Volume 44

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Waste Management in Horticulture—The Global Perspective

Author: Anthony (Tony) G. Biggs

PP: 41


Waste management could easily be the most significant issue confronting world horticulture by the year 2000. Some countries are already addressing the problems of pollution of waterways, leaching of nutrients, and recycling of packaging materials, but there will be increasing pressures for horticulturists to manage all the waste from production systems.

Society is demanding that the responsibility for disposing of waste must lie with those who create it and that waste products must not be dumped into the environment.

Words which are sometimes interchangeable with "waste" include "refuse","superfluous", "rejected", and "worn out". Waste products can be defined as "materials produced or used in a process, that are discarded during or on the completion of that process."

This paper reviews some of the horticultural waste problems around the world and indicates strategies in use or being developed to address the problems.

Propagation of Xerophytic Plants

Author: Joe McAuliffe

PP: 78


The nursery and landscaping industries are always looking for new and exciting plant species. There is great economic potential in relatively unknown Australian plants from which these industries could benefit. In my opinion native Australian plants have not been explored to their full potential.

I am in charge of the permanent pot collection at the Australian National Botanic Gardens. It comprises Australian native plants that are either difficult to grow in cultivation or have a conservation status. While these plants have proven difficult to grow in Canberra's heavy clay soils, they perform very well when containerised. The plants in the collection represent different ecological areas from within Australia, which include plants from temperate to arid environments. The plants in this collection are genetically identical to wild or naturally occurring plant populations.

In total the collection holds 378 different taxa. Included in the collection are small trees, shrubs,

Eucalyptus Long-Horned Borer (Phoracantha semipunctata)

Author: John Kabashima, Linda Farrar

PP: 368

Eucalyptus long-horned borer (ELB) was first reported in 1984. This beetle is a devastating pest of Eucalyptus plants. ELB is a native of Australia. In Australia, the beetle appears to be controlled by a complex of natural enemies that attack all life stages.

Systemic insecticides are not effective and contact insecticides are not practical because of the size of the trees. Therefore, cultural controls, such as, proper irrigation and pruning practices and the planting of resistant species are the recommended control strategies (Table 1).

State-of-the-Art Research and Demonstration Greenhouse

Author: John Kabashirna, Linda Farrar, Suzy Sakaske

PP: 369

In April of 1994, volunteers from University of California Cooperative Extension, the nursery industry, Orange Coast College, and the greenhouse manufacturing and supply industry helped remodel an existing greenhouse at the South Coast Research and Extension Center (SCREC). State-of-the-art features include: rolling benches, ebb and flo benches, positive-pressure coolers, and starfin radiant heat systems.

Complex experiments, such as the effects of different fertilizer rates and irrigation regimes on the growth of New Guinea impatiens, are made possible by the computer software's capabilities to monitor, log, and control all aspects of the greenhouse and its environment. The QCOM computer uses inputs from various sensors to operate the cooling, heating, and retractable shade systems. Tensiometers are used to monitor soil moisture tension, and sensors monitor light, humidity, and temperature.

The Center for Urban Horticulture: An Overview of its Academic and Affiliated Programs

Author: Barbara Selemon

PP: 369

The poster lists the various facilities and the significance each provides to the Center for Urban Horticulture, a division of the University of Washington Campus in Seattle.

Facilities listed:

Douglas Research Conservatory
   Ecological Research Area
   Entry Shade Garden
   Marilou Goodfellow Grove
   Elisabeth C. Miller Horticultural Library
   Issacson Hall
   Merrill Hall
   Northwest Horticultural Society Conference Hall Otis
   Douglas Hyde Hortorium

The Center offers academic programs to undergraduate as well as graduate students. Pamphlets provide specific information on the following programs:

   Bachelor of Science (B.S.)    Forest Resources (Urban Forestry)
   Master of Forest Resources  Urban Horticulture
   Master of Science                 Urban Horticulture
   Doctor of Philosophy           Urban Horticulture
Myoga Ginger Production in New Zealand

Author: J.M. Follett

PP: 373


Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) is a member of the ginger family and a native of Japan. It is grown commercially for the spring shoots and subterranean flower buds it produces in autumn. Myoga flower buds (often called hanamyoga) are used in soups, tempera, pickled, and as a spice with tofu or bean curd. The young shoots are used mainly for making soups (Follett, 1986). Production is strongly seasonal and as a result high quality shoots and flower buds supplied out of season can fetch high prices on the Japanese markets. In order to take advantage of these high prices, a number of New Zealand growers are in the early stages of myoga production. Their first commercial crop of flower buds will be available for export in late Summer and early Autumn 1995. Currently there is little interest in the production of myoga shoots for export.

Closed, Plant-Production System—Update

Author: Bruce Briggs, James L. Green

PP: 376

Since initiation of the research in 1990, diverse plants from 42 families (68 genera, 72 species) have been grown in the closed, insulated pallet system (CIPS). Greater growth has occurred in various embodiments of the plant-driven CIPS than in the open container system (OCS) control. Branching of roots, and of shoots of some plants, is greater in CIPS. Phytophthora cinnamomi, a plant root pathogen, does not spread from inoculated to noninoculated root pouches in CIPS. In the greenhouse, tomato plants are more tolerant of saline irrigation water, and production is more profitable in CIPS than in the OCS.
Selection and Evaluation of Native Plants

Author: Cam Simpson, Mary Duncan

PP: 380

New Zealand's nursery people have the good fortune to be surrounded with a unique and varied flora. This flora, separated by the oceans for the past 100 million years, give this country a distinct character and a wealth of material to be discovered and enjoyed. This uniqueness is in part a result of the vast range of landscapes and climates—from alpine tundras to swamps, volcanic landscapes to humid coastlines—found in a relatively small country. Just imagine the awe and wonder those first botanists felt as they ventured through kahikatea forests (Dacrycarpus dacrydioides syn. Podocarpus dacrydioides), discovered the pohutukawa (Metrosideros excelsus), nikau palms (Rhopalostylis sapida), and the hundreds of other species that make up our landscape. Apart from attempting to keep body and soul together, and perhaps earning a living, native-plant nursery people can find much of their motivation from the joys of handling such a marvelous and unique range of plants. Propagation of these
Propagation of Radiata Pine Plants for Plantation Forestry

Author: M.I. Menzies

PP: 382

Bareroot seedlings of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) are the main planting stock used in New Zealand at present. These are produced using open-pollinated seed from clonal seed orchards. Control-pollinated seed of the best progeny-tested families is also now being commercially produced. However, since this seed is expensive and still in short supply, vegetative propagation methods have been developed to amplify available planting stock.

Many tree nurseries grow rooted cuttings, either using juvenile stool beds to raise cutting material or making field collections of cuttings from young plantation trees. Stool-bed cuttings are more expensive to produce than seedlings, if the cost of seed is ignored, because of the cost of maintaining the stool beds and of manual collection and setting. Currently, however, the high cost of control-pollinated seed makes stool-bed cuttings cheaper to produce than seedlings. Improvements in stem form have been demonstrated with cuttings compared with similar genetic quality seedlings, particularly with field-collected cuttings planted on fertile farm sites. This has created a demand for field-collected cuttings, even though they cost nearly double the price of stool-bed cuttings

One New Zealand company is using micropropagation to produce plantlets for establishing clonal plantations, and embryogenesis technology is being evaluated by another company. Currently, these technologies are expensive, but can give high multiplication rates, and also have the advantage that juvenile can be maintained by cold storage or cryopreservation during clonal field testing.

Integration of these tree improvement and propagation technologies is allowing New Zealand to advance towards clonal forestry with radiata pine.

Fire and Its Use in Propagation—Inferno Combustion

Author: Terry C. Hatch

PP: 389

The process of burning off areas of scrub to promote regrowth has been practiced for a great number of years by "farmers", if they can be called that, in some of the warmer, drier regions of the world. Indeed, it has been taken to the extreme by Australians and Californians, if the news is anything to go by. This practice is also used to clean fields of daffodil foliage and other bulb crops; indeed, I burn off the dead foliage from my nerines each autumn before they start into growth.

I have noticed, as well as other observers, that there is a pronounced effect on the way that the bulbs flower following the fire. There are many references to very good flowering seasons after bush fires, especially in the bulb rich areas of South Africa.

The effects of clearing all shrub and other plant materials must be to let light in, plus the ash will be adding potash which bulbs enjoy. In addition, there must be chemicals in the smoke which trigger dormant bulbs into growth. Many bulbs will have been

Record Keeping, An Aid To Quality

Author: Ann Fair

PP: 390


What is the meaning of Quality? the Collins Dictionary defines it as—"the basic character or nature of something" and the Oxford Dictionary defines it as—"A degree or level of excellence".

Why do we strive for quality?: "job satisfaction" (pride in our work) and "to succeed in business" (quality is producing what the customers want and when they want it) are two reasons.

Whatever the reason, keeping track of quality control is important, and records are necessary.

We at Omahanui Native Plants have devised a system which I wish to share with you, and which may help in your recording system.

All seeds and plant material brought into the nursery are entered in a register by using the last two digits of the year collected, followed by a numeral, e.g., 94103. This registration number follows the plant throughout its cycle in the nursery on the back of each label. Our registration book has headings for "species", "date collected", and "where collected and by whom". This could be used for plants

Breeding of New Zealand Native Plants at the Auckland Regional Botanic Gardens—Commercial Potential of our Native Flora

Author: Jack Hobbs

PP: 394

Hebes possess many characteristics which make them desirable garden subjects, including abundant flowering, attractive foliage, and ease of propagation. Despite the horticultural merit of Hebe, and a vast gene pool with which to work, little breeding work has been undertaken to produce improved hybrids.

A Hebe breeding programme commenced at the Auckland Regional Botanic Gardens in 1982 with the objective of producing outstanding cultivars of superior appearance and improved garden performance. The susceptibility of hebes to disease, particularly in nursery conditions, has restricted their commercial potential. Initially our main aim was to produce hybrids with reduced susceptibility to septoria leaf spot (Septoria exotica) and downy mildew (Peronospora grisea). Hebe speciosa, one of our most important parents as the source of bright floral colours, is susceptible to both of these diseases. Species which generally remain free from such disease problems (e.g., H. diosmifolia) were

Overcoming Poor Germination in Australian Daisies

Author: Kerry V. Bunker

PP: 81


The evaluation and commercialisation of many Australian daisies has been limited by poor germination (Schaumann et al., 1987). Achenes of the Asteraceae consist of an embryo encased in a membranous coat (testa) which is surrounded by a fibrous outer coat (pericarp) which often has pappus hairs to aid dispersal. Both the testa and the pericarp have been identified as barriers to germination with exotic members of the Asteraceae. Removal of these layers, puncturing them, or soaking seeds in various solutions such as gibberellic acid are all reported to improve germination although the result is generally species specific (Atwater, 1980; Taylorson and Hendricks, 1977). Investigations were conducted to test the effects of scarification of the testa and pericarp, gibberellic acid, and light, on germination and dormancy of selected Australian daisies.

The Influence of Nutrition on Foliage Growth and Tip Necrosis on Container-grown Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Ellwood's Gold’

Author: Michael B. Thomas, Brent A.J. Richards, Mervyn I. Spurway

PP: 396

Container-grown Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ‘Ellwood's Gold’ were evaluated for the influence of N, P, and liming levels on tip necrosis and growth responses using a three factor central composite design. Plant height, spread, and foliar dry matter production increased strongly with added N and P, particularly when both were added at high levels. Liming depressed growth while tip necrosis primarily occurred at low or nil N, especially when combined with nil P. Rates equivalent per month to 80 to 90 g N m-3 and 40 g P m-3, along with nil or low lime (pH 4.5) were recommended to maximise growth rates and minimise tip necrosis.
Root Control Systems

Author: Joanne Boyd

PP: 404

There are three pot designs which I wish to discuss; they are the Root Maker Pot, the SpringRing™ container, and the root control bag.

When I stumbled across a book entitled Production of Landscape Plants by Dr. Carl Whitcomb, I was excited about his concepts. He had done research on this very problem and had come up with some new ideas in pot designs. His work centred around the concept of air root pruning to produce trees with a high number of lateral roots originating from the root stem interface, and no root circling.

He came up with the Root Maker Pot which provides a means of air root pruning the taproot, thus stimulating secondary root growth and creating a fibrous root system without any circling.

