? In this paper we will look at these basic questions and attempt to answer them by using First Step Greenhouses and Plant Partner as an example.

First Step Greenhouses is a new annual bedding plant plug operation in Southern California. We use Plant Partner software from Starcom Computer Corp. to drive our business. The software handles many different functions including order entry, production planning, inventory control, shipping, production scheduling, and material needs.

For purpose of discussion we will divide the functionality of the software into two topics, sales and production. Sales deals with orders, item pricing, inventory, order collection, and shipping. The first step is to develop a sales catalog. This is a detailed profile of each item for sale including: container used, genus,

Question and Answer Period: Concurrent Session I: Perennials and Plugs


PP: 688

Mary Helen Seeger: Is there a way to integrate sales via computer modem or the Internet?

Martin Stockton: Not that I know of, but they can probably develop a custom program to handle that. That gets back to the concept of small industry, if you want to be an innovator or fore-runner you will likely pay for it.

Propagation of Four American Carnivorous Plant Genera: Pinguicula, Drosera, Dionaea, and Sarracenia

Author: James L. Booman

PP: 689

Carnivorous plants come from genera that have little in common. The fact that these different plants developed similar methods to digest or utilize nutrients from animals is a classic case of parallel evolution.

The single greatest threat to the survival of these plants in the wild is destruction of habitat. Fire suppression and drainage ditches in pine plantations have probably eliminated more acreage of flytrap (Dionaea) habitat than any other actions in the last 30 years. Urban encroachment destroys habitat as well. Poaching, while significant, is a smaller factor than irreversible loss of habitat (Boyer, 1995).

Luckily, most of these interesting plants can be propagated artificially. Although we are on the West Coast, we are at a similar latitude and have the same temperature spreads as the native areas on the East Coast of the U.S. Our abundant light seems to help us maintain a year-round program of growing these plants commercially in Southern California (Vista, CA).


Propagating Palms from Seeds

Author: Donald R. Hodel

PP: 690

Optimal germination of palm seeds is attained by using mature, fresh, clean seeds; a disease-free, moist but well aerated medium; clean containers and benches; and maintaining temperatures of 30 to 35C and relative humidity of 90% to 100%.
Evolution in the Propagation of Tropical Foliage Plants

Author: Jim Rietkerk

PP: 696

Foliage propagation over the past 10 years has become more refined and specialized and it has improved dramatically. I will share the evolution in my lifetime, and what changes Southern California growers have experienced.

In my father's;s facility we held our own stock on many varieties, or took cuttings from production plants in rotation. Frequently we stuck cuttings in flats and later re-potted them. Misting and the use of labor-intensive sweat tents were common practices.

Cuttings purchased from Central America often had long thin roots that had to be trimmed off. Loss rates of these purchased cuttings were high, which made direct sticking difficult. Tissue-cultured plants presented their own problems; much was promised, but little was delivered. Often the parent plants selected to tissue culture were of poor quality, sizing of tissue culture products was inconsistent, and filling grower orders was sporadic. One month you would get your order, and the next you wouldn't. This has all

Propagation of Aquatic Plants

Author: William Charles Uber

PP: 698

I want to thank you for inviting me to speak at this International Plant Propagators' Society meeting. Van Ness Water Gardens is a third-generation company and, in my opinion, our propagating methods have change significantly since my father and Mr. Van Ness ran the business.

Originally, we used 4-inch-terra-cotta pots to grow our plants. These eventually became too expensive so we started using tin cans that we purchased from a local school cafeteria and dipped them in large vats of hot tar to rustproof them. Plants growing in the 1-gal tin cans had to be spaced further apart than the ones growing in the 4-inch-terra-cotta pots, but the plants grew larger. The larger plants and the increased volume of the 1-gal cans increased the volume of soil and the amount of fertilizer needed to grow the plants and it increased the labor required to plant and move them around the nursery. Smaller flats were also tried, but resulted in overgrowth of algae and/or the growth of some other dominant

Question And Answer Period: Concurrent Session II Specialty Crops


PP: 699

Elizabeth Davison: Do you need to control the greenhouse environment to grow the carnivorous plants?

Jim Booman: I use a fog system to increase the relative humidity and help reduce the temperature.

Dick Criley: What kinds of problems are you experiencing with tissue cultured plants?

Jim Rietkerk: When we experience problems of any kind with plants we purchase we simply stop doing business with whoever provided problem plants.

New Trends in Natural Ventilation

Author: Gary Baze

PP: 699

There is no question that natural ventilation is the current "buzz word" of the day. If you had the privilege of attending this years Ohio Floral Industry trade show you would have witnessed more versions of "natural ventilation" than you may have known existed. While the issue of natural ventilation may seem new to some, it has, in fact, been a standard within our industry almost from the beginning.

In order to gain a proper perspective as to where the trends are going it is sometimes helpful to see where we've been. For the purposes of this discussion, we should start at the beginning of our industry. Please remember that the first greenhouse businesses were inherently smaller "Mom and Pop" operations. Smaller operations were the norm of the day primarily due to the more regionally based sales area and the demand for plant products. These greenhouses typically were much smaller in size than what we see today and, therefore, much easier to manage. These early structures typically

A Legal Perspective of Plant Variety Rights

Author: Charlotte Webb

PP: 52


I am going to talk to you today about Plant Variety Rights (PVR) in New Zealand. I will first discuss the eligibility requirements for PVR, then look at who is eligible to apply for PVR. I will take you through an overview of the steps required to obtain PVR, what rights the grant of PVR provides to the grantee, exceptions to these rights, and finish by considering some scenarios which I think may be of interest to you.

Hybridisation Biology Within the Chamelaucium Alliance—Preliminary Studies

Author: Simone Cunneen, Guijun Yan

PP: 120

Intraspecific, interspecific, and intergeneric crosses involving nine species from the genera Chamelaucium, Verticordia, and Darwinia were conducted. Pollen-pistil interactions and the formation of seed were studied in order to locate any hybridisation barriers that may exist. Whilst seed set was recorded from 16 crosses indicating no hybridisation barriers, the presence of barriers was observed in the remaining 55 crosses. The long styles of D. squarrosa and Darwinia spp (novo) may have been responsible for the incompatibilities when used as female parents, as the pollen tubes of the shorter styled species were unable to transcend the longer styles. According to the above results, methods to overcome the hybridisation barriers were suggested to facilitate the union of desirable characteristics in new hybrids.
Identification and Control of Fungal Diseases in Landscape Ornamentals

Author: Jim Downer

PP: 703

The first step toward disease control is recognition of the disease presence and identification of the causal agent. Once the causal agent or pathogen is identified, a control strategy can then be developed. However, I agree with Westcott (1971) who states that "plant pathologists can tell you what a disease is but seldom what to do about it except to remove the diseased parts…". Sadly, many fungal diseases once recognized have few control options; thus many disease strategies are preventative in nature. Plant autopsies are common in the disease diagnosis business. The logic is, that if we can figure out what killed or injured our plants, perhaps we can prevent the occurrence in the future. Thus the bulk of this presentation will focus on recognition of landscape diseases common to Southern California gardens. Where a good control strategy is known it will be mentioned.

Plant disease was defined by the late Professor H.H. Whetzel as follows; "Disease in plants is an injurious

An Experience with Propagation of Rare and Native Plants in Western Australia

Author: Sheila Bhattacharya

PP: 706


The flora of Western Australia is famed for its diversity and consists of about 20,000 species of flowering plants. Some of the hard-leafed vegetation include Eucalyptus, Banksia, Hakea, Grevillea, Dryandra, and Acacia that dominate Australian flora. There are about 600 Acacia species restricted to Australia and at least 400 species of Acacia are recorded for Western Australia.

I had the opportunity to spend 7 weeks in Perth, Western Australia, and another 2 weeks in Tasmania at Westland Nurseries. While at Perth (Mediterranean desert), very constructive time was spent both at the Department of Plant Sciences, University Western Australia, and Micropropagation Laboratory at King's Park and Botanic Garden (KPBG). The primary objective of my visit to Australia was to learn new propagation techniques of arid and native Australian plants. The second objective was to work on a short-term project related to the tissue culture of rare and endangered semi-arid and arid plants.

Question and Answer Period: Saturday AM General Session I


PP: 709

Jime Kresler: Have you done any studies where gypsum has been added to the potting mix?

Jim Downer: No. Others have worked on that. When coarse gypsum (crushed dry wall) was added to make up to 5% of the medium, the physical and chemical properties of the mix change. One is that the porosity of the mix is altered. That immediately has an effect on reducing the water content of the medium which is critical for eliminating Phytophthora diseases. The other effect seems to be a chemical/fungicidal, calcium ion-based effect directly on the fungus that reduces the size of the sporangia and the number of spores produced.

Rooting Media and Plant Acclimatization ex Vitro

Author: Atelene Normann Kämpf, Eunice O. Calvete, Soeni BeIl&eacute

PP: 709


The transfer of plants from a sterile environment to a greenhouse is known as acclimatization, which corresponds to the Stage IV in the process of micropropagation. Due to its technical requirements this phase is considered one of the most expensive of the micropropagation process and, consequently, a possible limiting factor on a commercial scale (Lewandowski, 1991).

In vitro culture is done under artificial conditions like a constant long-day photoperiod (generally about 16 h day-1) with a low luminance level (1000 to 2000 lux) and a narrowed light spectrum (fluorescent lamps without red and infrared waves). The usual temperature ranges from 20 to 25C. Inside the flask the air humidity is very high and the CO2 level is low. The culture medium fixes the plants in the right position and releases to them nutrients, vitamins, amino acids, and sugar. Under these conditions, the plant is considered heterotrophic (Fugiwara, Kozai, and Watanabe, 1988) or mixotrophic (Deng and

Argentine Natives Worthy to be Grown

Author: Graciela M. Barreiro, José Alberto Castillo, Eduardo Cobe

PP: 715

When talking about the "pampa" area of Argentina, we're describing an area between 34° and 38° South Latitude (SL), with a temperate climate, 32 inches of annual rainfall, an annual average temperature of 61F, highest season average temperature of 74F, and the lowest season average temperature of 46F.