It is recommended that direct seeding or cuttings only be employed when growing a tree, as pricking out can create kinking in roots which negates any further efforts at creating a well developed root system. Once a well-structured, fibrous root system has been initiated with the Root

The Role of Botanical Gardens in the Green Decade

Author: Chris Graham

PP: 405

Botanical Gardens are generally not well understood places. While most everyone would know that they have something to do with plants, few would know what is done and why. Perhaps this is because over the past four centuries the term has, at times somewhat cavalierly, been used to describe a broad spectrum of public and private institutions. At one end are the classic botanical gardens like Kew, Missouri, Sydney, New York, and Berlin with clearly defined missions, policies, and programmes. At the opposite extremity are a host of gardens which may be superb ornamentally, but which are devoid of any meaningful scientific or educational programming, and often lack even basic plant documentation and labelling systems. The legitimacy of the latter could be argued, but since there are no enforceable rules governing what can or cannot be called a botanical garden, such discussions are probably best left to coffee or cocktail time. Even among the acknowledged great botanical gardens there are
Cutting Propagation of Juniperus procumbens ‘Nana’

Author: Gene Blythe

PP: 409

IBA at 8000 ppm was shown to produce the best rooting percentage with cuttings of Juniperus procumbens ‘Nana’ in a series of experiments which evaluated IBA, NAA, IBA + NAA combinations, and KIB. The practice of resetting unrooted, callused cuttings at the time of potting rooted cuttings, allowed the majority of the cutting crop to remain in the cutting flats for a shorter period of time without effecting the overall rooting percentage.
Vegetative Propagation of Gevuina avellana Mol.

Author: Brent McKenzie

PP: 413


Gevuina avellana Mol. belongs to the Protaceae, and is related to Macadamia, producing similar nuts with edible kernels. This plant is a source of cosmetic oils and the timber is used for joinery and turning. Several common names are used for the plant, including Chilean nut and Chile hazel. The latter gives rise to the mistaken belief that the plant belongs to the genus Corylus. Gevuina avellana grows to form an attractive native tree in the Valdivian forest in Chile. It is known in Great Britain as an ornamental and is grown in the milder areas of Cornwall and Devon.

Our research shows that this plant has been grown in New Zealand since the 1940s, although poor types with small nuts have meant that it has only been grown as an ornamental. Tolerance of frost to -8C makes G. avellana hardier than Macadamia, thus making it of interest as a potential new crop for New Zealand. Roasted nuts are sold in Chile at prices of about NZ$7 per kg (Crop & Food Research, 1993, Halloy et

Control of Woody Root Systems using Copper Compounds

Author: Ian Gordon, Robert Hayes

PP: 416


In the past 30 years in Australia there has been a major swing away from the production of woody plants as a field production system in favour of producing plants in containers. A container production system has many operational and marketing advantages over field production. The climate of Australia is more conducive to the production of woody plants in containers. The lack of any real winter dormancy over most of the country is a major factor in this country-wide trend to container plant production with woody plants.

Propagation and Production of Ilex species in the Southeastern United States

Author: James Berry

PP: 425

Cultivars of Ilex crenata, I. cornuta, I. vomitoria, and Ilex hybrids comprise a very significant product group at Flowerwood Nursery Inc. of Mobile, Alabama, U.S.A. Flowerwood Nursery production facilities are located in Florida, Georgia, and Alabama. Consisting of 600 acres of field production and 600 acres of container production, Flowerwood Nursery serves independent garden centers, landscape contractors, and rewholesalers in the Southwest, Deep South, Southeast, and Mid-Atlantic areas of the United States. It is the largest wholesale nursery in the south. Evergreen rhododendrons and evergreen Ilex are the two predominant plant groups of that area. Our company produces 40 cultivars of hollies. The major three cultivars; are I. cornuta ‘Dwarf Burford’, I. crenata ‘Compacta’ and I. vomitoria ‘Nana’, dwarf Yaupon holly We will easily produce and sell 300,000 units of each primarily in 7-inch and 11-inch containers. Each cultivar is sold in smaller and larger sizes but in smaller quantities.
Micropropagation of Luculia Species

Author: Jennifer L. Oliphant

PP: 430

A micropropagation method is described for selected forms of Luculia grandifolia, L. gratissima ‘Rosea’, and L. pinceana. Explants were taken in spring from new shoot growth. Continuous subcultures were necessary to reduce the leaf size, with the removal of the apical shoot to promote axillary branching. Murashige and Skoog medium with 3 to 10 mg litre-1 benzylaminopurine was used for shoot proliferation. Rooting was achieved using half strength MS with 1 mg litre-1 indolebutyric acid or 1 mg litre-1 naphthalacetic acid. Plants flowered in the second year after deflasking.
Propagation of Corynocarpus laevigatus and Cultivars

Author: Jim Rumbal

PP: 431


The family Corynocarpaceae is a small genus of a few species native to New Zealand, the New Hebrides, and the New Caledonia region of the south-west Pacific.

Corynocarpus laevigatus, the New Zealand species, is a medium-sized tree, maturing at 10 to 15 m tall. It grows in lowland and coastal forests throughout the North Island and in coastal forests as far south as Jacksons Bay on the South Island's west coast, Banks Peninsula in the east, and the Chatham and Kermadec Islands.

Corynocarpus laevigatus, known as karaka by the Maori people and called the New Zealand laurel by early European settlers, has handsome obovate to oblong, rich-green glossy foliage, with entire margins. Small five-parted greenish-white flowers, arranged in terminal panicles, develop into 3-to-4-cm fleshy drupes, bright orange when ripe, with a nut-like seed. This was an important food source for the Maori people, who planted the karaka near their habitations. The fruits are extremely toxic and a great deal

Perennials with Potential

Author: Ian Duncalf

PP: 434

Acanthus. A genus of great shade-loving plants that have been used extensively for landscaping. Newer forms, such as the golden-foliaged ‘Hollards Gold’, and some of the smaller species, such as A. hungaricus, offer many opportunities for more widespread growing and greater garden planting.

Alstroemeria. Long known and grown as a long-lasting cut-flower, the development of more compact and dwarfer forms offer the opportunities for much wider garden and pot use. The success in tissue culture of selected cloning, and the recognition of the potential of alstroemerias as pot or garden plants by the cutflower breeders, will see a great increase in their popularity. The first of these new cultivars are starting to appear from both overseas and local sources now, and are likely to appear in a steady stream over the next few years. The introduction of some of the more hardy species into breeding programmes will also see the range of garden uses of Alstroemeria increase.

Aquilegia. Charming plants

Commercial Marcotting of Fruit Trees

Author: Peter J. Young

PP: 86


Marcotting is the internationally recognised horticultural term for aerial layering, originating from the French word "marcotte"; that is "to aerial layer". This method of vegetative propagation is widely used throughout the world to clonally propagate fruit trees which are difficult to reproduce by any other means, e.g., lychee and longan. It is also an easy way to propagate most types of plants without the need for specialised equipment, growing houses, or skills.

Marcotting uses large amounts of propagation material and is labour intensive. Both these factors limit the commercial use of this propagation technique when compared to the more cost-effective methods used in the highly competitive nursery industry. It can also produce a weak-rooted plant that is prone to lodging if the root system is not properly trained when the marcot is removed from the parent tree and grown on.

Increased Rooting in Difficult-To-Root Hibiscus Cuttings by Heat Shock

Author: Bjarke Veierskov

PP: 438

Treating the bases of cuttings with hot water (40C = 104F) for 15 to 60 min dramatically increased the rooting of difficult-to-root hibiscus cuttings.
Growing Heaths and Heathers in Europe

Author: David Hutchinson

PP: 442


Through the ages heaths (Erica) and heathers (Calluna) have long been associated with humans from the thatching of dwelling houses, the making of ropes and pegs, the construction of roads, and dyeing of cloth to the recognised observation that some of the finest brands of whisky obtain their most delicate piquancy from heather in Scotland. However, heaths and heathers also have immense ornamental value: flowering year-round in a range of colours; having attractive spring foliage with red, white, or cream tips; and having golden, silver-grey, or dark and soft green foliage which, in the autumn, gives rise to fiery red hues. Garden cultivars have arisen through collection from the wild which in turn have given rise to sports and some cultivars have also arisen from breeding. Breeding and introduction of new cultivars have given rise to over 700 different types being grown and catalogued in Europe.

In the last 20 years, the professional growing of heaths and heathers has


PP: 447

The Nineteenth Meeting of the Southern Region of the International Plant Propagators' Society convened at 7:45 AM at the Georgia Center for Continuining Education at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, with President Dick Marshall presiding.
Incentive Pay In Propagation

Author: Buddy Motley

PP: 449


Most Nursery Jobs are on Incentive Pay. At our nursery, most jobs in propagation from taking cuttings to filling flats are on incentive pay or piecework. The incentive rates we pay vary from one job to the next. The rates are determined by using a study for distance and time. Each job has a job code number and a job code rate which it pays.

Incentive pay can increase your production as much as 300%. This must also be closely supervised for quality and consistency. On average, our crews usually consist of 10 workers.

Over 250 Job Descriptions In Plant Propagation. We have over 250 job descriptions just in propagation. For taking cuttings, each plant cultivar may have a different incentive pay scale. There are three different rates in taking cuttings: low, average, and high. This is determined by the availability of cuttings on each plant group.

Computer Software Systems. Our general operating software is maintained inhouse. Software for inventory, production planning,

Propagation of Camellias by Cuttings

Author: Bill Barr

PP: 454


Camellias are relatively easy to root. Our biggest problem is obtaining enough cutting wood. This is especially true with the Camellia japonica cultivars. At Hines Nurseries, Houston facility, we grow camellia cultivars of C. japonica, C. sasanqua, and C. hiemalis, and selected hybrids.

Perennial Propagation And Production On The Texas Gulf Coast

Author: Scott G. Reeves

PP: 457


Customer demand for herbaceous perennial color has steadily increased over the past few years, and will continue to increase as customers become educated in the landscape attributes perennials have to offer. Methods of propagating, producing, and marketing herbaceous perennials are as diverse as the number of species and cultivars available. It is the intent of this paper to present methods of propagation, production, and marketing of herbaceous perennials in the Gulf Coast region of Texas.

Enhanced Propagation of Viviparous Water Lilies

Author: Michael E. Kane

PP: 461


The market for water garden plants has recently become one of the fastest growing facets of environmental horticulture. The most popular flowering water garden plants include species and hybrids of both tropical and temperate (hardy) water lilies (Nymphaea). Reliance on inefficient vegetative propagation techniques, requirements for large production space, and extended time periods to produce a salable plant limit the producers' ability to rapidly adjust to changes in market demand. Consequently, demand for specific water lily cultivars, particularly new introductions, can exceed growers#39; production capacity. Unlike other horticultural crops, information on the specific cultural requirements for efficient nursery production of water garden plants is lacking (Kelley and Frett, 1986; Brumback, 1990).

Clearly, more efficient propagation techniques for water garden plant production, including use of micropropagation techniques, are needed to enable aquatic plant nurseries to

The World of Hosta Breeding

Author: Tony Avent

PP: 466


Of the 1050 Hosta cultivars registered by the American Hosta Society through 1994, nearly half were hybridized by bees, yet the introducers of these cultivars dared to call themselves hybridizers. To date, there are only 12 serious hosta breeders in the U.S.A.

While controlled crosses are the norm with iris and daylilies, such is not the case with hostas—yet! Surely, with controlled breeding efforts, we could far surpass the random efforts of our winged friends.

Propagation of Wetland Species

Author: Cliff Street

PP: 468


Getting Started with Wetland Species. Three years ago I started researching constructed wetlands. Today, Flowerwood Liners is producing over 50 species and more than 200 cultivars of aquatic plants. From water lilies to native grasses, we are developing our own aquatic program to go along with our standard woody ornamental and liner production materials. Most of these plants are easily produced but there are few written resources on how to propagate these plants. Mike Kane (see the Comb. Proc. Intl. Plant Prop. Soc., Vol. 44) reported on the progress being made in tissue culture production of aquatics. In this paper, I will present a general overview of the uses and propagation techniques of some of the other wetland species.

The Three Distinct Markets for Aquatic Plants. There are many uses for both native and exotic aquatic plants. There are three distinct markets for aquatics: mitigation or restoration, constructed wetlands, and ornamental water gardens. Each market

Plant Growth Regulators: Potential Uses in the Nursery Industry

Author: Gary J. Keever

PP: 474


Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are chemical compounds which alter plant growth and development through hormonal action and are annually used on over 2.5 million acres worldwide on a diversity of crops (Thomas, 1982). Most applications of PGRs are to high-value horticultural crops to enhance crop quality or aid in more efficient crop management (Gianfagna, 1987). Specific uses of PGRs on floricultural crops include: promotion and retardation of growth, promotion of flower initiation and development, inhibition or promotion of flower and/or foliage abscission, and enhancement of lateral shoot development (Larson, 1985). While PGRs are used less extensively in the nursery industry (except for auxins, which increase root development in the propagation of cuttings), greater potential benefits may occur with their wider use. Possible uses in the nursery industry include: growth suppression to produce a plant form for a given market or to reduce the frequency of pruning, and

The Development of a Program of Commercial Production of Staghorns from Plant Tissue Culture

Author: Ross A. Bourne

PP: 90


Staghorns (Platycerium superbum) are naturally found in subtropical to tropical areas of Australia, Singapore, and the Philippines. They are a magnificent epiphyte and are sought after to such an extent that they are becoming rare due to the removal of their natural habitat through logging, clearing, and bush harvesting operations. This species has a single growing point and therefore cannot be propagated using off shoots as is the case with the elkhorn (P. bifurcatum). Spores are produced annually by mature specimens. Production from spores in a greenhouse requires a time frame of 2 to 4 years and is considered to be an unreliable method of propagation.