Subtropical forest (Northeastern Argentina) is 25–28° SL, more than 50 inches of annual rainfall, annual average temperature 70F, highest season average temperature higher than 85F and lowest season average temperature higher than 60F.

Cloud forest (Northwestern Argentina), 24° to 27° SL, more than 40 inches of annual rainfall, annual average temperature 66F, highest season average temperature higher than 70F; lowest season average temperature higher than 50F.

Patagonic Andes forest, 39° to -43° SL, 32 to 120 inches of annual rainfall; annual average temperature 41 to 50F; highest season average temperature 48 to 61F; lowest season average temperature 33 to 43F.

Dicliptera tweediana
Los Verdes Prados — I.P.P.S. 1998 in Argentina

Author: Mike Evans

PP: 717

The I.P.P.S. motto, "To seek and to share," translates "Investigue y Comparte" in Spanish. This was certainly the attitude among 75 enthusiastic participants at the Second South America Area Meeting in Argentina, August 1998. The first Area Meeting was held in Buenos Aires in 1996 and served to "launch" I.P.P.S. among the growers and horticulturists of South America. In 1997, several members and others from South America got a glimpse of I.P.P.S. at the International Tour and Western Region Annual Meeting in Vancouver. This year's meeting was a continuation of our expansion plan.

The 3-day conference in Tucuman, a northern province in Argentina, included 14 presentations, two field trips, and a wonderful banquet at the closing. A 5-day postconference tour to the northern province of Salta into the desert valleys of the Andean foothills was absolutely perfect in everyway and made the whole experience "the trip of a lifetime."

Western Region I.P.P.S. has been actively involved with I.P.P.S.

Improving the In Vitro Culture of Geraldton Wax (Chamelaucium uncinatum)

Author: B.P. Croxford, C. Newell, J.A. Considine, G. Yan

PP: 124

Experiments were carried out to study the in vitro culture of Chamelaucium uncinatum hybrids. As the concentration of 6-benzylaminopurine (0 to 1.2 µM) in the medium increased, so did the number of lateral shoots (0 to 10.45). Rootstrike was shown to be significantly influenced by genotype and concentration of indole-3-butyric acid (0 to 10 µM) with 2.5 µM being optimal (93.3%). Transfer to Growool™ increased the survival rate of deflasked plantlets (97.1%) when compared to direct transfer to potting mix (51.4%).
Chelsea Flower Show 1997 — Planning and Perseverance

Author: Roger Fryer

PP: 128


The Chelsea Flower Show, London (officially The Royal Horticultural Society Great Spring Show), is the world's most prestigious horticultural event. Chelsea attracts 170,000 visitors from all around the world, and involves another 30,000 exhibitors, contractors, and officials.

Kings Park and Botanic Garden initiated the project as a tourism and promotional event for Western Australia. It became reality when support was promised from the Flower Export Council of Australia for cut flowers, and links to a week of Western Australia product in London (Good Living — Western Australia) by the Department of Commerce and Trade provided sponsorship from John Brown Engineering and British Airways.

Linda Lukies, of Flowers & Studio, Mosman Park was invited to join Roger Fryer, Curator — Technical Services, and Grady Brand, Curator — Collections and Displays, to implement the design. Using Western Australian wildflowers, the design showed a south west swamp in contrast to the arid

My Knowledge

Author: George Lullfitz

PP: 131

My knowledge has been acquired over many years by practical experience and with some assistance in the early years from special people who were pioneers in their field. Fred Lullfitz and Charles Gardiner were my earliest mentors. Later inspiration in nursery practices was gained from George Gay, Ben Swane, and Jack Pike. I have been associated with the growing and promotion of Western Australian native plants for 35 years and a member of the I.P.P.S. since 1972.

Through my knowledge and experience it has been possible to introduce new plant cultivars into local, national, and international horticulture with application to nurseries, landscaping, and floriculture (cut flowers). Some recognition for my contributions made to the WA flora and horticulture has been the inclusion of the name Lullfitz in the species of some recently named plants. These new selections have come about through:

  • Careful observation of plants in nurseries and local and natural environments,
  • Having the ability
Commercial Varieties of Olives

Author: Lui Bazzani

PP: 132

In the past few years there has been, and still is, an unprecedented demand for olive trees. Eager requests have been made for information with regard to the cultivation and other conditions necessary for the success of this crop. Invariably the choice of cultivars figures prominently amongst these questions. As growers of plants we know very well how important it is to make the right decision as far as the choice of cultivars is concerned, especially when we deal with commercial fruit crops. For the olive there is no exception. What the grower must be informed of before selecting any particular cultivar is the characteristics that the cultivar(s) must possess to achieve optimum production in the environment in which it is to be grown.
Asexual Reproduction of Wisteria by Root Cuttings

Author: Jennifer Gaiardo

PP: 136


Wisteria is a genus of woody, twining climbers belonging to the family Leguminosae. About six species are commonly cultivated. The best known are the Chinese (W. sinensis), the Japanese (W. floribunda), and the American (W. frutescens). Wisteria is commonly planted for training over trellises, doorways, or porches and also looks good as standards and in pots. They bear showy hanging racemes of pea-like blue, pink, white, or violet flowers during spring. Wisteria taxa are deciduous vines, some species produce canes up to 30 m in length, which are long enough to reach across a large house! The leaves are compound having 7 to 19 leaflets. The fruit is an elongated pod which is toxic. Wisteria species do well in most climates and should be planted in areas of good drainage. Mulch should be added to the soil in summer to prevent the soil from drying out.

The Challenges of Live Plant Exporting

Author: Peter Lewis

PP: 138

The Australia business sector is frequently being enticed to reap the financial rewards of product export to international destinations. However many potential "exporters" hesitate at the first phase of marketing due to the unforseen complexity of the challenge. Following is a summary, from personal experience, of the steps which were taken to develop a market for Australian-produced nursery products. Our number one marketing goal was to: BUILD GLOBAL RELATIONSHIPS BY GIVING CUSTOMERS WHAT THEY WANT
Back to Basics

Author: Clive Larkman

PP: 140

It is nearly 10 years since my first I.P.P.S. conference. Over that time a huge range of topics have been covered. Many papers have been on leading edge technology. Just as many have revisited some of the real basic principles of plant propagation. I have subtitled this paper "A Walk Through Larkman Nurseries". It outlines some of my philosophies on the basic requirements for running a successful propagation nursery.
Staying Alive and Using Potting Mix

Author: Greg McPhee

PP: 147

It's, amazing what a flamboyant headline can do. I titled my presentation "Staying Alive" after reading the headline "Potting Mix Killer Fear". Both are in some way a misrepresentation of the facts, while neither is factually wrong. The newspaper headline talks about a death where potting mix is implicated. If you read the copy it is not what you may be first lead to believe. Likewise the title of my paper has led some to believe that there is an immediate life threatening risk every time we use potting media. That is certainly not the case.

It is a case of illogical thinking like "have you stopped beating your wife". No matter how you answer you will be wrong. The questioner will be able to manipulate the situation to draw a conclusion that suits his/her purpose. It is alarmist, and so useful to attract peoples attention. But it does not give a true or complete story. Cynics here will I agree with the old journalist adage, "Never let the truth get in the way of a good story".

To get some

The Benefits of Trichoderma and Mycorrhizas in Growing Media

Author: Michael S.I. Brooke

PP: 151


Trichoderma and mycorrhizas have been present in natural plant ecosystems for millions of years. In its natural environment Trichoderma resides in the decaying plant litter and humus in the soil profile. McPherson and Hunt (1995) state: It acts as a mycoparasite or saprophyte to establish a niche for itself often at the expense of the fungi which it may use as an alternative source of nutrients. Trichoderma has been clearly demonstrated actively parasitising basidiomycete fungi including Rhizoctonia solani, Armillaria mellea, and Chondrostereum purpureum. Researchers in the U.S.A. have confirmed that Trichoderma does not interfere with either beneficial Pseudomonas soil bacteria nor does it upset the mycorrhizal fungi's assistance of nutrient uptake by plant roots.

Mycorrhiza is from Greek derivation "mycor" meaning fungus and "rhiza" meaning root, hence fungus - root (Jasper, 1997). Mycorrhizas form a very intimate association with plant roots of up to 80% of plant families

Why have Growing Trials for Plant Variety Rights?

Author: Chris Barnaby

PP: 57

The purpose of a Plant Variety Rights (PVR) growing trial is to establish whether or not a candidate variety meets the technical criteria of distinctness, uniformity, and stability (DUS) under local climatic conditions. The PVR Office must test these criteria and be satisfied that the variety is DUS before a grant of rights can be made. The growing trial may involve not only the candidate variety but also additional varieties for comparison and reference purposes. All plants are grown under the same cultural and environmental conditions. A growing trial may last from a few months to several years depending on the kind of plant. Growing trials are located in various sites around New Zealand depending on the species under test.
Low Pressure Fogging

Author: Vince Van Sant

PP: 154


Propagation is a very specialised area of growing plants. During this stage it is critical to have the right balance between temperature and moisture in the propagation medium. In climates with high temperature and low humidity, the propagator needs to take care in choosing equipment which will maintain optimum environmental conditions around the propagation bench. Some of the systems which apply and control moisture will be addressed in this paper.