No references can be found for in vitro production of staghorns. Previous work with P. stemaria (Beauvois) Desu by Hennen and Sheehan (1978) produced 300 explants in a 16-month period using the shoot tip from a mature plant. By comparison there are numerous references to in vitro production of (P. bifurcatum) where 150

Handling Bareroot Tree Whips at Greenleaf Nursery

Author: Stanley Foster

PP: 478


High quality, vigorous-growing bareroot tree whips (1.2 to 1.8 m (4 to 6 ft) tall ornamental tree liners) are the ultimate goal of the Hidden Lake Division of Greenleaf Nursery.

All of the time and effort of producing such a plant can quickly turn into a total loss if the tree whips are not properly cared for during the digging and storing process. What may seem like a small, minor procedure can quickly become vitally important to the quality and survival of the plant—particularly since the exposed root system of a dug, bareroot whip is very vulnerable to the environment.

The Digging Process. The initial steps in preparing for the actual digging process include:

  1. Removing any suckers.
  2. Grading the tree tops for size and quality.
  3. Marking the base of the trunk with paint for later identification.

Any tree that does not have a satisfactory top is simply broken off and destroyed, so it cannot be sold. Also at this time, any trees that are to be sold are tagged with a

Quality Control Through Liner Improvement

Author: Ben F. Davis II, Brian Chojnacki

PP: 480

Evaluation of Programs to Improve Quality. In 1992, American Nursery Products, Inc. began work on several programs to make much needed improvements in the quality of the plants that the company produced at its Oklahoma and Alabama nurseries. In addition, the timing of maturity of some crops needed to be changed so that plants reached marketable size at the time when our customers wanted them. In many cases, plants needed a flush of growth in the spring to be of salable quality, which would not normally occur until after the spring shipping season was largely finished. Since quality starts with liner production, we began new programs on several fronts to improve liner quality and crop timing.

Production of 1-Gal Conifers. This paper deals with one particular aspect of our quality improvement program, the production of 1-gal conifers of various Juniperus and Thuja species. This program was initiated simultaneously at our nurseries in Cherokee County, Alabama, and in Cherokee County,

Pushing Plants for Maximum Versus Optimum Growth: Beware of Imbalances

Author: Bryson L. James

PP: 483

Balanced Nutrition. "Balanced nutrition" is the key to good plant health and vigor. Growers and researchers have tried for years to quantify and identify exactly what it takes to maximize plant growth. Not everyone agrees on the proper quantity or source of plant nutrients that is best for maximizing plant growth, but everyone does seem to agree that a proper balance of all plant nutrients is essential.

When trying to maximize growth, especially with high N soluble fertilizers, K frequently becomes deficient. When "pushing" with N and K, Ca and/or Mg, and S deficiencies usually occur. It is extremely difficult to keep all nutrients in balance when trying to maximize growth.

Problems with Trying to Maximize Growth. Fortunately, plants can and do survive on less than perfectly balanced nutrition. My purpose today is to alert you to problems associated with trying to maximize growth and to suggest guidelines for optimum nutrition. Problems caused by imbalances/deficiencies are not worth

Water Analysis: Test Kits for Nurseries

Author: Steven E. Newman

PP: 485


Water is a primary consideration for growing any crop. Plants are 95% water by weight and it is considered to be the universal solvent. Water carries all the essential elements taken up by plants from the soil and is responsible for the transport of nutrients and metabolites throughout the plant. Often times we concern ourselves with water quantity and not as much on the quality of the water supply. The objectives of this paper are to compare some laboratory water analyses with an inexpensive test kit for on-site testing of water.

Water Quality. Many Colorado greenhouse and nursery growers use mountain water, which is nearly pure, and many growers out on the prairie use water from shallow wells, 10.7 to 15 m (35 to 50 ft), and that water is often alkaline. The water quality from these wells also varies considerably during the year depending upon aquifer depletion from irrigation as well as the use of anhydrous ammonia on area farms. Water used in irrigation of nursery

Herbicide-Coated Fertilizers and Weed Control in Container-grown Ornamentals

Author: Cynthia K. Crossan, Charles H. Gilliam, Gary J. Keever, D. Josep

PP: 489

Herbicide-coated and herbicide-blended fertilizers were evaluated for weed control and plant injury with container-grown Gardenia augusta ‘August Beauty’(syn. G. jasminoides ‘August Beauty’). Herbicide-coated and ?blended fertilizers provided similar weed control, compared to standard broadcast or spray application of herbicides. In a second experiment, herbicide-coated Nursery Special 12–6–6, Osmocote 17–7–12, and Polyon 24–4–12 provided effective prostrate spurge and crabgrass control.
Field Evaluation of Two Cultivars of Red Maple From Tissue-Culture and Budded Origins

Author: J.L. Sibley, D.J. Eakes, C.H. Gilliam, W.A. Dozier Jr

PP: 494

The growth of tissue cultured and budded trees of ‘Franksred’ and ‘October Glory’ red maple (Acer rubrum L.) were compared in a field study. There were no differences between the two propagation methods for the two cultivars in annual mean height or increase in stem caliper, fall coloration, or gas exchange. No rapid screening technique for early detection of bud union failure was developed.
Stem Cutting Propagation of Bottlebrush Buckeye

Author: Richard E. Bir, H.W. Barnes

PP: 499

Stem cuttings of bottlebrush buckeye (Aesculus parviflora) were taken monthly after vegetative bud break from May through July. Cuttings taken in May rooted at significantly higher percentages than those taken in July. In another study, cuttings were treated with 0, 2500, 5000, and 10,000 ppm IBA in solvents of water, propylene glycol, or ethanol. Cuttings treated with ethanol had the greatest number of roots per rooted cutting and the highest rooting percentage. The best treatment producing the highest rooting percentage was 2500 ppm IBA in ethanol.
Micropropagation: The Ultimate Power Tool

Author: Gayle R.L. Suttle

PP: 503


The concept of micropropagation as a power tool is, admittedly, a silly idea, but consider the similarities. We like power tools because they get the job done quickly, save labor and resources, yield more uniform results, and generally make projects easier.

Power tools can also do great damage if you are not careful. The key to taking advantage of power tools is in learning how to use them properly to maximize results and minimize risks. One must wear the proper safety equipment. One must also continuously screen the procedures and product to make sure that what you end up with meets or exceeds the industry standards for quality. After all, only quality sells long term.

The following are some of the ways micropropagation is being used effectively in the trade today. Many of the largest and smallest nurseries in the United States view micropropagation as an essential power tool which helps them maintain their competitive edge by growing better plants more efficiently.

Evaluating New Cultivars and Getting Them Into Production

Author: Jim Berry

PP: 506


Humankind first used plant material ornamentally when Eve employed a strategically placed fig leaf I can imagine that Adam thought that the fig leaf was too large; Eve insisted that the fig leaf was appropriate and Adam immediately began seeking out a new and improved smaller leaf cultivar of fig for Eve. Adam and Eve in the evaluation of their new selection began the ongoing process of seeking out plant types that offer greater value than their previously used selection.

New Cultivar Development. The emphasis our industry is placing on new cultivar development and introduction is in response to the buying public's demand for new styles, and our own realization as horticulturists that we need to produce better cultivars. Seed companies spend huge amounts of time and resources on breeding programs to develop new flower colors, plant and flower forms, heat and cold tolerance, higher yields, disease and insect resistance, and many other characteristics that both improve

Propagating from the Keyboard

Author: Charles H. Parkerson

PP: 512


We spend a lot of time and effort trying to keep everyone informed as to what is happening on the nursery. Try as we might, the lack of communication among divisions was creating problems that at times were frustrating. In an effort to improve this communication gap we developed a series of computer programs that have helped us in streamlining our production at Lancaster Farms. Our computer system is an Intel based PC using a UNIX operating system with programs written in Microsoft® Basic.

Developing a Computer Program for Propagation. The following discussion is a description of our simple propagation program. The first step is setting up a logical set of standard assumptions:

  1. Number of pots/trays per house or m2 (ft2).
  2. Production area.
  3. Ingredients and their proportions used in standard mixes.
  4. Rooting hormones used and their concentrations.
  5. Production week calendar scheduling.

I cannot overemphasize the importance of establishment of these standards. Take

New and Novel Temperate Legumes for Ornamental and Landscape Horticulture

Author: Robert Reid

PP: 94


The Leguminosae is one of the largest plant families, and the source of many valuable food, fodder, grazing, and ornamental plants. Most of us when we think of legumes, focus quickly on food, that is peas and beans, or on fodder, that is lucerne or clover, and those of us who are also gardeners, certainly know of lupins and sweet peas.

However, there are a number of little-known, or completely new, leguminous species which possess attributes that lend them to broader horticultural application. There are also wider benefits in growing legumes. Not only do the majority have attractive flowers and foliage, but they are also soil enrichers via their symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-forming bacteria, known as rhizobia. This symbiosis is particularly valuable when we use annual plants as green manure, a fertility-building system that works equally as well in the ornamental garden as in the vegetable garden. This ability to fix nitrogen is particularly useful when legumes are



PP: 517

The Forty-fourth Meeting of the Eastern Region of the International Plant Propagators' Society convened at 8:00 AM in the Adam's Mark Hotel, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with President Tom McCloud presiding.

President McCloud: It's a beautiful day in Pennsulvania and it is my pleasure to call this session of the Forty-fourth Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators' Society-Eastern Region, to order. I can guarantee that the weather will be improved from yesterday and you will have much improved tours. We have an excellent program lined up for you and look forward to the next 3 days of seeking and sharing. If you are new to our Society you should be aware that we have a question box. As the meeting progress we know that you will have questions for speakers. Put your questions in the question box and we will have them answered for you. Ralph Shugert and Bruce Briggs are in charge of the question box.


President McCloud: This morning we are

Plant Exploration in Hubei

Author: Paul W. Meyer

PP: 519

In 1879 after ascending the Ygantze River as far as Inchang, plant explorer Charles Maries reported that all the Chinese species of any merit had already been introduced. His view was widely accepted for over 20 years. In fact, in 1899 when Ernest Wilson was dispatched in search of Davidia involucrata, on behalf of Veitch Nursery of England, he was instructed, "Stick to the one thing that you are after, and do not spend time or money wandering about. Probably almost every worthwhile plant in China has now been introduced" (Wilson, 1929). Fortunately, Wilson did not follow this charge too closely and in the course of his Asian journeys over the next 11 years, he introduced well over 1000 new plants and literally changed the face of Western gardens.

Today, a hundred years later, attitudes similar to those of the 1880s still prevail. Even in botanical gardens, many people feel that any temperate garden plant species of worth has already been collected and tested. Yet, in my travels in

Why Some Native Plants Aren't Mainstream … Yet

Author: Richard E. Bir

PP: 522


To generate abundant nursery sales a plant must fulfill certain requirements. Among these are that it should have market appeal from superior flowers, foliage, fruit and/or form. It has also been suggested that the plant should be attractive in spring when most plant sales occur. For retail sales, eye appeal seems more important than disease or insect resistance. In fact, if the plant can be marketed while in flower certain other characteristics, such as tolerating widely varying landscape conditions, may not be as rigorously questioned (Raulston, 1990).

For nurserymen, at least one other requirement must be met—it must be possible to produce the plant profitably. This usually means that propagation problems have been solved. In addition, growth must be rapid enough that the plant can be brought to the undervalued North American landscape plant market at a low enough price to attract sales as well as profit potential for both the wholesaler and retailer.

If a plant is

New European Perennials—How Do They Get Here?

Author: Steven Still

PP: 526

Plant breeding and selection of herbaceous perennials have been occurring for a long time in Europe. Many select European perennials have been in North American nurseries for many years. However, there are other perennials that are just now appearing in North American nurseries that have been in commerce for decades in Europe. These selections are being discovered or rediscovered by nurserymen and other plant importers who are searching Europe for exciting plants to add to their catalogs. These individuals are touring individual nurseries, public trial gardens, and horticultural expositions where perennials can be seen and compared. This presentation will highlight the individuals and nurseries in several European countries that, over the last 75 years, have provided a motherlode of select perennials. Nearly all the plants discussed are presently in production or are in trials in North America.
Seed Germination

Author: Norman C. Deno

PP: 530

Fifteen years ago I began a study of seed germination. At present over four thousand species have been studied. These studies differ from all previous work in that variables are precisely controlled, rate curves are emphasized rather than just percent germination, and the rate curves are analyzed by chemical rate theory. The results dramatically revise concepts in the field and pave the way for highly efficient methods of propagating plants from seeds. The following examples illustrate some of the highlights of the work.