Changes in Horticultural Training Delivery

Author: Christine Cooper

PP: 156

There are seven major changes that have impacted on horticultural training. Those of you who have either personally attended courses or have had staff members as apprentices, trainees, etc. during the past 10 years will be aware that there have been what seems like a never-ending stream of changes. We all know how difficult these can be to deal with. The bad news is that the changes haven't stopped yet. The good news is, and most of us would agree, that most of these changes have been for the better.
Production of Trees and Shrubs in Germany

Author: Donnchadh Mac Càrthaigh

PP: 161


The production of trees and shrubs in Germany goes back more than 200 years. Henne (1776) describes his experience in setting up a "large" nursery for fruit tree production — it covered approximately 2500 m2 . His nursery, in the Principality of Halberstadt, was one of the first private nurseries in Germany. All earlier nurseries belonged to the monasteries or to the rulers of that time. The industrial revolution led to a new bourgeois class. A businessman in Hamburg, Caspar Voght, employed James Booth, a Scotsman, to set up a nursery, which was to become the starting point of the biggest nursery stock growing area in the world — Pinneberg in Holstein (see Lösing, this volume).

At the end of the nineteenth century there were many large private nurseries. One of the biggest, in Berlin, was Späth which covered well over 100 ha. After World War II, nurseries were forced by the British authorities to reduce the area cultivated by each nursery

Nursery Production In Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany

Author: Heinrich Lösing

PP: 166


The history of hardy ornamental nursery stock production in Schleswig-Holstein goes back 200 years, when a local land owner, Casper Voght, invited James Booth, a Scotsman, to come and start a nursery north of Hamburg.

The area is now the largest for nursery stock production in Europe. Five hundred and fifty-three nurseries, covering a total of 4918 ha, are producing a wide range of forest liners, potted liners, fruit trees, trees, shrubs, conifers, understocks, and perennials. Most nurseries nowadays are located around the town of Pinneberg, 20 km north of Hamburg, the heart of the growing region. The average size of a nursery is about 10 ha. Nearly all of them are family owned.

The climate of the area is mild in winter and cool during the summer season, with a high humidity and quite a lot of natural rainfall. Temperatures can go down to -25C once in every 8 to 10 years but frost damage outside can occur up to the middle of May so plants up to about hardiness Zone 6 do

Work Organisation for Growers

Author: T. David Gilchrist

PP: 168


The subject of work organisation has been around for many years as nursery growers have tried to improve their production efficiency. Various methods of study have been tried in order to obtain that competitive edge. Some of these techniques have been adopted from tried and tested systems, as used by other industries with some success.

Today, as never before, these techniques are invaluable in the quest for efficiency in order to stay competitive. Growers and propagators need to identify how to get more from the working hour. Close examination of the tasks carried out on the nursery can often reveal possible areas for improvement.

For example, just how much time does a worker spend walking to perform a task? This can be a large portion of time which is not entirely productive. Only by detailed examination and study of the task can a decision be made as to how it can be improved. All tasks need to be considered because the nature of nursery work involves the repeated

Using In Vitro Propagation to Rejuvenate Difficult-to-Root Woody Plants

Author: Andreas Plietzsch, Hans-Heinrich Jesch

PP: 171


Juvenility of stockplants is one of the most important factors affecting rooting success in cutting propagation. Especially in difficult-to-root woody plant species, the ease of adventitious root formation declines with the age of the stockplant, resulting in a propagation problem. In that context, in vitro propagation has been used to overcome this problem by producing stock plants with juvenile-like characteristics (Hartmann et al., 1990).

At Humboldt University, various studies have been carried out during the last 10 years on in vitro propagation and the further growth and development of woody plants propagated by this technique. Initially the aims included methods and procedures for in vitro propagation, studies of physiological reactions of different genotypes in vitro and the development of a suitable transfer and acclimatisation system. Later, the use of the apparently changed juvenility status of in vitro-propagated plant species to improve cutting propagation

Rooting Regulators and Managed Cuttings Production

Author: Kees Eigenraam

PP: 177


There is an increasing demand for plants of better quality and uniformity with customers demanding large consignments of uniform, visually attractive, and high-quality plants. Such requirements can only be met by growers who start out with high-quality raw materials — and the raw materials include cuttings. However, many growers encounter problems during rooting and growing-on that are a result of using poor quality cuttings. From my experience as a technical adviser I would say that more than 50% of the growing problems growers experience come from poor uniformity and poorly rooted cuttings.

It is of incalculable value for growers to have confidence in their raw materials. This reliability applies, of course, to pots, growing media, fertilisers, greenhouses, climate-control systems, heating, and so on. These items are well organised at most nurseries and, probably because they have traditionally been supplied by third parties, and in a competitive market, quality and

Lime Tolerance in Rhododendron

Author: Amin Chaanin

PP: 180


High content of lime or bicarbonate (HCO3) in the soil inhibits plant growth in many economically important members of Ericaceae family including Rhododendron. Difficulties in cultivation could be reduced by selection of lime-tolerant genotypes. Such plants could increase the market for rhododendrons and have the environmental benefit of reducing the amount of peat used by the horticulture industry for commercial production of these plants.

For the cultivation of large-flowered rhododendron hybrids (elepidote rhododendrons), lime-tolerant rootstocks have been selected at the Institute for Ornamental Plant Breeding in Ahrensburg, Germany (Preil and Ebbinghaus, 1994). For the small-leaved rhododendrons (lepidote rhododendrons) cultivation problems exist still on lime soil. This paper summaries experiments at The Institute for Ornamental Plant Breeding, Ahrensburg, on the development of lime-tolerant rhododendrons, including investigation of the variability of lime

The Use of Jet 5 in Propagation

Author: P. Hingley, M.A. Pearce

PP: 183


The importance of good hygiene in reducing disease spread around the nursery, and particularly for propagation, is well established.

Jet 5 was introduced in 1993 and has become one of the leading disinfectants for use in the U.K. on and in glasshouse structures, benches, pots, trays, irrigation lines, capillary matting, sand beds, and equipment. A number of qualities make Jet 5 particularly suitable for use in nursery stock production. It is an equilibrated, stabilised formulation of peracetic acid. It is a highly effective disinfectant with broad spectrum activity against viruses, bacteria, fungi, yeast, algae, and their spores. It also has some reported activity against nematodes.

The activity against plant pathogens has been well established by various research workers including Loschenkohl et al. (1990), Kleinhempel et al. (1987), Secor (1988), Meier (1990), Linfield (1991), and Horticulture Research International Bulb Seminar (1996).

Under normal conditions a contact

Micropropagation of Decorative Plants in Bulgaria

Author: Ivan Iliev, Ivaylo Tsvetkov, Stojka Denkova, Ivan Chavdarov

PP: 188


The use of micropropagation for clonal multiplication of ornamental species in Bulgaria began about 25 years ago. The earliest research explored the seasonal regenerative ability of isolated meristem tissues from Dianthus (Izvorska and Kacharmazov, 1977) and the obtaining of haploid plants from Anemone hepatica (Georgiev and Chavdarov, 1974). The in vitro propagation of ornamental tree species started later, with the first successful cloning of Betula pendula through callus cultures, introduced from apical and leaf segments (Iliev and Chavdarov, 1988).

By the 1990s laboratories were being built and equipped for in vitro propagation of ornamental, forest, and agricultural species and by the middle of the decade there were six large-scale laboratories in different research institutes and two on farms. Each of them has a considerable industrial capacity; they were designed to satisfy not only Bulgarian needs, but those of countries of the former Soviet Union and other

Towards an In Vitro Propagation System for Astelia Species

Author: John Seelye, Garry Burge, Andrew Mullan, Ed Morgan

PP: 60


The genus, Astelia, which belongs to the Liliaceae family, comprises about 25 species confined mainly to the Pacific region. Thirteen of the species, including all species named in this research note, are endemic to New Zealand (Moore and Edgar, 1976). They are dioecious, mostly short-tufted terrestrial herbs without a significant stem, found from wet lowland to subalpine environments. Astelia taxa are generally untroubled by pests and diseases and do not have particular soil type requirements. Leaves mostly range in length from 10 to 80 cm, but some species have leaves up to 3 m long, e.g., A. chathamica, A. fragrans, and A. grandis have long and graceful arching leaves.

The horticultural potential of this genus is now beginning to be realised internationally and a few species, e.g., A. chathamica and A. nervosa, are being exported for their attractive foliage and for use as hardy amenity plants. Selections have been made from the two species, A. nervosa and A.

Management of Seed Dormancy in Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, and Prunus avium

Author: Andrea Nowag

PP: 192


This paper reviews results from one element of a 3-year European Union (EU) funded project, A multidisciplinary approach to the understanding and efficient handling of seed dormancy in tree species (October 1993 to October 1996). It included work in Denmark (coordinator, four research groups), Great Britain (two research groups), The Netherlands, France (five research groups), Spain, and Germany. It was divided into two groups. One group worked with applied technology and biology with regard to harvest, dormancy breaking treatments, and storage of pretreated seeds. The other studied the physiological and biochemical processes involved in seed dormancy. This review covers the main results of the applied group on the species Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, and Prunus avium.

Some 60% of the tree species from the temperate region, particularly hardwood species, have seeds which can be regarded as deeply dormant. This prevents germination until the dormancy has been

Factors Affecting Rooting of Difficult-to-Root Plants

Author: Wolfgang Spethmann

PP: 200


Millions of plants of easy-to-root species or cultivars are propagated by nurseries. Each nursery operates its own propagation environment, but all root the plants successfully. This indicates that for easy-to-root species the precise coordination of plant and culture factors is not necessary. A wide range of easy-to-root taxa can be rooted in the same propagation system with the same substrate and the same hormone treatment, often over a long period in the year.

In contrast, difficult-to-root plants need very precise coordination of plant and culture parameters. This is a problem because the whole environment in which cuttings are propagated involves up to 50 factors or conditions that could be altered, including cutting length, setting time, growth hormones, substrate, humidification, light, fertilisation, temperature, and so on. Many of these factors are interdependent (Spethmann, 1990). So it would be necessary to make hundreds of investigations with tens of

Clematis Production In Poland

Author: Szczepan Marczynski

PP: 206


The first clematis species to be grown in Poland were Clematis vitalba, C. recta, and C. alpina, which are all Polish native plants. Other species and cultivars have been produced in Poland since the 19th century.

Two Polish breeders working since the mid 1960s, Wladyslaw Noll and Brother Stefan Franczak, have bred more than 50 valuable cultivars of clematis, of which more than 20 have gained wide recognition internationally (a list at the end of this paper details the most valuable of their cultivars).

Despite the international success of these plants, the clematis was never very popular in Poland and it was not widely grown commercially. By the late 1980s, less than 100,000 clematis were produced annually, and only some 20 or 30 cultivars grown.

With the political and economic changes that have taken place in Poland since the early 1990s, nursery production has developed dramatically, and clematis production has increased. Currently, more than 100 species and cultivars

Developments in Magnolia Propagation

Author: Balazs Hamar

PP: 209

At Prenor Nurseries we were not obtaining a satisfactory yield of magnolias propagated by softwood cuttings (e.g., Magnolia ×soulangiana ‘Alexandrina’, M. liliiflora ‘Nigra’). A number of different treatments were tried on both the mother plants and the cuttings. The first trial involved girdling the mother plants with plastic bands or metal wires but this did not result in yield improvements. The second trial compared different concentrations of rooting hormone treatments and different sticking times. This showed that yields were improved when cuttings were taken as early as possible, then left in the plugs after rooting and not potted until the next spring. The plants are overwintered in greenhouses, and new shoots are used as cuttings, since most of them have to be removed at this time anyway. The rooting percentage of cuttings treated in this way was 95%.
Experiences With Recycling in Germany

Author: Ulrich Terhechte

PP: 212


Waste problems do not arise either in nature, nor in traditional rural human lifestyles as in both these situations all substances are more or less "recycled". Only industrialisation results in the creation of large quantities of waste materials for which there is no immediate use. Rising economic output has been accompanied by an increased consumption of materials and a constant growth of waste volumes. Up to the 1970s sufficient dump space was available to deal with these wastes. But the increasing volume of "garbage heaps", the shortage of resources, the risks, and harmful effects of inappropriately created landfills in connection with an increasing environmental awareness has pushed the waste problem into the centre of public interest.

At the start of the 1970s, waste policy in Germany was geared to environmentally compatible disposal. But from 1986 the Waste Management Act legally defined the order of priorities for dealing with waste as: (1) avoidance; (2) recycling,

Water Recycling in Container Plant Production

Author: Volker Behrens

PP: 215


Irrigation is no longer a matter of simply applying enough water to the crop. Modern nursery-stock growers have to be aware of the increasing amount of legislation and restrictions enacted to avoid pollution of the environment and to protect natural resources, such as soil and water. Nevertheless, to remain competitive in the market, growers have to produce plants of a high quality and at the lowest possible costs. Irrigation of container-grown plants now means the management of several interacting factors which range from the selection of water of the right quality for growing plants, to the safe and appropriate disposal or use of surplus water.

Use of Green Waste Composts in Media for Hardy Nursery Stock

Author: Heinrich Beltz

PP: 219


For more than 10 years, the Horticultural Research Institute Bad Zwischenahn has been conducting research on the use of green-waste composts in substrates for container plants. There are a number of advantages in using green-waste compost as an additive to peat substrates. These include: buffering of nutrients and pH, improvement of ecological image by reduction of organic waste, conservation of peat and, usually, a low price.

However, there are also some potential disadvantages, including: high pH, high salt content, decreased water capacity of the substrate, high volume weight, and increased transportation costs.

Great care is needed with the use of green waste composts in container substrates. It is absolutely necessary to analyse the compost before use and to keep the quality to a defined level. In Germany this is the nationally recognised "Gütebestimmungen für Substratkompost" (quality control for substrate-compost). Otherwise, plant damage — through nitrogen deficiency

Table Systems for Indoor and Outdoor Crops

Author: J. Richard Oliver

PP: 223


Anglia Alpines grows not only alpines and herbs but a wide range of other hardy and nonhardy ornamentals, including poinsettias as a cash crop for Christmas. We grow under glass, outside in the open, and under polythene. The majority of our pots are 9 cm and 13 cm, normally placed pot thick.

On Anglia Alpines' original site, plants were grown mainly outside and under polythene but after an exceptionally hard winter one year a decision was made to try a secondhand glasshouse which could be used to provide frost protection if necessary. The excellent quality and the speed of growth which resulted were amazing. Indeed, growth had to be controlled by ventilation or by moving the plants outside once the first plants were big enough.

By this time the increasing cost of labour — rising at a much greater rate than inflation — was also becoming a concern. A 25-m walk, carrying 2 trays of 18 plants of 9 cm, was costing about 0.25p per plant. To move 1 million plants only once would at

The Use of Paper Pots in Plant Production

Author: Hendrik Averdieck

PP: 225


The nursery stock industry has some 35 years of practical experience of growing woody plants in plastic pots. Research to develop alternative pots, made of biodegradable material, started approximately 15 years ago in response to: the increasing problem of waste disposal in industrialised countries; a growing ecological awareness; a rise in prices for plastic; and the possible technical advantages such pots might have for growers. From the many materials examined (paper, plant fibres from flax or coconut, wood fibres mixed with peat, laminated wood, biodegradable plastic), only a few satisfy the necessary requirements: sufficient durability; ability to be used in potting machines; and rotting ability after planting. This last point is particularly important for large volume pots. Two trials were undertaken to test the performance of 10-litre pots made of waste paper.

Paper Pots in Liner Production: Experiences with the Humulus Pot

Author: Günter Kordes

PP: 229


Humulus pots are produced from the same material as egg packaging which is 100% recycled paper. The measurements are 9 cm × 9 cm × 8 cm, the volume is 365 ml, and it is food-grade material.

At Kordes Jungpflanzen, trials were undertaken of all available biodegradable and recycled pots before selecting Humulus pots for the production of young plants in large quantities in 1992. Since then more than 12 million young plants grown in Humulus pots have been delivered to customers.

The reasons for choosing the Humulus pot were:

  • It is pressed twice for strength;
  • It runs well in the magazines of potting machines;
  • Its costs are reasonable.

When the new pot was introduced customers were deliberately not informed. This was so that they would receive an order in which some plants would be in Humulus pots and others in plastic pots which enabled them to see that growth was equally good in both cases.

A Botanical Visit to the Chatham Islands

Author: David Bull

PP: 64


Why am I talking to a group of plant propagators, more especially about the Chatham Islands? I thought that maybe because I too am interested in plants. Maybe also because the New Zealand Dendrology Group went over there to have their annual get-together and A.G.M. Who else goes there? Fishermen, perhaps bird lovers, and then there's that breed that want to be on Pitt Island to greet the new millennium. I will give you a very brief overview of the Chatham Islands and then talk about the plants.

Self-Steering Systems for Tractors and Other Cultivation Machinery

Author: Lutz Kohler

PP: 231


Most field-grown horticultural crops are planted in rows. Cultivation is necessary both between the rows and in the rows for weed control. On large nurseries cultivation is mechanised to a greater or lesser extent to keep labour costs as low as possible but in most cases cultivation relies on human input to steer the cultivation machinery. Existing mechanical aids to steering use feelers. The feeler often uses the crop plants themselves to provide a fixed reference point for the rows. Such feelers can only be used if the crop plants are robust as damage to stems may occur. However, feelers are used in fruit and vegetable production and also in hardy nursery stock production. Feeler-based systems are costly to purchase because they are produced in relatively low numbers. They also bear high maintenance costs. Steering guidance using satellite global positioning systems (GPS) (Fig. 1) is a more sophisticated option for the future. However, the level of accuracy is at

Within-Shoot Variation in Propagating Stem Cuttings of Two Eucalyptus globulus Interspecific Hybrids

Author: Philip J. Wilson, Joao A.A. Reis

PP: 238


Interspecific hybrids of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maid, propagated by stem cuttings, are planted widely in the tropics and subtropics, especially on sites which are marginal for the pure species. In Mediterranean regions, interspecific hybrids of E. globulus Labill. could become equally prominent on analogous sites where, for example, the pure species suffers from excessive winter cold or summer drought.

Clones of the hybrids E. viminalis × E. globulus (VG) and E. cypellocarpa × E. globulus (YG) were each multiplied from a seedling by stem cuttings. Within-shoot variation in the initial survival and rooting ability of the hybrid cuttings was investigated, and compared to that in E. globulus.

Personnel Management in Propagation: Report on the Mary Helliar Travel Scholarship 1997

Author: Annette Wickham

PP: 242


In all sectors of the European horticulture industry, including propagation, it is becoming more and more difficult to recruit good technical staff. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to ensure that, once an organisation has recruited good people, it is able to keep them. While much research has been undertaken on the technical aspects of plant propagation, little has been recorded about the equally important aspect of personnel management. This study attempts to redress this imbalance, by reporting the findings of a study trip to the West Coast of North America to look specifically at personnel management in propagation.

The report is based on a total of 15 nurseries visited, from Washington in the north, through Oregon, and finishing in California. The West Coast of North America was chosen because the nurseries there have an international reputation for technical innovation and are also very successful at implementing techniques in personnel management.