Gibberellins have a powerful effect on the course of germination for many species, and they can be an absolute requirement for germination. Many cacti such as Echinocereus pectinatus are tiny plants growing in harsh environments. To survive the blazing sun and infrequent rains the seeds must germinate in shade in a pocket of deep leaf mold. The seeds have evolved a clever method for detecting such a place. This is to require for germination a specific chemical,

Patenting and Trademarking—Do's and Don'ts

Author: Steven B. Hutton

PP: 533

Patents and trademarks belong to a very important group of rights referred to as Intellectual Property Rights. Like more tangible forms of property, such as real estate or a piece of machinery, they can be bought and sold. And like real estate and machinery, they are crucial elements in commerce today.

Let's turn our attention first to the concept of patents.

The importance of innovation and investment in research and development was recognized by the framers of the U.S. Constitution back in 1789. In Article 1, Section 8, the Constitution states that: The Congress shall have power … to promote the progress of science and the useful arts, by securing for limited periods of time to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.

In 1793 Congress formalized this sentiment by adopting a patent act, authored by our third President, Thomas Jefferson.

A fundamental rationale for granting a monopoly to an inventor was the recognition that society

Something There

Author: Denny Blew

PP: 538


Around 1450, long prior to the voyages of Columbus, Portuguese sailors were sent westward by their king to see what lied beyond the Atlantic horizon. According to ship's logs, they sailed out about a hundred miles. Then they returned and pronounced their judgment "nothing there." Of course the king and everyone knew this to be the case anyway, and it would be 40 years before this assumption would again be challenged.

Unfortunately, their tragic mistake didn't die with them. In our search for new marketing territory, we too, make abbreviated voyages of discovery, turn back, and pronounce "nothing there."

Today we live in a world that demands a global perspective. The popular country-western star, Joe Diffe eludes to global perspective when he sings: "Welcome to the earth: third rock from the sun." What we earthlings often fail to do (and I am as guilty as the next earthling) is to venture a bit farther, to try an alternative direction, to believe that if infinity lies ahead

Cleaning Cercis Seed with a Lawn Boy Mower

Author: Thomas L. McCloud, Lance W. Hammond

PP: 542

Cercis canadensis (eastern redbud), being a member of the Leguminosae family, bears its seed in a true pod 2 inches to 3 inches long which ripens in October to November. It is our experience that if the pods are picked early while still pliable, they remain tough and do not easily split open to release the seeds even after drying indoors. If left on the tree longer, the pods start to open and the seeds can be lost even as they are being collected.

We have opted to collect the pods while they are still in the pliable stage and just starting to dry but are definitely not green. To remove the seeds from the pods, we use a Lawn Boy mower with a grass bag attachment. This has been very effective for either a small or large amount of seed. Some key points are as follows:

  • Spread pods on a hard surface—preferably concrete.
  • Spread pods in a low pile, slightly narrower than the mower.
  • Adjust mower height to clear the pile of pods.
  • Be sure mower bag is empty and clean of weed seeds
Grasses from Cuttings

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 543


Most grasses are produced by seed or division. Much has been done in this regard and references abound for seed and division techniques. However, many grasses are sterile, seed supply is limited, and division of clumps can be time consuming and inefficient. Grasses from cuttings would be an important propagation tool.

Corley (1989) did a thorough study on grasses suitable for the southeastern United States. Species that he found that would propagate from cuttings were Phalaris, Chasmanthium, Uniola, Elymus, and Pennisetum. Thomas (1987) wrote a brief description of rooting P. setaceum ‘Burgandy Giant’ from cuttings.

Seed Propagation Techniques That Work for Me

Author: Shelley Dillard

PP: 544

The Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania has been actively involved in many seed collecting trips in Asia over the years. Because of these trips and our goal of growing plants of merit from all over the temperate hardy regions of the world, as much as 75% of my propagation has been with seed—usually wild collected.

There are many obstacles to overcome to get these seeds to germinate. With the exception of well organized collection trips, these seeds come with many unknowns, such as when they were actually collected, if they are viable, and how they were stored. Sometimes I've never even heard of the genus, and can only track down the plant family to give me some clue as to how it can be processed. If possible, I do a cut test to determine seed viability when I have enough seeds.

There are two techniques I use which I will share with you. These have dramatically improved my germination rates with seed from species that require stratification.

The first technique

The Propagation of Metrosideros thomasii in Queensland

Author: Beth Cooling

PP: 97


Metrosideros thomasii is a native of New Zealand. In its native habitat a height of 25 m can be reached, but in cultivation they seldom exceed 6 m. The tree is attractive and neat in appearance, leaves are green with a silver felted appearance. The flower is dark red and of a bottle brush type. The plant flowers at Christmas time and is often referred to as the New Zealand Christmas tree. In Australia, particularly Queensland, the tree will also flower in autumn and winter.

These trees are salt and wind tolerant on the coast, and make tidy trouble-free street trees which can tolerate polluted city air. Metrosideros thomasii is also suitable as a hedging plant. The species can grow in a variety of soil types.

Selection of Cutting Stock. The following attributes are necessary in the selection of material for cutting propagation: vigorously growing stock plant, good tree shape, flowers well, and free from disease.

Gibberellic Acid to Extend Shoots and Bud Break on Heuchera and Scabiosa

Author: Rod Ackerman, Harlan Hamernik

PP: 545


At Bluebird Nursery, we have been using gibberellic acid (GA3) for several years; primarily to break dormancy and get a more uniform stand of plants, or to obtain an early batch of cuttings before the shipping season begins in March. In the fall of 1993, we were faced with a dilemma. We had added Scabiosa ‘Pink Mist’ and ‘Butterfly Blue’ and Heuchera ‘Snow Angel’ (a Bluebird Nursery introduction) to the catalog and as of November 1993 we had not gotten any side shoot development (cuttings) from either of the Scabiosa and very few cutting of the Heuchera since spring. To compound the problem, the above plants had all started showing signs of going dormant. At this point, we decided we better do something if we were going to have any of these plants to offer and decided to try GA3. In the past, we have had mixed results using GA3, ranging from little to no reaction to extreme rates of growth.

Production and Marketing of Unusual Dwarf Conifers

Author: W. David Thompson

PP: 547


The market for dwarf conifers has changed greatly over the past 20 years. What were once considered to be collectors items have now found their way into the vast nursery plant market, in large production numbers. We might ask why this has taken place. Basically, this has occurred because of need and not out of collector interest. Our landscapes are changing, and our clients are attempting to satisfy the new generation. Properties are smaller, free time for plant maintenance is less available, and the need for self-contained plantings exists.

New Plant Forum

Author: Jack Alexander, Susan E. Bentz, Ruth Dix, Vern Black, Bruce Brig

PP: 549

Acer palmatum ‘Red Feather’

In the mid 1980s our mother ‘Burgundylace’ bore a delightful offspring, a red head like herself, but very petite and extremely delicate. We've watched her mature with consistently fine features and feel she is now ready to go out into the world.

‘Red Feather’ makes up faster and fuller than ‘Red Filigree Lace’ without manipulating it to do so. The leaves are just as fine but the color is a bit more subtle, almost smokey. The branches layer attractively and the leaves feather out all over the plant. Discovered by former manager, Ronald Byleckie.

Field Grafting of Conifers for Christmas Tree Seed Orchards

Author: Greg Williams

PP: 557


The practice of establishing seed orchards for christmas tree seed production has been used for some time in the northeastern United States. Several tree growers have established seed orchards of their own tree selections that produce top quality Christmas trees under their growing conditions. They are selecting trees for: good color, form, late frost resistance (late flushing trees), less shearing required (naturally dense), and resistance to insects and diseases (a more recent attribute). The trees are established in a seed orchard usually in an area isolated from other trees so they can be monitored, evaluated, and pollinated either naturally or controlled for the production of superior Christmas tree seedlings and transplant stock.

Responding to the Increased Demand for Native Plants

Author: Donald R. Knezick

PP: 559

Over the last 10 years or so, a strong trend towards specifying native species has developed across the country. The origins of this trend date back to environmental movement of the 1970s. Today, practically every issue of the American Nurseryman has something about the subject. The push for native plants has understandably raised the ire of many growers who have spent entire careers developing and producing hybrids and exotic species. But for more and more nurseries, the move towards native plants is providing new opportunities.

With numerous introduced species, such as purple loosestrife and phragmites, taking over thousands of acres of native habitat, environmental regulators have attempted to stem the tide by legislating against the used of non-native species. Even the White House has gotten involved as President Clinton issued a memorandum calling for "environmentally and economically beneficial landscaping" practices at federal facilities and federally funded projects.

The Marketing of New Dwarf Conifers

Author: Jim Smith

PP: 562


As you know, almost everybody can grow plants. The hardest thing in this business is getting rid of them at a decent profit—right? That's where marketing comes in. There are many aspects involved in marketing and I would like to share a few of those with you today.

Piedmont Flora Yields Outstanding Ornamentals

Author: Richard Lighty

PP: 565

There is probably no one here today who is unaware that we are in the middle of an enormous tide of interest in our own native plants. Native plant conferences have sprung up like mushrooms throughout the eastern half of the continent; meetings of landscape architects, foresters, horticulturists—and even plant propagators—frequently devote large segments of their programs to natives and their uses in the landscape. Even politicians are jumping on the bandwagon—witness president Clinton's advisory to government agencies to emphasize native plants wherever they are appropriate. Not only do natives fit into the present trend to garden naturalistically, but they have always been a significant part of more formal landscapes and are eminently suitable for traditional and contemporary gardens. In short, the native plant industry, for whatever reasons, is a growth market, and we should all realize the potential for our industry inherent in this flood of interest.

This potential can

Chicagoland Grows: A Marketing System for New Plants

Author: Kris R. Bachtell

PP: 568


Where do new plants for the green industry come from? First, botanic gardens and arboreta offer a great diversity of plants from their collections. Second, individual nurserymen, through their knowledge and experience in growing and observing plants, often have made their own outstanding plant selections. And last, organized breeding programs are developing new plants that otherwise would not naturally occur. For the green industry to benefit from these new selections, it must have access to them.

Often times, new and potentially useful plants remain unknown "pets" of botanical institutions or nurserymen because the plants have not been fully distributed or properly promoted; thus the green industry does not understand their ornamental attributes or horticultural use. A strong marketing plan and industry involvement are both essential in successfully introducing a new plant selection. Based on an introduction program initiated by the University of British Columbia in

Data Collection System for Landscape Daylilies

Author: Darrel Apps, Angelo Cerchione

PP: 573

A not-for-profit research organization (All-America Daylily Selection Council) has been organized to evaluate daylily cultivar performance. Procedures for evaluating daylilies are described along with a list of high-performance cultivars.
Question Box

Author: Ralph Shugert , Bruce Briggs

PP: 580

Question: What is the best way to prune Sciadopidys verticillata to keep a nice tight shape?
The Availability of Minerals in Plant Tissue Culture Media

Author: Mohammad E. Amiri, Richard R. Williams

PP: 98

This paper examines some of the factors affecting the availability of minerals to plants in vitro. The growth of Ptilotus exaltatus explants decreased when minerals were supplied in the gel at some distance from the explants rather than in direct contact, suggesting that transport of minerals through the gel may be limiting mineral uptake. Explant growth in dry weight was proportional to the relative matric potential of the medium. Since water was lost from the culture vessels during the culture period, relative matric potential would also decrease. It is argued that mineral uptake in vitro, and hence plant growth, is limited by the declining water availability which in turn affects the rate of diffusion of minerals through the medium.
National Plant Collections: Source of New and Unusual Plant

Author: Barry Glick

PP: 584

All of us who collect plants for our personal gardens or for commercial purposes know that many good plants have become difficult if not impossible to find. Not because they have been superseded by better plants, but simply because they are no longer in fashion. Typically, long after these plants have disappeared from commercial catalogs, a new generation of gardeners becomes interested in them and begins to write and talk about them. The demand for these plants increases, Nurseries search for sources, and if we are lucky, the plant becomes a good commercial item. In many cases, however, the plant may have disappeared entirely and exists only as a memory. Many victorian plants, such as, Rosmarinus officinalis ‘Flore Pleno’ and R. officinalis ‘Argentia’, the double-flowered and silver rosemaries, and Myrtus communis ‘Leucocarpa’ and M.communis ‘Flore Plena’, the white-berried and the double myrtles, have gone this route. The true Rosa ×centifolia is only seen in old paintings.