Plant Health Inspections During Active Growth

Author: Lars Hendriksen

PP: 249


In 1980 the well established Danish plant health control system became compulsory. This was a result of cooperation between growers, growers organisations, and the plant protection service, now known as the Danish Plant Directorate. Since 1980 all firms producing plants for sale — even small producers — must be officially registered by the Danish Plant Directorate, and must have their plants inspected and approved for sale.

Testing for Plant Diseases in Plant Material

Author: Ib G. Dinesen

PP: 252


Controlled propagation of quality plants and plant products requires more than horticultural excellence. It also requires tests or indexing procedures to ensure freedom from specific pests and pathogens.

Plant diseases can be controlled by chemicals, altering cultural conditions, breeding or engineering resistant cultivars, and by various administrative methods. One aspect of the administrative approach aims to exclude specific pests and pathogens. This exclusion of pests and pathogens can be of interest from:

  1. An international point of view and be done for example by prohibiting the movement of plants from an infested country into one which is free of the particular pest or disease.
  2. A national point of view and be done by preventing the spreading of a disease from one nursery to another.
  3. From the point of view of the single grower and be done for example by preventing the spreading of the disease from the production area to the propagation area. One should
Eradication of Fireblight in Norway 1986 to 1998

Author: Arild Sletten

PP: 255

Fireblight is a destructive disease of apple, pear, and some commonly grown ornamentals. Many countries have expended a great deal of resources attempting to eradicate the disease, but few have experienced success. Fireblight eradication in Norway during 1986–1998 is reviewed. Among important factors to avoid fireblight introduction and establishment are early detection of the disease and the establishment of a programme with the necessary statutory powers and resources to do surveys and remove diseased plants. Testing for latent infections in plant propagation could be of importance. Planting of highly susceptible host plants should be banned.
The Path to Better Plants

Author: Per Mortensen

PP: 259

The Danish Elite Plant Station produces healthy and true-to-type plant material, also called certified plant material, for commercial production of trees, shrubs, perennials, pot plants, and tree and soft fruits. The Danish Elite Plant Station was founded in 1980 by the Danish Association of Horticultural Producers and the Association of Danish Fruit Growers to meet a growing need for healthy and true-to-type plant material. The majority of products from the Danish Elite Plant Stations are labelled with the trademark Dafo, short for Dansk Forskning (Danish Science). This label serves as a guarantee for specific quality properties, variety trueness, and healthy plant material. More than 150 different taxa of Dafo landscape plants have been developed along with about 100 tree and soft fruit cultivars and 60 cultivars of pot plants.
Disease Free Plants as Basis for Production of Kalanchoe

Author: Knud Jepsen

PP: 261


Knud Jepsen A/S produces 15 million Kalanchoe pot plants per year. Production started in 1963 with an area of 1200 m2; current Kalanchoe production covers 80,000 m2 of glasshouses.

The nursery has a special section for development of new products where the tasks are: product development, new cultivar breeding, propagation of new clones, and improvement of existing cultivars. Last, but not least, stockplant material free of specific diseases is being produced in this section.

Use of Healthy Plant Material in Nurseries

Author: Svend S. Andersen

PP: 263


Use of healthy plant material in nurseries seems to be the most obvious and logic thing of all. Somehow, however, healthy plant material does not always move forward as fast as expected in the nursery business. The reasons for that are many and one should know these to help improve the situation.

There are advantages and disadvantages of using healthy plant material from a nursery operators point of view. The most important disadvantages are the direct investment of time and money and the problems with estimating future advantages. In addition, blocks may develop.

Virus Aspect in Malus and Prunus: Spreading of Viruses in the Field

Author: Arne Thomsen

PP: 264


When apple (Malus), plum (Prunus), and sour cherry (Prunus) are propagated there is a risk of disease transfer which could in time affect new clones. This is especially a problem with virus diseases. In the past the only way to avoid this problem was to select stockplants that were not infected.

Since the beginning of the 1950s research using heat treatment (thermotherapy) and meristem culture have shown that it is possible to remove viruses from plants. The combination of thermotherapy and meristem culture has proved to be more effective than either method alone. However, treated plants can not be declared virus free until a careful test has been carried out (Thomsen, 1987).

Virus diseases affecting fruit trees have many ways of spreading in nature. The most effective transmitter of these pathogens is the propagator by using virus infected material. In an orchard dissemination occurs by pollen, insect vectors, and natural root grafting.

A Review of Factors Influencing Organic Matter Decomposition and Nitrogen Immobilisation in Container Media

Author: Michael B. Thomas, Mervyn I. Spurway, Dean P.C. Stewart

PP: 66


The organic fraction of a potting mix is subject to decomposition and, therefore, is important in relation to nitrogen (N) immobilisation. Immobilisation of N is the reduction in plant available N (i.e., nitrate or ammonium) as a result of microorganisms using this N as they decompose organic materials with a high carbon (C) content. The organic portion of potting mixes usually constitutes 50% or more of their volume and in New Zealand Pinus radiata bark and sphagnum peat are the most commonly used materials. Pinus radiata sawdust, tree fern fibre, composted mixed vegetation, and other sources of bark or sawdust are also used on a limited scale. Spent mushroom compost has also been successfully used in bark and peat container media overseas although there have been reports of problems with its use in New Zealand. It has good physical properties and is a useful source of nutrients except for N (Henny, 1979; Chong et al., 1991; Chong and Rinker, 1994; Stewart et al.,

Prevention of Phytophthora Root Rot in Pot Plants, a Review

Author: Kirsten Thinggaard, Brita Toppe

PP: 266


In 1992 and 1994 experiments showed that the infection of Phytophthora cryptogea Pethybr. & Lafferty in Gerbera jamesonii L. plants grown in an ebb-and-flow system with recirculation of the nutrient solution could be reduced by increasing the soluble salt concentration measured as electrical conductivity (EC) in the nutrient solution (Thinggaard and Andersen, 1995). The results demonstrated that it was possible to reduce attacks of P. cryptogea considerably by elevation of the EC. A reduction in plant death from 74% at EC 1.5 mS cm-1 compared with 13% at EC 2.2 mS cm-1 was observed. The experiments also showed that P. cryptogea zoospores in the nutrient solution could cause an epidemic root attack.

What could be the reason for the decrease in root attacks? What elements in the fertilizer composition could harm the zoospores? It is generally known that copper ions have a fungitoxic effect on Phytophthora (Halsall, 1977; Kennedy and Erwin, 1961; Slade and Pegg, 1993).

Mass Propagation of Primula sieboldii Through Leaf Segment Culture

Author: T. Yamamoto, Y. Magaya, Y. Maruyama

PP: 269

The population of Primula sieboldii E. Morr., which is native to Japan, has been decreasing because of development in rural regions. The objective of this research was to develop a micropropagation method for the propagation of P. sieboldii to protect the plant from extinction. Young expanding leaves excised from donor plants grown in vivo were sterilized with 1% sodium hypochlorite solution, then divided into two halves, a distal half and a proximal one. The leaf segments were cultured on a modified MS medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) supplemented with benzyladenine (BA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in various concentrations and combinations. After 2 or 3 weeks of culture on medium supplemented with BA and NAA, small globular tissues, so-called nodules were formed at the cut surface of the leaf segments. Most of the shoots developed from the nodules. The formation of shoots on leaf segments from in vivo plants was most promoted on medium with 1 mg liter-1 BA and 0.1 mg
Low Irradiance Levels and the Rooting of Selected Easy- and Difficult-to-Root Tree Taxa

Author: Charles W. Heuser, James J. Zaczek

PP: 270


The formation of adventitious roots by stem cuttings depends upon a complex interaction between endogenous and environmental factors. Environmental factors, such as irradiance, can have dramatic effects on adventitious root formation. For example, etiolation and opaque banding treatments when applied to plants prior to cutting collection, can increase rooting success of difficult-to-root species (Maynard and Bassuk, 1986; Bollmark and Eliasson, 1990; Leakey and Storeton-West, 1992). However, etiolation can be difficult and costly to apply, especially on mature trees (Hecht-Poinar et al., 1989). Zaczek et al. (1997) in a recent study with typically difficult-to-root mature tree species demonstrated that rooting was significantly improved in some species by subjecting shoot cuttings to shade levels up to 97% of ambient irradiance in the rooting environment. Potentially, high levels of shade applied in the rooting environment could, therefore, prove to be useful in the

New Propagation Material to Substitute for the European (Wych) Elm

Author: Lars Westergaard

PP: 276


Ulmus glabra, European (wych) elm, has a range of qualities which make it a very valuable tree species in Denmark. First and foremost it is one of the most wind resistant tree species that we have. Furthermore it is easy to establish, robust, and responds well to pruning (Madsen, 1997). When Duch elm disease (DED) in the late 1970s became a reality in Denmark and damage began to show up as numerous dead trees in parks and urban areas a need for alternative trees arose either in the form of new tolerant Ulmus species, their hybrids, or in the form of trees from other genera.

The Plant Evaluation Program at Bernheim — New Direction

Author: M.V. Coggeshall

PP: 278


The Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest is located in north central Kentucky, approximately 35 km (Approx. 22miles) south of Louisville. The arboretum itself consists of 200 ha (Approx. 500acres), which is adjoined by an additional 5500 ha (Approx. 13,600acres) natural forest. As a result of its close proximity to the Louisville metropolitan area, Bernheim provides a wide array of recreational and educational opportunities to approximately 185,000 visitors per year.

Historically, Bernheim was founded in 1929 by a German immigrant named, Issac W. Bernheim, who wanted to provide a unique natural area and arboretum to the citizens of Kentucky. Design of the arboretum grounds was laid out by the Frederic Law Olmstead landscape design firm, and the arboretum was opened to the public in 1949. Since those early years, the arboretum's collections have increased to over 5200 accessions.