In 1978,

Overwintering Perennials

Author: Marc Laviana

PP: 586

Sunny Border Nurseries, Inc. grows, in containers, over 2000 taxa of perennials with another 500 or so in trial development. Overwintering perennials is a broad subject and the type used depends upon the species in question. Several different methods are used. Most of our container crop is overwintered in the field. Unheated hoop houses with two layers of air-inflated plastic are used for marginally hardy genera, such as Anemone, Delphinium, Lupinus, and Stokesia.

Field covering begins during the second week of November and is finished by Thanksgiving. Several years ago the temperature reached -6F on the Friday following Thanksgiving. At this time there were 5 inches of snow which saved thousands of dollars of plants. Experience has shown that most container perennials growing above ground in pots will not survive if root temperatures reach 10F. Care must be taken to ensure that the soil temperature in the pot is maintained above this critical level. Weather is very unpredictable

Cultivar Mixes

Author: Dale G. Deppe

PP: 588


Few things in life frustrate me more than buying mixed or misnamed plant cultivars. When was the last time you noticed a cultivar mix-up? If it' been more than a few months, then you should start looking ASAP. The professional credibility of our nurseries is at risk because we sell misnamed, and cultivar mixed-up plants. Our employees are comfortable with things as they are. They do not even recognize mixed up or misnamed plant cultivars. Cultivar mix-ups have become so common in the industry that few nurseries are even trying to solve this "rapidly growing" problem.

Think About the Following Examples

  • A landscape site is planted with specimen trees. After review it is determined that the trees are misnamed. The cost to replace these trees with the proper cultivar is thousands of dollars. Both the contractor and the property owner are upset with your company.
  • A wholesale nursery has 50,000 boxwood plants die in the field from a hard winter. Then it discovers that
How Greenbrier Nurseries Develops and Promotes New Plants

Author: Jim Monroe

PP: 592

"What makes Greenbrier Nurseries different from other nurseries?" is a question that we must ask ourselves at least once a year. We all, as wholesale growers, need to examine this question individually. The term wholesale grower is a dangerous term for us. We prefer to be called a wholesale marketer. Growing is unfortunately the easy part of our business. "Growing" new markets and maintaining market share is the more difficult part.

Greenbrier Nurseries is in our 5th year of container production. Being a new player in the nursery business we realized that we definitely had to be different or no buyer would have reason to consider us as a new vendor.

We grow for two very different markets. The first is for 1-qt and 1-gal rare and unusual trees, shrubs, conifers, and perennials. These plants are sold mainly to larger nurseries for shifting and lining out and for mailorder retail nurseries for catalog sales. Our second market area is in specialty items for upscale retail garden centers

Tissue Culture's Potential for Introducing New Plants

Author: Mark P. Bridgen

PP: 595


Methods to modify and improve plants have been practiced for at least 10,000 years. Early farmers produced better crops simply by selecting the seeds of desirable plants. During the past century, plant breeding has become a refined art due to technological advancements. Today, the plant breeder may use genetic engineering to add diversity to plant characteristics and to develop superior plants.

Successful plant development and improvement are dependent on genetic diversity followed by genotype selection and evaluation. Plant tissue culture and plant biotechnology offer new and efficient ways to expedite genetic selection. Plant tissue culture is the art and science of aseptically growing plant cells, tissues, organs, protoplasts, and whole plants on a nutrient medium under controlled environmental conditions. Micropropagation is a major part of plant tissue culture.

Although genetic engineering is more complex than traditional plant breeding both procedures

The Gold Medal Award of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society

Author: Philip M. Normandy

PP: 602

The purpose of my talk is to introduce you to the Gold Medal Plant Award of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. You may be familiar with this under its original name, the J. Franklin Styer Award of Garden Merit, named after the Pennsylvania nurseryman who provided the impetus and the initial funding to create the program.

How did this come about? Dr. Styer had always believed that plants should receive the same kind of recognition as people in the horticulture field. Many really superior plants, both old and new, were ignored by the buying public for lack of widely available information about their merits. So in 1978 he made a grant to the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society (PHS) to develop an awards program to identify, evaluate, and promote outstanding but under used woody plants. Ernesta Ballard, then president of the Society, asked Jane Pepper, then of the Haverford College Campus Arboretum, to head up the Styer Award Committee.

Members for this new committee

PIDAV—A New Plant Introduction Scheme for Victoria

Author: Ross Hall

PP: 104


In contrast to many comparable countries Australia has no history of formal plant introduction and evaluation schemes. Typically our botanic gardens have very good collections but often little consideration is given to how those plants could be made available to the professional user of plants or to the nursery industry. Botanic gardens, of course, have not been the only source of plant introductions. Specialist nurseries and enthusiastic amateur horticulturists have a long history of introducing plants into the Australian garden landscape. In the case of the specialist nursery, the motivation for introducing new plants is often a combination of plantsmanship and pure commercialism. With a few notable exceptions, these nurseries are small and often highly specialised and their influence on the broader nursery industry has been, and remains, limited. The enthusiastic amateur horticulturists who introduce plants into Australia, or who seek to improve existing plants, have

Pest and Disease Management in Plant Propagation

Author: Deo Singh

PP: 107


Diseases are a major constraint in the propagation of certain crop species. Losses have been so high that it was uneconomic to propagate some popular lines. With all the modern pesticides, technologies, and expertise, the problem has not been eliminated. But with an integrated approach, losses have been successfully reduced to non-significant levels in a number of crop species.

The actual crop loss due to pests and disease is difficult to estimate in the nursery situation. The high number of varieties propagated by cuttings vary in susceptibility to the endemic pests and diseases. In order to minimise losses, recognition of the value of maintaining strict hygiene procedures during all stages of taking and rooting cuttings must be made. It is easier to prevent attack by disease organisms than to try to stop their progress once established. From a disease attack where hundreds of thousands of cuttings are involved, losses can be considerable. Efforts to conduct propagation

Propagation of Quandongs

Author: Peter Smith

PP: 108


Demographic studies illustrate quite clearly that it is not until the fifth generation after initial migration that people become fully integrated into a new environment. European settlement in Australia is in its fifth generation and it is only now that we are looking to commercialise our own fauna and flora. Part of this process is the development of an Australian cuisine. We are labelling it "Bush Tucker". With the guidance of aboriginal people and early settler records we are searching our native flora for new tastes and garnishing possibilities.

The quandong or native peach, Santalum acuminatum, is now being cultivated in commercial orchards to meet the demand for its highly prized fruit.

Some 20 years ago Dr. John Possingham, chief of the CSIRO Division of Horticulture, set about domesticating this delicate desert dweller. Santalum acuminatum has evolved as a partial root parasite of other plants for its survival. The species varies enormously in many of its

Efficient Water and Fertiliser Use

Author: Ian Gordon

PP: 45


Water is the most important input in the production of plants in the nursery industry and, if we are honest, probably the most badly used. We have grown up in a time when water has been cheap and in most cases readily available when we need it. Water has not been the limiting factor in the development of most nurseries; it has been the capital needed to provide automatic irrigation systems which has been our major limitation.

We have taken for granted the readily available supply of cheap and good quality water but this cannot continue indefinitely. There is an ever increasing demand for water and this will gradually force up the cost of water for irrigation use. It is likely we will also have to face increasing pressures to avoid using high quality water supplies for nursery irrigation and to have greater reliance on the use of waste water such as sewage effluent.

The nursery industry in Australia has traditionally been an urban-based industry with most nursery producers

Micropropagation of Boronia

Author: Acram Taji, Warren Sheather, Richard Williams

PP: 110

Successful micropropagation was achieved in four species of Boronia: B. edwardsii(Benth.), B. filifolia(Benth.), B. pilosa(Labill.) and B. ruppii(Cheel.). Shoot tips or nodal explants were initiated on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium. A five-fold multiplication rate occurred every 4 weeks on basal medium supplemented with 1 mM each of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 6-furfurylaminopurine (Kin or Kinetin). All species produced roots on MS basal medium supplemented with various auxins. More than 90% of the rooted plantlets became acclimatized and flowered within 6 months from the date of transfer to the glasshouse.

Chemical names used: 6-furfurylaminopurine (kinetin); 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP); 1-H-indole-3-butyric acid IBA); a-naphthaleneacetic acid a-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA).

The Germination of Bursaria spinosa var. spinosa

Author: John Rayner

PP: 113


Bursaria spinosa, commonly known as sweet bursaria, is a widely distributed member of the Pittosporaceae family. Variously described as a shrub or small tree, the species is found in all mainland states except the Northern Territory. It is a common and widespread member of many different vegetation communities. Bursaria spinosa var. spinosa, one of a number of named variants of the species, is identified by its smaller, obovate leaves (to 25 mm) and spines located along the branches. The inflorescence consists of a terminal panicle of fragrant, white-cream flowers in late summer/early autumn, followed by brown clusters of two-celled, purselike capsules, each housing a small number of seeds (Costermans, 1981; SGAP, 1991).

Both seed and cuttings are used for propagation of the species, however, seed is the preferred method for most revegetation activities. Information gained from a number of nursery propagators (see acknowledgments), suggests that there are a number of

Propagation of Threatened Australian Plants with Horticultural Potential

Author: Paul Carmen

PP: 116


The Australian flora is unique, with 80% of species being endemic. We have the opportunity to maintain and develop this flora but this chance may be lost. There are already 76 species of Australian plants that are extinct and another 952 which are known to be threatened. This represents about 5% of all the species of vascular plants in Australia. Education of the public is the key to preserving this valuable resource.

Cyclamen Species

Author: Max Moore

PP: 119


Cyclamen are native to parts of Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, with the majority of species indigenous to the Mediterranean area. The genus belongs to the family Primulaceae and consists of 19 species which are generally suitable for growing as massed drifts in the garden in dappled shade under trees. Florists cyclamen, which flowers from early autumn to late winter/early spring and are familiar to everyone, are all derived from the species Cyclamen persicum. Unfortunately, the majority of species are rare in cultivation.

The Importance of Selection and Root Pruning in Container-Grown Seedling Production of Ornamental Trees and Shrubs

Author: Ian G. McCure

PP: 121

The purpose of this paper is to raise some very important factors which are sometimes overlooked by nursery growers in the raising of tubestock from seed. Certainly many factors are involved in successful production, not the least of which are selection and root pruning in the development of reliable nursery stock. Occasionally in our nursery we come across a plant or a group of plants that stay alive, but do not grow on to a marketable size. In order to ascertain what is wrong the following factors need to be considered:
  • The plant origin—50-mm tubestock from a reliable source
  • The potting mix used—moisture and nutrient levels
  • Problems associated with pests and diseases
  • Environmental conditions

In this case everything appears to be satisfactory. The potting mix drains well, there is adequate moisture and nutrient levels, and there is no sign of stem rot or problems with insect pests. The leaves have a slight yellowing but are generally healthy. It's winter time in Queensland, with

Design Trends in the Use of Amenity Planting in the U.K.

Author: Rodney D. Beaumont

PP: 125


In the last 20 years there have been many changing fashions in the landscape designer's use of amenity planting. In the early 1970s, the emphasis on the rehabilitation of derelict sites encouraged the use of plant species that were tolerant to impoverished or contaminated ground conditions. The landscape design profession was small, relatively young and inexperienced, having had few opportunities to design large amenity planting schemes.

Most of the projects were restricted to the public sector using government grant aid, such as, Derelict Land and Urban Programme Grants. In the private sector, there was not a sufficient level of commitment to landscaping, as it was generally seen as a cosmetic addition to building development.

Towards the end of the decade, there was much debate on the malaise of British cities, with large areas of derelict land particularly in former dockland areas. This led to the setting up of urban development corporations in Liverpool and London to

Applications of Grodan in Hardy Ornamental Nursery Stock

Author: Ian Bedford

PP: 130


Grodania A/S, Manufacturers of Grodan stonewool products for horticulture, has in recent years been diversifying into new sectors of horticulture, in addition to the traditional glasshouse salad markets. Many horticultural substrates and additives have tended to be waste products from other industries (bark, coir, etc). Grodan stonewool is made from a natural raw material, diabase rock, and is fabricated into various shapes of slabs, blocks, multi-blocks, and granulates.

Some of the new products which have been developed include:

  • Single Block System (SBS) for rooting cuttings
  • Water repellant granulates for peat mixes
  • Water absorbing granulates for peat mixes
  • Stonewool Mix—total growing medium for nursery stock, interior planters, orchids, pot plants
  • Special slabs for roof gardens, sound-absorbing walls
  • Stonewool for hardy ornamental nursery stock
  • Granulates as an ingredient of growing media mixes

Stonewool can be made water repellant or water absorbent, and in two different

Cleaning of Recirculating and Surplus Water in Container Plant Production

Author: Volker Behrens

PP: 133


A general water shortage, expensive or bad-quality water, or environmental pressures may force container plant growers to collect rain water and to use a closed, recirculating irrigation system. If done in a proper way, economic and ecological advantages can be achieved together. Utilizing such a water management procedure means two potential problems have to be taken into account. Firstly, re-used irrigation water should be free from pathogenic organisms that attack plants, because the risk of spreading diseases throughout the crop is increased. Secondly, with closed systems water may be collected in excess, and if leaving the nursery site it may not meet local or EC standards for quality and freedom from residues. Run-off water may need to be disinfected for recirculation and/or purified for discharging into ground or surface water.

The Latest Environmental Restrictions on Nursery Production in Germany: Is Nursery Production Still Possible?

Author: Jan-Dieter Bruns

PP: 138


In Germany there are approximately 4000 nursery companies; 1500 of them are members of the Federation Bund Deutscher Baumschulen or BdB. The total area in production is approximately 25,000 ha. The production volume is worth 1.5 billion marks (1994), making Germany the biggest producer of nursery stock in Europe. Production is scattered throughout the country but there are three centres.

  1. The district of Pinneberg in Hamburg, with 300 nurseries and 2200 ha of land.
  2. The Ammerland, also with about 300 nurseries and more than 2000 ha of land.
  3. The Rheinland, with 150 nurseries and 1300 ha of land.

In these three areas some 50% of the total plant production in Germany is concentrated. This is partly a result of very long nursery tradition but mainly because of the perfect climate and the excellent soil. It is primarily in these areas with highly concentrated nursery production that we are having most of the problems with environmental restrictions.

Green Issues and Growing Media—Progression or Digression?

Author: Catherine S. Dawson

PP: 142


Since environmental lobbyists began their scrutiny of growing media, enormous sums of money have been spent on research projects, conferences, insurance claims, and even failed companies. This paper aims, from a manufacturer's viewpoint, to consider whether progress has been achieved as a result or whether it has all amounted to a time-wasting digression.

Progress can be monitored in terms of increased profitability, but increasingly the effects of our activities on the environment must come into the equation. Although there can be sound marketing reasons for considering growing media from an environmental standpoint, it is extremely important that the considerable advances that have recently been made in compost quality, with their consequent benefits for profitability, are not compromised in any way.

Nursery Management—The Production of a Textbook for Australian Conditions

Author: John Mason

PP: 48

The I.P.P.S. is an organization concerned with seeking and sharing information regarding plant propagation. This paper is about the business of propagation. Without good management, much of the time and effort we devote to propagation, and many of the techniques we continually seek to improve, both lose their purpose.

This paper aims to do two things:

  1. To encourage more of you to record and write down the knowledge you have, and to provide a glimpse of what is involved in getting your ideas published.
  2. To raise some issues about nursery management which frequently warrant more attention than they get.
Integrated Production of Nursery Stock

Author: Nico G.M. Dolmans

PP: 146


The total area of nursery production in the Netherlands has grown rapidly during the last 10 years. More than 50% of the plants are exported. High standards of quality lead to the use of large amounts of fertilizers and pesticides, especially soil fumigants. These amounts are still way above the long-term targets associated with government environmental policy. The Multi Year Plan for Crop Protection aims to reduce the use of pesticides in nurseries by 25% by 1995, 39% by 2000, and 58% by 2010. In addition, the use of fertilizers is to be restrained to avoid polluting surface and ground water.

As growers will continue to face competition from imports they will have to maintain high standards of quality so economic and environmental aims have to be optimized. In 1990 the Research Station for Nursery Stock at Boskoop developed a programme to investigate alternative production methods (Dolmans, 1992). This has resulted in research projects at three different levels:

The Development of Lignocell Coir as a Propagating Medium

Author: Michael J. Dyke

PP: 150


Initial screening of peat-free container growing media at this nursery in 1991 identified various products with potential as alternatives to peat. Surplus material from these trials was tried in propagation to see what would happen. Results suggested that these materials were worthy of further investigation and a decision was taken in 1992 to investigate their potential.

Christmas Tree (Abies fraseri) Production

Author: David Hide

PP: 154


As winner of the Richard Martyr Award, I attended the Southern Region International Conference held at Greensboro, North Carolina (N.C.) in October 1993. After the Conference I drove west up into the Appalachian Mountains where I spent more than a week looking at the production of Abies fraseri, the Fraser fir, from seedling transplant to 7-m tall, competition-winning Christmas trees. Though many of the natural stands of Fraser fir are dying due to balsam woolly aphid, these are now being replaced by farmed trees as A. fraseri becomes an increasingly popular Christmas tree. I visited many Christmas tree growers but this report describes two, Bob Jennings of N.C. State Forestry Station and Wayne Ayers of Roan Valley Tree Farm.

Can Disease Control Ever Be Environment Friendly?

Author: Stephen Holmes, Audrey Litterick

PP: 156


Modern horticultural crop protection involves a number of practices which are claimed to damage the environment. Growers still make considerable use of pesticides despite a reduction in available chemicals. Diseases continue to be wrongly diagnosed, which may lead to use of inappropriate fungicides and in some cases application of too many chemicals. Many nurseries still allow used irrigation water to drain into water courses and lakes which can result in loss of nutrients and pesticides and a build-up of these potentially damaging chemicals in the environment. The need for good nursery hygiene as part of integrated pest and disease management means many growers use pots, trays and other plastic materials only once before discarding them, thus dumping huge quantities of plastics annually. Specialisation and "factory" nursery methods have created increased risks of epidemic disease development and effective control remains the key to economic production of quality plants.

Monrovia Nursery's Response to New Environmental Restrictions

Author: Steven A. Hottovy

PP: 161


Water quality and quantity has probably been the hottest environmental topic in the past few years. In the western U.S.A. precipitation has been below normal for the past 8 years and this has led to numerous clashes between city authorities, environmental groups, industries, and agriculture, over who has rights to the water and how much should be used and how much conserved.

At Monrovia Nursery Company, water management has always been a top priority. Since 1968 we have been involved in water research and recycling. Our research director, Conrad Skimina, was instrumental in developing our water recycling system 20 years before it became a public issue. He has presented several papers on our findings at past I.P.P.S. meetings. In 1984 when Monrovia's Oregon nursery was started, 100% water recycling was built into its design. On our 565 acres there, each production bed slopes to its center drain tile to carry irrigation water back to the drainage canal and on to the collection

Environmental Policy for Nursery Stock Production

Author: Brian Humphrey

PP: 165


The significance of the so-called "green movement" should not be underestimated. Apart from the importance and significance of public attitudes to green issues, a well implemented and thought-out environmental policy can make economic sense in the propagation department and throughout the rest of the nursery.

The Desirability of Rare Alpines in the Trade

Author: Jim Jermyn

PP: 168


When I first started growing alpine plants as a student at Ingwersen's nursery in Sussex, the industry was very different from the one we know today. The market for alpine plants was mainly split between retail sales direct from the nursery and mail order. There were relatively few wholesale nurseries supplying garden centres.

The current decade has seen a large surge in the market for alpines. Many small retail nurseries have launched themselves onto the circuit of horticultural and other types of shows in the U.K., both direct selling and as a way of publicising their mail-order business.

But where have all the rarer alpines gone? Nurseries seem to have been forced to mass produce fewer lines for sale to the public at their popular shows. This has led to an upsurge of trade for mass production propagators of plug plants, churning out countless seedlings of lewisias, dianthus, saxifrages, and campanulas. However, the demand from the retail industry is for choice cultivars

Some Environmental Aspects of Chemical Weed Control in Nursery Stock

Author: J.C. Kelly, D.W. Robinson

PP: 170


Nurserymen must achieve high standards of weed control. Herbicides have been used effectively for this purpose for decades but despite campaigning by environmentalists to eliminate their use, herbicide application is likely to continue, albeit at a reduced level. Legislation to control the amount of chemicals applied, leached, or discarded will intensify and so alternative methods of weed control, which eliminate or minimise herbicide use, are being studied. A greater understanding of the principles of chemical control and of alternative methods of weed suppression can also reduce herbicide use.

Water Recycling Trials in Hardy Nursery Stock Production

Author: Paul J. Labous, Stephen J. Willis

PP: 174

Concern over potential ground water pollution and the cost of water in hardy ornamental nursery stock (HONS) production have initiated trials which started in 1992. The 1994 experiment consisted of three systems where water was recycled and compared with a standard Efford capillary bed (control bed). The objectives of the trial were to measure water usage, to monitor for pest and disease, to monitor nitrate levels in leachate, to assess plant growth and quality, and to assess rooting through (growth of roots out of the bottom of the container).

The four beds constructed were the standard Efford capillary bed, a capillary bed with water recycled, an overhead-watered bed with recycled water, and a flood bed (ebb and flow system) with recycled water.

Pyracantha rogersiana and P. ‘Orange Glow’ were the two trial plants potted in 3-litre pots into compost containing controlled-release fertiliser.

The recycling-capillary bed showed a significant water saving. There was no significant build-up of pests and diseases in any treatment. Although nitrate levels increased during the season, some of the rise was due to a rise in the levels in the mains water used and at no time did the levels reach phytotoxic concentrations. There was no significant difference in plant growth and appearance between the four treatments and this suggests that the use of recycled water does not adversely affect the plants while offering potential savings in water and fertiliser costs. It is recognised that commercial nurseries will treat the water to avoid the risk of disease.

Environmental Aspects of Fertilizing Container Plants

Author: Donnchadh Mac Carthaigh

PP: 182


The quality of drinking water has been reducing throughout Central Europe for many years. The main source of water pollution is seen as agriculture. The widespread use of pesticides, artificial fertilizers, and very intensive meat production units are causing much damage to water resources. Tree and shrub nurseries represent only a fraction of the land used agriculturally. However, because of the intensive production methods and the large concentration of nurseries in a few areas they are coming under more and more pressure to adopt environmentally acceptable production methods. Lower Saxony has become the first state in Germany to require building permission for container plant production units—others will follow. Water authorities are already monitoring the run-off from some container areas. To date they have been concentrating on the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus.

A literature review by Alt (1990) showed that the yearly uptake of nitrogen by plants growing in the

The Potential for the Use of VA Mycorrhizae in Nursery Crop Production

Author: Victor J. Galea, Richard C.D. Poli

PP: 52

This paper reviews experimental work on the benefits of VA-mycorrhizae in nursery crop production.
A Manufacturer's View of the Problems and Opportunities for the Crop Protection Industry Caused by the Green Movement

Author: Peter C. Moring

PP: 187

Crop protection is a major target of environmental campaigners resulting in many new regulations and controls. This has resulted in the withdrawal of many products and recommendations which has a particularly large effect on horticulture. Development of biological control methods has accelerated as a result, together with new products, new pesticide formulations, and new application technology. The U.K. horticultural industry must work hard to maintain "off label" approvals within the new European registration scheme.
Pests and Diseases at Garden Centres

Author: Rosemary Ward

PP: 194

Research carried out for Gardening Which? found a wide range of pests and diseases on hardy nursery stock for sale in retail garden centres. Fruit trees, ornamental trees and roses were the worst affected plant types, while alpines and conifers were relatively problem free. Apple scab, downy mildew on hebes, rust on roses, bacterial canker on Prunus, and aphids on a wide range of stock were the most common problems. The research and ideas for improvement are detailed.
Benefits of Water Recycling in Nursery Stock Production

Author: Patrick W. Fairweather

PP: 199


The horticulture industry worldwide is under pressure to comply with new environmental standards and regulations. These vary from state to state but in most cases the issues at stake are common. The following paper reviews the approachs that different organisations are making towards tackling the problems. Observations are mainly taken from the U.S.A. and Germany where legislation has been enforced more rigourously and for longer than in the U.K.

Water Quality

Author: Finn Knoblauch

PP: 205


Good water quality is a must in container production and propagation. In Denmark, there has been, and still is, ample water resources available. However, the quality of this water can vary considerably even within a small district. Since 1970, I have advised over 200 nurseries on the use of their water resources.

Water and Plant Growth

Author: Bjarke Veierskov

PP: 208


It is well known that maximum plant growth is dependent on an optimum water supply. Large amounts of water are passing through a plant, most of which is used for temperature regulation. It is generally accepted that 97% of the water taken up is transpired. This leaves 3% for other uses, and nearly all of this water is used in the growth process, whereas extremely little is utilized in chemical processes. The total amount of water used may be 350 litre (100 gal) per kg (2 lb) dry matter produced. Of the 350 litres of water, only 10 liters is used for growth, leaving 340 litres to be transpired. Small restrictions of water flow to the plant over a short time period would be harmless, if it only affected the water transpired. However, a decreased water supply quickly affects growth rate. Several factors are known to influence water availability.