Nitrogen Leaching from Container-Grown Plants

Author: Conny Wang Hansen, Karen Koefoed Petersen

PP: 280


Production of high quality container-grown ornamentals requires adequate levels of nutrients and water in the container medium. Water use efficiency and nutrient leaching from agricultural and horticultural crops are attracting much attention because of exhaustion of drinking water resources and pollution. In order to reduce leaching of nutrients during production of ornamentals it is important to have a balance between the concentration of applied nutrients and nutrients in the root zone, which, at the same time restricts the leaching of nutrients to a minimum and supports optimal plant growth. In outdoor production systems in Denmark, container-grown ornamentals are often supplied with a high level of fertilizer. Part of the fertilizer is often mixed into the potting medium before transplanting, and part of it is supplied with the irrigation water in a non-recirculating system.

The objective of this study was to investigate how irrigation frequency and nutrient

Fiber Pots for the Ornamental Plant Industry

Author: David J. Beattie, Robert Berghage

PP: 284


Prior to World War II most nursery stock was marketed either balled in burlap (B&B) or bareroot. Now, more than half of all nursery plants sold in the U.S.A. are marketed in containers, and the percentage is slowly increasing. Plants are grown in containers for a variety of reasons; ease of shipping, attractive sales units, and some plants, like Pyracantha, Cotoneaster, and Viburnum that do not transplant well as field-grown plants, are ideally suited to container culture.

Container growing began after World War II when a California nurseryman tried to grow plants in used 1-gal juice cans. Plant growth was acceptable, but the insides of the cans corroded and, because the sides were not tapered, it was very difficult to remove the plant from the container. To correct this, the juice cans were placed in a press that tapered and crimped the sides (Fig. 1).

Determining Optimal Lifting Time of Nursery Stock for Cold Storage

Author: Peter Brønnum

PP: 289

As one of several physiological parameters for determining the optimal lifting time of barerooted nursery stock for cold storage, shoot and root frost hardiness were studied as possible indicators of storability. During autumn (September to December) 1997, seedlings of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) were lifted at 7 and 6 occasions, respectively. At each lifting date seedlings for field performance trials were stored at -1C, while samples of shoot tips and fine lateral roots were frozen to -5, -10, -15, and -20C. A control sample was kept at +2C. Frost damage was assessed using the electrolyte leakage method. In April 1998 the cold stored seedlings were planted for field performance. The results indicate that shoot frost hardiness at -20C can be used as an indicator of storability, and that the relatively simple, fast, and inexpensive method described here has potential for operational use in the future.
Welcome Address for the International Plant Propagators Meeting

Author: Tony DiGiovani

PP: 299

Good Morning and welcome to Toronto, Ontario, Canada, for the I.P.P.S. Eastern Region conference. My name is Tony DiGiovani, Executive Director of Landscape Ontario Horticultural Trades Association.

Landscape Ontario represents the horticultural industry. Our membership is comprised of over 1500 horticultural firms who derive their livelihood from working with plants. Many of our members are also members of your Society.

It gives me great pleasure as a representative of the horticultural industry to welcome you.

Your work confers immense and immeasurable benefit to the entire horticultural industry and even more to the generations of society whose quality of life is improved by the plant material that surrounds them. The work you do forms the root and is largely responsible for the growth and nurturing of an entire industry.

Plant propagation is one of those special pursuits which has been practiced since time began. It is only fitting that a special activity would attract special

Open-Roof Greenhouse

Author: John C. Bakker III

PP: 300


J. C. Bakker & Sons is a family-run nursery business which has been involved in the growing of woody ornamentals for 50 years. As the business grew throughout the years, our propagation facilities also grew. Most of our facilities consisted of Quonset-style polyhouses which were about 18 ft × 100 ft. As we required more space we would construct more of these type of houses.

Although the results we were getting in these structures were satisfactory, there were a number of problems or difficulties we encountered. The work environment was not always pleasant. The people in the houses were often cramped between wet poly and plants. Caring for the plants and the maintenance of the houses started to become a large task. Each house had its own heating and cooling system and its own controls and alarm systems.

Another difficulty we had was all the plant material growing in the house eventually had to be moved outdoors for growing on. The plants, having been grown under poly, had

The Development of a Ginseng Industry in New Zealand

Author: J.M. Follett

PP: 72


Ginseng, a perennial herb belonging to the Aralia family, is cultivated for its highly valued root although all parts of the plant can be used. In New Zealand, two economically important species are currently being established for commercial production: they are American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and Korean ginseng (P. ginseng). Both are commonly used as medicinal herbs and are marketed to the world through Hong Kong trading companies (But et al., 1995).

In the late 1980s, ginseng was identified as a potential new crop for New Zealand (Douglas, 1991). As a result a comprehensive research programme was established and ginseng was promoted to the primary industries as a possible new crop.

Tissue Culture for Beginners: What It Takes to Setup a Lab

Author: Ron Amos

PP: 303


Tissue culture is a valuable tool for plant propagators. In tissue culture bud or other plant tissue is used to produce a large number of genetically identical uniform plants. This procedure is often used when other methods of propagation are unsuccessful. Setting up a plant tissue culture lab requires a basic knowledge of plant culture procedures. There are a number of reference books useful for plant culture procedure and lab design. Plants From Test Tubes by Lydiane Kyte and John Kleyn is very helpful and gives a great deal of information for setting up a successful lab.

A laboratory generally consists of three components; media preparation, culture transfer, and culture growth. Lab design is as unique as the individual setting up the lab. A lab can be a number of rooms or one large room. It is important that the lab is isolated from other operations and traffic to keep contamination at a minimum. The lab needs adequate heating and cooling so windows and doors can be

Production of Magnolia kobus and Magnolia virginiana

Author: Ronald L. Saur

PP: 305


Our primary soil types are Chillum silt loam and Matapeake silt loam. Both of these soils are slightly sloping and well drained. These have a topsoil of 8 to 10 inches thick of moderate fertility. The available water holding capacity is high at 2 to 4 inches. The subsoil is a 20-inch-thick brown silt loam. These are underlain with a yellow-red gravelly sandy clay loam 60 inches thick. We chose this site because in the early spring and late winter we can harvest our crops on a timely basis. This site also provides adequate air drainage for early and late frosts as we are on high ground.

Magnolia Propagation at Arcola Creek Nursery

Author: Victor Swanson

PP: 308


I begin my presentation with a quote from the last I.P.P.S. newsletter written by this year's program chairman, Mr. Tim Brotzman, who also happens to be a good friend and neighbor. In his comments regarding this year's program, he wrote, and I quote, "Fundamentally, propagators (and nursery operators) have been inventive, practical, and blessed with keen powers of observation, skills that become well honed by time and experience." After considerable thought, I concluded that "yes", I can relate to that.

Tim's quote brought a remembrance of one of my first experiences in the nursery industry which involved the calibrating and mixing of water soluble fertilizer. Upon completion of my task, my employer, a highly respected nurseryman and plantsman of that day, and I believe a charter member of this organization, carefully inspected my work by a rather unusual method of scrutiny. For his final approval, he reached down, cupped his hands in the tank of fertilizer and slowly raised

Sorting Out the Yellow Magnolias

Author: Charles Tubesing

PP: 312


Magnolia ×soulangiana remains the most popular tree magnolia in the northern part of eastern North America in spite of the fact that its flowers appear early enough in the season that they are frequently ruined by frost. Seeking to produce magnolias that would bloom late enough to escape most frosts, plant breeders at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden began a hybridization program in the 1950s that involved the use of a native species, M. acuminata, that normally begins to bloom in late May/early June in our area. The results of this work, repeated and built upon by other breeders, yielded a new class of yellow-flowered magnolias that begin to bloom in late April or later, evading the frosts and providing a reliable annual display.

Magnolia acuminata in its most common form bears mostly greenish flowers with some yellow on the inner tepals. Remarkably, when used as a seed parent, it transmits mostly yellow pigment to the flowers of its offspring. Magnolia acuminata ‘Golden Glow’,

Pot-In-Pot Tree Production for Municipal Use

Author: Mark W. Bricker

PP: 314


The City of Columbus, Ohio comprises 135,000 acres: 2050 miles of streets and 202 parks (7000 acres). In 1996, an independent consulting firm accomplished a street tree inventory, concluding that the City had 85,000 trees and slots for 45,000 additional trees.

At that time, the City of Columbus made a commitment, and in my opinion, undertook the most aggressive approach to planting street trees in the United States. In the fall of 1999, the Columbus Ohio Municipal Nursery will be in full production planting 4000 container-grown and 1000 bareroot trees along the streets and in the parks each year.

Successful Production of Difficult-to-Transplant Native Woody Trees

Author: Peter J. White

PP: 316

For almost 10 years our nursery in southern Ohio has been working on developing a system to produce difficult-to-transplant or taprooted trees so they can be successfully moved to their final destination. The production system we are using today is allowing us to grow and successfully transplant many of the more beautiful natives in a short period of time which here-to-for were nearly impossible to field transplant successfully or at least at any successful ratio that made it a profitable venture. This system has allowed us to go from a seed, to a containerized liner, to a 2-inch caliper tree in 42 months and only 24 to 26 months are spent in the ground.