Humidity. Under most growing conditions, the forces pulling water out of the leaf are so strong that transpiration has first

Recycling of Water in a Container Nursery

Author: Peter Orum

PP: 211


When I sat down to put this paper together, I asked myself: "What is it I want to get across to this group of propagators and growers?" I think the answer is:

  • It can be done
  • It is done
  • It works
  • It grows great plants
  • It is economically feasible

So, I shall strive to do so.

The Super Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) System

Author: Bent Vestergard

PP: 214


The nutrient film technique (NFT) system was first tried out in 1941 in Shanghai, China, in a nursery called The Chemical Garden. This system was in operation until 1944, when it closed down because of the war. Its inventor stated that there were nutrient problems and that NFT was uneconomical. In 1956 the technique was again used in Sweden by a chemical firm but abandoned 2 years later because of nutrient solution problems. In 1964 BV Hydro Systems developed a system in Denmark for orchids and in the 1970s a large number of experiments were conducted. However, no really important developments occurred before 1972, when Alan Cooper in England conducted the first commercial experiments with NFT. Since then, a large number of people in different countries have attempted to use NFT with a varying degrees of success. The original NFT system developed in England is—as the name implies—a thin nutrient film running down a gully or trough. The system is based on the

Laser-Based Measuring Equipment for the Analysis of Size and Velocity Distribution of Liquid Drops

Author: Ivar Lund

PP: 218

The Particle Dynamic Analyzer is a laser device based on the phase Doppler-Anemometry. The equipment is used for continuous measurements of size, velocity, and concentration of globular particles contained in the liquid jet from nozzles.
Irrigation Systems

Author: Marianne Truelsen

PP: 221


Plants need water and fertilizer at the right time, in the right amount, and at the right pH level. The optimum fertilizer concentration and pH level differ by season, plant species, and plant age.

Production of Specimen Ilex Species in Virginia, U.S.A.

Author: John Machen Sr

PP: 223

The holly cultivars we produce at Mobjack Nurseries have been selected for: 1) popularity in the U.S. mid-Atlantic states, 2) cold hardiness in this market area, and 3) cultural requirements that our production system can fulfill.

We are constantly searching for new hollies to meet these criteria. The following taxa are currently being produced:

  • Ilex ‘Nellie R. Stevens’, a putative hybrid between I. aquifolium and I. cornuta, is a large dark-green evergreen shrub or small pyramidal tree 5 to 8 m high. It is hardy in areas which normally experience winter temperatures as low as -23C. This holly was introduced by G.A. Van Lennep, Jr. of St. Michael, Maryland, U.S.A., in 1954 (Dirr, 1983).
  • Ilex ‘Edward J. Stevens’, is a large male clone useful for pollinating ‘Nellie R. Stevens’. It is more narrow in growth habit but essentially similar.
  • Ilex ×attenuata ‘Foster's Number 2’ is one of a group of five interspecific hybrids of I. cassine and I. opaca. It has a compact, narrow growth habit to 10 m,
Junipers in the Subtropics

Author: Victor Levey

PP: 59


Junipers provide a wide range of colour all year round. In a variety of shapes and sizes, there is a species of juniper to provide feature plants, screen and wind breaks, ground covers, and tub specimens. Junipers are extremely hardy, tolerating temperatures ranging from -10 to 50C. They will tolerate long periods of drought and very wet conditions, provided drainage is good. Best of all, junipers are easy to propagate.

Opening Address of the Inaugural Meeting of IPPS - Japan, Potential Region—Scope of I.P.P.S. Japan

Author: Satoshi Yamaguchi

PP: 229

I.P.P.S. Japan is aiming to bring together practical nurserymen, scientific researchers, farmers, and consumers under the motto of "SEEK AND SHARE".

When I joined I.P.P.S., just 8 years ago, I was the only Japanese member of the society.

During my extensive work with micropropagation, a number of projects were accomplished and shared with others, i.e., micropropagation of Rhododendron, Haemanthus, a new yellow garden Camellia, and Cyclamen. I was pleased seeing these results and feeling a little proud of my work I had fulfilled my duty, namely, "SEEK AND SHARE".

I sincerely hope this new I.P.P.S. Japan will play an important role to bring together various researchers, nurserymen, farmers, and consumers, and will develop into a true "SEEK AND SHARE" society

Expanding Flower Colour Variation in Gladiolus Through Mutation Breeding and Tissue Culture

Author: M. Kasumi, H. Tomotsune, Y. Takatsu, F. Sakuma, S. Iida

PP: 230

To expand flower colour variation in Gladiolus mutation breeding using gamma radiation was adopted. By using radiation with a strength of 100 GY on bulbuls of Gladiolus, six times more colour variation was observed. All variants showed pink or white chimeric features in their flower stalks. The ovaries of chimeric plants were cultured in vitro on an agar medium with NAA and BAP added. After callus induction, they were transferred to a regeneration medium, supplemented with BAP (Fig. 1). Uniform flower colour was achieved by regeneration of ovary callus from chimeric parts (Fig. 2).
New Cultivars of Cyclamen, Kage-Yellow and Golden Boy

Author: T. Kage, S. Kage

PP: 231

My home town, Kurume City, is located in the southwest of Fukuoka Prefecture in Kyushu. Producers of Cyclamen in this city number 30.

In Japan, in recent years, production of Cyclamen has been gradually increasing with consumers wanting cheaper plants and larger flower colour choice.

To meet these trends in demand for new Cyclamen, our nursery set up a tissue culture laboratory and began a breeding project to develop new types of cyclamen. Now, we are very pleased to show our new elite cultivars, Kage-Yellow and Golden Boy, both with yellow flowers. Older cyclamen cultivars lacked yellow flowers. We succeeded in producing yellow-flower-colored types

Outline of Breeding Our breeding work started with finding yellow-flowered mutants among many seedlings of Kage's strain of ‘Pure White’. The flower of ‘Kage-Yellow’ is medium-sized with a yellow colour at the bud stage and pale cream when open. Its colour becomes deep yellow at lower temperatures (around 15C) and under full sunlight. ‘Golden Boy’

Application of Plug-cell Stock Plant Production System for Orchidaceae Plants

Author: K. Yoshino

PP: 231

The common stock type of orchid is flask stock or CP stock. However, a low rate of plants are established during acclimatization. Improvement in the number of good plants acclimatized is important. Plug-cell stock production was tested as a means of improving acclimatization on Phalaenopsis flask plants grown from seed. Organic compost combined with a hydroponic culture system was most effective for the establishment of flask plants.
Application of Tissue Culture Technique in Nursery Stock Production of Fruit Trees

Author: H. Hara

PP: 231

Twenty years have passed since the tissue culture technique was introduced into nursery stock production on a commercial basis. It was somewhat of a fashion for nursery companies to adopt this new technique. But, at present, there are only a few companies producing plants on a profitable basis. Today, many businesses in the nursery industry are finding it hard to maintain their economic viability. This paper presents the current status of Sanyo-Noen Nursery's micropropagation of virus-free understocks of fruit trees.

Sanyo-Noen Nursery set up a micropropagation laboratory in 1984. Since then, it has concentrated on the micropropagation of virus-free stocks of fruit trees. The major product of our company is grafting understocks for sweet cherry and peach. The understock plants are ‘Dandy Chair’ and ‘Meteor’ introduced from New Zealand. Both are useful dwarfing understock cultivars in Japan because they show good summer heat tolerance. Each year, 10,000 to 20,000 plants of both cultivars are

Large-Scale Production of Yama-udo (Aralia cordata) Using Adventitious Embryo Culture

Author: S. Nishimiya, M. Kubota

PP: 232

Today, natural foods such as Japanese native herbal vegetables are fashionable. Accompanying this trend, the more aromatic yama-udo (Aralia cordata) is more popular than the common udo. Propagation is done by seed rather than division because it requires less labour. However, seed stocks are variable in sprouting, growth, and quality. Several aspects of tissue culture of yama-udo were examined in an attempt to produce uniform stocks.

The application of 2,4-D at 1 mg litre-1 was most effective for inducing adventitious embryos (induction frequency was 90%); BAP suppressed embryo formation.

Induction frequency was observed to be different between strains. Strain No.7 was the most prolific in embryo production. To save labour in isolating the small embryos, a simple protocol was established. This protocol involved mashing the embryo-forming callus in Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid medium, filtering through nylon mesh, and plating a thin layer on the agar medium. By this process, it was

Changes in the Rooting Response of Two Miniature Roses During Micropropagation.

Author: H. Sugiyama, H. Fukui, M. Nakamura, T. Ohnishi

PP: 233

The rooting ability of a number of difficult-to-root woody plant species has been markedly increased by repeated in vitro subculturing. This phenomenon is referred to as "rejuvenation by in vitro culture." In the present study, the relationship between the degree of rooting ability and "rejuvenation" is discussed with in vitro cultured miniature roses.

Rejuvenation efficiency was evaluated by percent rooting, number of roots, percentage of elongated lateral shoots, and flowering in vitro. Only the rooting results are presented.

In the cultivar Fashion Parade, the ease of rooting was the highest at five times subculturing and declined after five subcultures (Figs. 1 and 2). This suggested that the shoots may be aging. In contrast, with the cultivar Alba Meillandina, the ease of rooting was the highest at six times subculturing (Figs 3 and 4). Therefore, there were cultivar differences in "rejuvenation".

Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt of Carnation by Application of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum

Author: H. Mizuno, T. Komatsu, Y. Fukano, Y. Asakura

PP: 235

Fusarium species isolated from the root tissue of carnation were screened for biocontrol activity to fusarium wilt of carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. Some isolates showed suppression of fusarium wilt in carnations. The most effective isolate, No 108, was identified as Fusarium oxysporum, and is nonpathogenic to major crops such as tomato, radish, eggplant, and cucumber. No 108 isolate showed a 70% reduction in disease severity 16 weeks after transplanting in field trials. Pre-inoculation with No 108 isolate is considered to be a practical biocontrol agent of fusarium wilt of carnations because it is effective in field trials and nonpathogenic to major crops. Moreover, it showed protective effect when it was inoculated not only just before transplanting, but also at the cutting rooting stage.
Propagation of Gladiolus by Somatic Embryogenesis

Author: Hidehiko Tomotsune, Masakazu Kasumi, Yasumasa Takatsu

PP: 239

Suspension callus was induced from gladiolus cormels after sprouting under aseptic conditions. Suspension callus was induced on a culture medium containing NAA with the best results obtained using a medium with NAA at 10 mg litre-1. A good rate of regeneration was obtained from suspension callus induced in culture medium containing 5 mg litre-1 NAA when regenerated in a hormone-free culture medium and also with suspension callus induced in a culture medium containing 10 mg litre-1 NAA and regenerated in a culture medium containing 0.1 mg litre-1 BA. Suspension callus was subcultured for more than a year and maintained its embryogenic ability.
Low Temperature Storage of In Vitro Shoots of Japanese Persimmon (Diospyros khaki)

Author: Hirokazu Fukui, Hironori Ohba, Mitsuo Nakamura

PP: 245

In vitro storage at low temperatures was applied to the shoot segments of Japanese persimmon (cultivars Fuyu and Nishimurawase) that were proliferated through shoot tip culture. At 2C storage temperature, preconditioning of the shoot segments on a medium of 60 g litre-1 sucrose showed high viability. In the case of 10C storage, however, preconditioning on a medium of 15 g litre-1 sucrose maintained the best viability. The shoot segments of ‘Nishimurawase’ survived for 30 weeks at 10C, while those of ‘Fuyu’ lived for 12 weeks at the same storage temperature. The results of this work establish the possibility of an in vitro gene bank for Japanese persimmon.
Bromine and Chlorine Disinfestation of Nursery Water Supplies

Author: R. De Hayr, K. Bodman, L. Forsberg

PP: 60


A wide range of plant pathogens are waterborne, and recycled irrigation water is recognised as a major source of inoculum. Phytophthora, Alternaria, Aschochyta, Fusarium, Pythium, and Helminthosporum are some of the nursery crop pathogens capable of entering water storages (Gill, 1970; Thomson and Allen, 1974).

Chlorination of nursery irrigation water from surface sources is currently the main method of disinfestation in Australia. Microfiltration, ultraviolet irradiation, bromination, ozonation, and the use of chlorine dioxide are lesser used methods.

A prior (unpublished) survey conducted by the authors indicated that chlorination was not being used successfully by nursery operators in most situations. A major reason for this was a general lack of appreciation by the survey participants of the need to routinely monitor chlorine demand and thus enable themselves to constantly maintain biocidal concentrations of residual free chlorine. The majority of operators included

Selection and Germination of Tomato Seeds

Author: Hiroshi Endo, Tetuo Hara, Hirokazu Fukui

PP: 249

The effect of seed selection method on the germination percentage of a tomato cultivar (BF Okitsu 101) was studied. Seed characteristics such as weight, color, specific gravity, soluble protein content, and amylose enzyme activity influenced seed germination. Heavier seeds had a higher percentage of germination and cotyledon expansion and the young seedlings were more vigorous after germination. White seeds had a higher percentage of germination and cotyledon expansion than the darker and black seeds. Seeds which sank in a NaCl aqueous solution had a higher percentage of germination than those which floated. One hundred percent of the seeds selected from the 15% NaCl solution germinated. There was a positive correlation between the germination percentage and the soluble protein content and the amylase activity of the seeds.
Micropropagation of Crape Myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.)