The demand for trees and shrubs and, in particular indigenous natives, has been extremely high the last couple of years. Our tiny nursery is receiving orders and request in the numbers of thousands. The last 50 to 75 years showed a marked decline in the use of native trees I suspect because of their notorious reputation for transplant

Genotypic and Environmental Effects on Root Cutting Propagation of Pulmonaria Species and Cultivars

Author: Mark Bridgen, Janet Todd

PP: 319


Root cutting propagation is the technique in which plant roots are severed from the mother plant, cut into individual pieces, placed under moist, warm conditions, and allowed to develop into new plants after the formation of adventitious buds and roots. The propagation of ornamentals by root cuttings is an economical and efficient technique for some plant species. However, it is a method that is underutilized and should be given greater attention by plant propagators. The increasing costs of cutting production make it worthwhile for propagators to evaluate root cutting propagation as a possible means to increase plant production and decrease costs.

Root cutting propagation has several advantages: it can be carried out with unskilled labor, provides a fast way to multiply clonal material, requires limited propagation facilities, is useful for some plants where other methods have not been found satisfactory, is useful when only one sex of a dioecious plant is required,

Propagating Difficult-to-root Roses from Root Pieces

Author: Robert Osborne

PP: 324


At the Corn Hill Nursery we have been producing roses from softwood cuttings since 1982. Because of our extreme winter conditions, we grow only the very hardiest types. We have also concentrated on producing those roses that possess good resistance to fungal diseases such as blackspot and mildew. We grow many of the older garden roses including Rosa ×alba, R. gallica, and R. spinosissima (syn. R. pimpinellifolia) taxa. However, the bulk of our inventory consists of R. rugosa hybrids and modern shrubs, particularly the roses developed by Agriculture Canada called the Explorer Series, which have used genes from R. kordesii, among others.

We take our softwood cuttings as soon as flower bud formation commences in early summer. Cuttings for the day are collected in early morning and stuck in a perlite and peat rooting medium (4 : 1, v/v), usually with a Seradix #2 IBA treatment. Cuttings are then placed in houses that are humidified with a high-pressure fog system. The

Propagation of Phlox paniculata From Root Cuttings

Author: Joerg Leiss

PP: 326

Phlox paniculata cultivars can be propagated by division and top and root cuttings. There is, however, a reason to use root cuttings over the other two methods and that is leaf nematodes and fungal diseases are propagated with the propagule while root cuttings are generally free of these pests.
Asexual Propagation of Anemonella, Dodecatheon, and Trillium

Author: Leo Blanchette

PP: 327


North American wildflowers are becoming increasingly popular with our customers. We try to offer named cultivars, double forms, and good color forms. Each cultivar must have uniform color, size, and form. Vegetative propagation is necessary since seed produces wide variation. Like most nurseries, Blanchette Gardens tries to grow plants to blooming size in the shortest possible time. This paper outlines a few methods, and how I have developed them to asexually produce flowering-size Anemonella, Dodecatheon, and Trillium fairly quickly.

Use of Beneficial Microorganisms for Improvement in Sustainable Monoculture of Plants

Author: John S. Hunt, David S.J. Gale

PP: 75


The introduction of bark- or peat-based soilless media in the commercial nursery industry has resulted in a more consistent medium for establishment, growth, and sale of most species of plants. Provided the medium has been supplemented with adequate nutrients and appropriate chemical pesticides are readily available, plant growth can be initiated and maintained economically. However, the microflora of the medium will seldom approach that of "healthy" soil in either magnitude or diversity of soil microorganisms. In many cases soilless media may be severely depleted of beneficial microorganisms extenuating the need for regular application of pesticides to control potentially harmful soil pathogens. In the past decade an increasing awareness has occurred of the important role beneficial microorganisms can play in commercial horticulture, provided sympathetic management practices are implemented for their establishment and maintenance. During this time the number of

Commercial Propagation of Trillium

Author: Stephanie Solt

PP: 329


Trillium has a bad reputation. There's a prevailing sentiment among propagators that growing them from seed is difficult. I spoke to a number of you at the Eastern Region meeting in Newport, Rhode Island, in the fall of 1997 and you said, "it takes too long to grow to a saleable size and ties up valuable space in the nursery". When I mentioned vegetative propagation you said, "it doesn't produce the numbers necessary to be worth the effort". I also heard "there's very little demand." Finally, I got the feeling that you thought that no one was propagating trillium commercially.

Trillium doesn't deserve a bad reputation. Growing them from seed is not difficult. They can be brought to a saleable size in a relatively small amount of space in less time than you think. Vegetative propagation is a good method for certain species as well as cultivars and the double-flowered trilliums. A growing number of wholesale nurseries have made the commitment to propagate trilliums. They can't keep up

Commercial Propagation of Hardy Geraniums: Techniques and Recommendations for Successful Production

Author: Beth Weller

PP: 333


My first introduction to hardy geraniums was as a child. In rich woodlands, meadows, and along roadsides in New England, the wild geranium or Geranium maculatum is abundant and a great treat for a small child to come across. It was not until my college years, many bouquets later, did I actually realize what a geranium was. The hardy geraniums, most commonly know as crane's bill geraniums, I will talk about today are members of the Geraniaceae family. I want to stress these are not the common tropical Pelargonium species, more commonly called geraniums, and that are frequently referred to in most literature as geraniums.

Hardy geraniums range in size from 4-inch specimens of G. dalmaticum to G. psilostemon that can reach 48 inches. The name, crane's bill, comes from the look of the enlarged seed pods, before they coil away from each other and disperse their seed. At White Flower Farm, I have seen an increased interest in geraniums, by our customers, in the past 5 years

Top Grafting of Salix

Author: Szczepan Marczynski

PP: 337


Miniature standard willows are attractive small trees, and they lend themselves well to smaller gardens. Because of the varying forms of crowns, as well as, the shape and color of the leaves and flowers (catkins), these miniatures can be part of garden landscape throughout the year.

Small willow standards are produced by top-working the attractive shrubby willows. Most often scions are used from the creeping mountain taxa, and they are grafted onto strong growing willows. Grafted standards have an overall height between 30 and 170 cm and a small crown.

Creating Separate Environments to Improve the Grafting Success of Specific Evergreen Species

Author: Brian M. Decker

PP: 342


This paper will discuss in layman's practical terms the separate environments we try to create when grafting junipers, spruce, chamaecyparis, and pines. I will also touch on the similar environments we create to root hardwood cuttings of broadleaf and conifer species.

My observations come from many years experience grafting conifers in the central Ohio region. I am grafting during dormant winter months in double-poly greenhouses. I will be making observations based on practical experience, not extensive testing by scientific methods.

I want to thank you for allowing me to speak on the subject of creating separate environments for grafting selected species of conifers. This fancy title in essence means, "how do we treat grafted species differently after grafting?" I will discuss the different methods used based on the different species. I have learned the painful lesson that I am not nearly as smart as I used to think I was when I was younger. My recommendations are

Summer Grafting

Author: W. David Thompson

PP: 345

The topic I would like to present today is grafting deciduous plants during the peak summer growth period. Typically grafting is completed during the dormant season; however, we have found that in Maryland USDA Zone 6, that grafting deciduous plants during the summer season can be quite successful. As we prepare to go into the next millennium we are forced to improve the use of our time and dollars spent. We also must strive to increase the quality of plants we produce and how we produce them. Our summer grafting program began 20 years ago, working only with Acer palmatum cultivars. As time went on we improved our methods of grafting and our quest for the optimum time to graft. Though there are many taxa that can be grafted during the summer, I would like to concentrate mainly on the following groups: A. palmatum, Hamamelis, Cercidiphyllum, and Cornus kousa.

Acer palmatum cultivars are one of the easier groups with which to work. Timing is not as limited as one might think.

Embryo Excision for Accelerated and Uniform Germination of Hard-to-Germinate Maple Species

Author: Susan J. Wiegrefe

PP: 347


Virtually all fall-maturing maple seeds exhibit some form of dormancy (Browse, 1979). In one respect, this is advantageous for the seeds as it prevents them from germinating at a time when climatic conditions are unfavorable for plant growth and survival. During dormancy, however, the seeds are vulnerable to a number of factors which can reduce their viability: desiccation, fungal infection, and insect and rodent damage. The longer the seeds are in this vulnerable condition, the greater the chance of loss to these factors. The extended period of time some maple species must be exposed to either natural conditions or various stratification treatments in order to overcome dormancy (as long as 3 years for some trifoliate maples; Fordham, 1969) contributes to an already low germination rate in those species. Finding alternate ways to overcome dormancy in difficult-to-germinate species can reduce frustration for hobbyists, and can make additional species feasible for

Perennial Propagation in the New Millennium

Author: John Valleau

PP: 353


I chose this topic with a sense of excitement, panic, and frustration because in many ways the propagation and production of certain herbaceous perennials on a commercial scale has changed radically in the last 30 years, yet at the same time the methods used for the vast majority of taxa has not really changed much at all. As we approach this upcoming turn of the century mark, knowing the rate of technological change in the world today, one wonders just what we might be growing, say, 20 years from now. Gazing into the future is not an option for the vast majority of us here today, yet it is worth looking at where we have come from and pondering what may lie ahead in the propagation of such a diverse and exciting group of garden plants.

Without a doubt, one of the most revolutionary developments in commercial plant production in past decades was the invention of the plug flat. Hardly a nursery exists that does not make use of these handy things for the production of

Seed Viability: Procedures Used by Professional Seed Analysts

Author: Virginia Hildebrandt

PP: 357


The establishment of plugs or trays with 100% stand establishment saves bench space, increases the profit/area ratio of the plants, and saves labor costs for refilling skips. I hope this talk can provide information on the determination of accurate germination testing, vigor testing, and a mathematical expression of seed vigor.

Soil Organic Matter Quality and Induced Resistance of Plants to Root Rots and Foliar Diseases

Author: Harry A.J. Hoitink, Matthew S. Krause, David Y. Han, Tom J.J De

PP: 361


Nurserymen and landscapers have recognized for centuries that composts can improve plant health. Many factors must be controlled, however, to obtain consistent effects. The degree to which the raw material is heated during composting affects the potential for killing pathogens and weed seeds. The degree to which the organic matter has been stabilized plays a role in disease suppression and plant growth. Furthermore, composts do not always become colonized naturally by beneficial microorganisms and this can lead to failures. Finally, the concentration of salts and the quantity of nitrogen released by composts plays a role in disease suppression. These factors are briefly reviewed here. We also provide some general information on composts widely available to the nursery industry and how best to use such products.

Most beneficial effects induced by composts are due to the activities of microorganisms in the rhizosphere, the area of soil immediately surrounding the roots

Review of Scion/understock Compatibilities

Author: Bill Intven

PP: 368

Compatibility is an absolute must for grafting to be successful; however, it is my modest opinion that nursery people know so much about compatibility that they would not be at great risk in this point. However, there are instances where success depends on certain factors other than grafting on the wrong understock under particular circumstances. For years we grafted Viburnum ×carlcephalum on V. lantana where the compatibility is very good.

If this grafting takes place on the rootneck or hypocotyl of V. dentatum, there is a great risk that there will be so many suckers on the understock that the shrub is worthless. While V. dentatum is very compatible with V. ×carlcephalum it is also excessively stoloniferous and the resulting shrub will be worthless. Now we use summer-rooted cuttings of V. dentatum with only one node at the top. After rooting we cut the understock off below the two-budded node and graft on the rooted part. Thus there is no node left on the understock and there

Hastening and Controlling Flowering in Metrosideros

Author: John Clemens, Paula E. Jameson, Robert E. Henriod

PP: 80

When cultivars of Metrosideros are micropropagated, plants typically revert to the juvenile phase, becoming bushy and hard to handle in the nursery, and bearing leaves similar to those of young seedlings. Critically, this rejuvenation also causes micropropagated plants to lose the ability to flower. We are exploring the potential of the traditional techniques of restricting roots, and training and restricting the shoots to hasten maturation in rejuvenated plants. Shoot restriction was more effective than root restriction in returning plants to the adult leaf morphology. We are also monitoring shoot growth and floral development in mature M. excelsus plants growing in the field to determine how the timing of apical shoot abscission affects the ability of buds to be receptive to signals that will initiate floral development.
Review of Scion/Understock Compatibilities Results at Okken Nurseries

Author: George Okken

PP: 368

The following are success rates for a range of conifer grafts which we have observed at our nursery.
A Summary of Graft Compatibility from the records of the Arnold Arboretum

Author: John H. Alexander III

PP: 371

Selecting compatible stock/scion combinations is a challenge for all of us who propagate by grafting. I have frequently referred to Volume 18 of our Proceedings (Nelson, 1968) which contains an extensive list of successful combinations. Sometimes I am asked to graft plants for which I can find no recommended understock listed there or in any other text. At The Arnold Arboretum, we keep detailed propagation records yet these too may not provide the needed information. My standard procedure then is to determine what available understock is most closely related to that scion. I refer first to the Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs Hardy in North America (Rehder, 1940). Taxa listed in this manual are arranged in systematic order. Those considered to be most closely related are grouped together in the text. I simply select as an understock a species that is available and is closely related to the scion. Current taxonomic studies based on DNA more clearly define systematic
Wells for Ideas

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 384

A brief history is in order to fully understand how innovative ideas come about and from what spring they emerge. First is an absolute love and admiration for the business of plant production and for plant life in general. For me plant production and exploration are the most fascinating of all endeavors. This thought is echoed by Dr. J. Artie Browing, noted plant pathologist of Texas A&M. He said "For a plantsman or agriculturist to experience a different climate, environment, and flora is an educational bonus and a justification in itself". I would echo his comments ten fold and fully support his suggestion that education is the gateway towards innovation (Browing, 1998).

I came into horticulture through the back door having a need for a job to finish my degree in biology. The back door was a job in the propagation and production department of a large wholesale nursery in Tampa, Florida. From there I moved on to nurseries in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. Combine those years

The Use of Slow-release Potassium Fertilizer for Hardening off of Holly Liners

Author: Egidius Stroombeek

PP: 388

Since the early 1970s, Roemer Nursery has been a licensed grower of the "blue hollies", the Ilex ×meserveae series. They have become through the years, our main crop.

We decided from the beginning, to grow the holly liners that were earmarked for 3- and 5-gal containers in field beds, rather than shifting them up through our standard container-production program. We plant the potted cuttings rather late during early July. By mid-August these young plants will be growing vigorously and actually accelerate their growth considerably during September into early October. We are located a mile from the south shore of Lake Erie. The lake is the most shallow of the Great Lakes with an average maximum temperature of 78F in August. Current temperature is 74F. This by the way, is one of the reasons many nurseries got established in what is sometimes referred to as the "banana belt of Ohio".

However, from the middle of October, we can expect killing frosts that raise havoc with tender holly

Common/Uncommon Sense Ideas: From Concept to Reality

Author: Calvin Chong

PP: 389


My job as a scientist deals with new ideas and innovations. Turning them into practical reality for the nursery industry is a continuing challenge. My investigations cover a broad range of topics — from propagation, container and shade tree culture, composts and wastes in potting mixes to nutrition and nutrient recycling (Chong and Hamersma, 1995). Most ideas I pursue originate initially from industry members who, to a large extent, provide financial and other support needed to pursue them.

In the few minutes allotted to me, I will introduce two innovations and outline how I improved them. Also, I will describe some unproven, untried or "wild" ones that continue to intrigue me and make me continue to think about them. While many ideas seem to appear by "accident", accidents only happen to those in a position for them to happen to. In other words, the process of thinking about an idea or problem makes it more likely to come up with new ones.

Innovation in: Nursery Wagons, Overwintering Techniques, and a Potting Machine

Author: Peter Hillen

PP: 393

There are three items I would like to show you this morning.
  1. Wagon for the Container Field.
  2. We have about 20 wagons, 7 ft wide and 16 ft long, single axle for easy backing up. Each is fitted with a quick hitch for fast hook up and disconnecting. The underside of the wagons have a steel frame with a wooden deck. Each costs about $400 in materials and 1 day's labor.
  3. Minimum Heat for Polyhouses.
  4. For minimum-heat polyhouses we use regular coldframes, with 2 layers of poly and inflate it. For heat we purchase used natural gas furnaces from a local heating contractor. A 120,000 BTU furnace will give sufficient heat for a 20 ft × 200 ft house. The idea is to keep the worst cold off and we don't have the hassle of thermoblankets. Heating cost on average per year are $400 for approximately 8000, 2-gal containers. We put an 18-inch polytube through the center of the house. It is installed the first week of December and removed the beginning of March.
  5. Portable Potting Machine.
  6. All
Simultaneous Top Grafting of Salix Standards and Hardwood Rooting of the Understock

Author: John Langendoen

PP: 394


The nursery production of top-grafted standards is one of the most expensive production processes that a nursery incurs. Producing a quality understock may take up to 3 years and it could be another 2 years before a top-grafted standard is saleable after chip budding or grafting.

In a constant effort to reduce production time we have been able to produce top-grafted Salix taxa in only 1 to 2 years with excellent results.

Gisela® Series: Dwarfing Cherry Rootstocks

Author: Leno Mori

PP: 396

The Gisela® series of rootstocks are important dwarfing cherry rootstocks for sweet cherry and have limited use for sour cherry and Japanese flowering cherries. The initial crosses that lead to the development of these rootstocks started in the early 1960s at Justus Liebig University in Giessen, Germany. The Gisela® series of rootstocks have gone through extensive testing in Germany where they first originated and in Michigan at Hilltop Orchards and Nurseries Inc. for almost 20 years. In addition, for the past 10 years tests as part of the North Central 140 trials (NC-140 rootstock trial plantings) have occurred at 16 locations throughout the U.S.A. and Canada.

The Gisela® rootstocks produce sweet cherry trees which are 45% to 70% or 80% the size of those on mazzard understock. Scions grafted on Gisela® understocks are very precocious and crop in their 3rd year with full crops in the 4th. Typically, in a side-by-side comparison, sweet cherry on Gisela® 12 rootstock will have a

Innovation in Perennial Propagation

Author: Kees Govers

PP: 397

Propagation of perennials by seed is nothing new or innovative. Plugs and plug seeders are not new to the industry either. Many of the large annual plug growing operations around the nation seed bedding plants with highly sophisticated seeding lines. They typically contain automatic flat fillers, dibblers, high-speed drum seeders, watering tunnels, conveyors and sometimes, robots to move plug trays to the bench or the cracking chamber. This equipment is very well suited to bedding material as trays are seeded in lots of several hundred trays. These systems are very fast, very accurate, very sophisticated, and very expensive to set up. Anywhere from $30,000 for the seeder alone to a few hundred thousand for the entire set-up. Only a few perennial plug producers, that I am aware of, utilize this equipment.

If you are a smaller plug producer and typically seed in lots of 5 to 50 plug flats per taxa, the expense of such an elaborate seeding set-up can usually not be justified.

Innovation in Tree Processing

Author: Todd Baker

PP: 399


Baker's Nursery is a wholesale grower of ornamental deciduous trees and shrubs, cultivating 200,000 pieces of nursery stock, and harvesting and shipping over 25,000 trees and shrubs annually. The bulk of our production is shipped bareroot, without attached soil. Baker's Nursery ships fresh, no stock is retained in cold storage facilities. Trees and shrubs are harvested and shipped immediately during spring and fall digging periods. This restrictive processing schedule leaves us at the whim of nature necessitating an efficient and innovative system of harvesting and processing our nursery stock. The two components of this system, harvesting and processing, will be examined in terms of the modifications made to the equipment and facilities we use and the savings and benefits resulting from these modifications.