Author: T. Yamamoto, T. Uhara, K. Takemasa, Y. Shimizu, A. Matsumoto

PP: 254

Donor plants for crape myrtle micropropagation were produced in vitro from seeds which were sown on a modified half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Axillary shoots were induced from the nodal segments taken from the donor plants. The shoots were transferred to the MS medium supplemented with hormones. The combination of BA (1 mg litre-1), NAA (0.02 mg litre-1), and GA3 (0.5 mg litre-1) gave the best results for the multiplication of shoots. The multiplied shoots rooted easily in the MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.05 to 0.1 mg litre-1). By these procedures, a number of regenerated plants of crape myrtle were obtained. The potted plants were vigorous and bloomed early.
Water and Resource Efficient Plant Propagation

Author: John Kabashima

PP: 261

Cooperative extension is part of the University of California's (UC) Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources (DANR). DANR is the only statewide division within the UC system. DANR was started in the late 1800s to help farmers use science-based data to improve their farming practices. As urban areas developed in the state, environmental horticulturists have joined farm advisors to work with the horticulture and landscape industry.

Cooperative Extension (CE) acts as a conduit for information from DANR to their clientele and from the clientele to the DANR. CE advisors often try to interest basic researchers in DANR to conduct research which would be applicable to the industry. CE advisors also take basic research results and try to apply that information and seek adoption of new information and techniques by industry to improve their professionalism and their productivity. An analogy would be to look at DANR as a big old tree. We have all this information stored in our roots and

Welcoming Remarks to Latin American I.P.P.S. Members Invited to Attend the Western Region Annual Meeting

Author: James L. Booman

PP: 263

Two years ago the Western Region began to recruit membership in Latin America. We have flown some of the fresh fruit of this effort here to meet with you today.

All our guests will be giving presentations during the conference and will be meeting with the Latin America Expansion Committee to firm up plans for I.P.P.S. meetings in Costa Rica and Argentina during 1995 and 1996. Watch for details and plan to attend one of our first I.P.P.S. meetings ever held in Latin America.

Please make an effort to greet each of our guests and get to know them. Perhaps you can share an idea or two about what you have found to be valuable about I.P.P.S. membership. This may help them as they return to their own countries and try to start I.P.P.S. activities there.

It is my pleasure to introduce three I.P.P.S. members from Latin America. To help us appreciate their diverse homeland, we asked each to share a taste of music and a scene from their country. From Mexico, please welcome Daniel

Production of Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, and Tropicals in Argentina—An Overview

Author: Graciela Myriam Barreiro

PP: 264

Argentine production of ornamental plants began in the early 20th century, when the European immigrants arrived. Most of them had been farmers in their own countries. There was a curious tendency to work on different types of plant production depending on their origin. The Italian families were dedicated to tree and shrub production for ornamental use or for fruit and forest tree production. Those coming from northern Europe (especially Germany and Holland) were dedicated to cut flower and later to foliage pot plants. The Portuguese immigrants produced cut flowers and still do; however, a large group is dedicated to growing vegetables. It was similar with the Japanese immigration; some of them still produce cut flowers, while the others began with cut flowers but now are growing flower pot plants, such as annuals or perennials like rhododendrons, cyclamen, or chrysanthemums.

Almost every nursery is still a family enterprise. Now, the 3rd or 4th generation is working at plant

Germinant Sowing in South Africa

Author: David B. South, Chris Young

PP: 266

Germinant sowing is operational for tree nurseries in South Africa. The technique reduces seed costs for eucalypts and pines. Filled-cell percentage is usually near 98%. Seed efficiency at many North American container nurseries can be improved by adopting either germinant sowing or single sowing technology.
Machine Vision Development: Its Use at a Forest Seedling Nursery

Author: John R. Scholtes

PP: 271

A general overview of the current J. Herbert Stone seedling lifting and processing system is discussed followed by a discussion of the rational and processes of developing a machine vision-based system for grading seedlings.
Question-Answer — Monday Morning


PP: 275

Tom McGregor: Why did Twyford settle on Costa Rica?

Greg Lloyd: One of the things I didn't mention was that one of the weaknesses of off-shore production is that it tends to be unreliable in many cases. There are good labs and bad labs. The reason we chose Costa Rica was because it was close to Florida and we put a lab manager from the company down there. We couldn't see a lab further away (e.g., China). We could ship back and forth easily and we could get our management back and forth for training. Costa Rica has a relatively stable government and fairly decent electricity. Other places don't have these advantages.

Gary Matson: Does the change in density upon germination occur with all seeds? Does it happen suddenly at germination? Can you provide a little more detail how to take advatange of this?

David South: I can only speculate, but as seed gets bigger in size during the germination phase it gets lighter in terms of specific gravity. I don't have the data from a number

I.P.P.S.—Ready for the 21st Century

Author: O.A. "Jolly" Batcheller

PP: 277

It is indeed a privilege to be asked to speak to you this noon, and I assure you it is a great pleasure. There is no organization that I know of which ranks so high in my mind for the great work it does and for the ideals and motto to which it is devoted.

Mike and his Program Committee have scheduled an exciting variety of subjects and events, that will challenge all of us. I am glad to see that the committee believes in the axiom—"The mind can absorb no more than the tail can endure." I am also glad to see that they have renewed the use of the GO - Caution and Stop sign that I developed some 20 years ago.

The topic for this little talk is "I.P.P.S.—Ready for the 21st Century." I wish to announce it is not only ready but it is off and running. Membership is up and new regions are lining up to join. My recommendations are: keep doing what we are doing, only better. I will make some suggestions later.

There is only one problem on the horizon. Our international body is under

Clematis for the Western States—One Approach

Author: Tom Hawkins

PP: 281

Our initial involvement with clematis began about 7 years ago, when we shipped young plants from Holland and Canada to wholesale growers in California and Utah. One year of success was followed by two in which suppliers failed us miserably with poor quality, numerous shortages, and heavy substitutions. It was this repeated frustration that led us to look for a new clematis source.

In 1991, 1 met Raymond Evison of Great Britain, who is certainly one of the world's authorities on clematis. Soon we became a distributor of his young bareroot plants in California and other western states.

During Raymond's first visit to southern California, we toured a number of wholesale and retail nurseries to evaluate the local clematis market. We noted the presence of Clematis armandii in fair numbers. This native to central and southern China (Evison, 1991) is one of the few evergreen clematis and has very fragrant flowers in March and April. Its mature growth is frost-hardy to 15F, making the

How Much Potassium do Flowering Plants Growing in Soilless Media Really Need?

Author: Kevin A. Handreck

PP: 67

The minimum potassium/nitrogen (K/N) ratio of fertilisers that produce optimum quality in Petunia ‘Celebrity Salmon’ growing in soilless media depends on the composition of the medium. For peat/perlite medium the minimum K/N (mg/mg) is about 0.8. For media containing materials such as bark, which have a store of native K, the ratio can be as low as 0.4 for short term crops. For media whose components are being decomposed by microbial activity, and therefore in which there is much "drawdown" of soluble N, the ratio need not be higher than about 0.4. Fertilizers with K/N ratios above these minima, applied in amounts that produce maximum growth, do not increase flower numbers in Petunia. Broadly similar results have been obtained for Fuchsia coccinea.
Jewels of the Plains: Selection, Propagation of Native Perennials

Author: Kelly D. Grummons

PP: 285


Paulino's is a retail nursery and produces over 1300 types of perennials grown from seed, cuttings, and bareroot divisions.

The growing area for perennials covers 5 acres where over 300,000 1-gal-size and 500,000 4-inch-size perennials are grown. Soft cuttings are rooted under shade in humidity tents using one layer of 4-mil clear poly and another layer of 50% shade cloth.

Display gardens at the nursery help maximize sales and serve as trial grounds for new varieties. Paulino Gardens builds feature gardens and educational displays for organizations such as the American Rock Garden Society.

Plugs and Automation—"The Future is Here!"

Author: Richard Wilson

PP: 287


The old practice of seeding was to seed into flats using 1000–1500 seed per flat. After germination, transplant 64 seedlings to the same size flat. After 3 to 5 weeks, transplant those to the various finished product sizes. The only automated process of this practice was the flat filling and dibbling (dibble board).

New Varieties For Today's Market

Author: Jamie Kitz

PP: 289

With bedding plants being the fastest growing sector of floriculture in the United States, new varieties are needed to meet the changing requirements of the commercial grower, as well as the bedding plant consumer There have been increases in the number of F1 hybrid varieties available that offer new crops, colors, and performance improvements, thus improving upon existing bedding plant species.

The methods of bedding plant production as well as the distribution of bedding plants have necessitated changes in our industry All the changes have provided Goldsmith Seeds with an opportunity to produce varieties that exceed the requirements of our customers.

Goldsmith Seeds' chain of distribution for F1 hybrid seed renders many tiers of customers, each with their own distinct requirements for a variety. Seed is sold directly to seed brokers, who in turn sell the seed directly to growers. Seeds are then grown out and sold to garden centers and other plant merchants in packs and other

Unusual Perennials

Author: Ed Wood

PP: 292

Here's a list of interesting perennials from the Pacific Northwest:

Aquilegia flabellata var. pumila (syn A. akitensis), A. vulgaris ‘Nora Barlow’, Anemone blanda, Anemone pulsatilla, Arenaria balearica, Aster novi-belgii dwarf, Astilbe chinensis, Aubrietia gracilis, Bolax gummifera (syn. B. glebaria nana), Claytonia parvifolia (syn. Montia parvifolia), Cyclamen hederifolium, Dianthus chinensis (syn. D. laciniatus), Erysimum dwarf, Euphorbia polychroma, Genista tinctoria ‘Humifusa’, Globularia repens (syn. G. nana), Gypsophila aretioides, G. aretioides ‘Caucasica’, Helleborus orientalis, Herniaria glabra, Iberis sempervirens ‘Pygmea’, Iris dwarfbearded, I. innominata, I. Pacific coast hybrids, Leucanthemum ×superbum (syn. Chrysanthemiun maximum), Lewisia cotyledon, Phlox ‘Santa Fe’, Pimelia prostrata, Potentilla crantzii, P. eriocarpa, Primula Gold Lace Group, P. Jack in the Green Group, P. prolifera, P. pulverulenta, P. seiboldii ‘Snowflake’, P. vialii, Raoulia subsericea, Saponaria ×olivana,



PP: 292

Kristin Yanker-Hansen: When you talk about new crops, are you at all interested in growing something other than what is already grown in the trade? Do you ever deal with annuals that you have never heard of?

Jamie Kitz: Yes. It has to be an excellent F1 hybrid because that is the only type of bedding plants we work with. The breeders are constantly looking for new crops to bring to the market.

Steve Mullaney: Are the plants actually free of the hairs or are the hairs free of the primen?

Jamie Kitz: I believe the chemical is in the tissue and not in the hairs.

Bruce Briggs: How do you measure public demand?

Cynthia Chandless: Usually thje hobbyist and gardening magazines are generating or responding to those demands.

Bob Hugart: Do you see the trend in perennials going more toward smaller containers or more toward larger 1's, 2's, and 5's?

Cynthia Chandless: I don't think there is just one answer here. It does depend on the person or business itself and what market shares you are serving. On the one hand, I've got one client telling me that they are putting all their energy into 4 in. because their return was greater than when they sold gallons. In colder

Tissue Culture of Roses: Past, Present, and Future

Author: David W. Burger

PP: 293

Roses have been the subject of myriad tissue culture studies for the last fifty years. The justification for most of the studies has been based on either crop improvement (breeding) or propagation. Early work focused on seed germination and embryo culture; artificial culturing (in vitro) of embryos followed. Micropropagation, in vitro morphogenesis, and genetic engineering have been the most popular areas of study in the last twenty years.
Tissue Culture Propagation of Zantedeschia (Calla Lily)

Author: Ana Lucrecia de Bolanos

PP: 297


The Zantedeschia or calla lily belongs to the aroid family (Araceae) and is commonly known as arum lily, pig lily, or yellow and pink arums. It belongs to the same genera as Anthurium, Caladium, Dieffenbachia, Monstera, Philodendron, Scindapsus, Spathiphyllum, and Syngonium. The genus was named by Sprengel in 1826, in honor of Professor Zantedeschi. There are numerous species: Z. aethiopica—the common white calla lily or arum., Z. rehmannii—narrow lanceolate leaves with flowers varying in color from ivory-white to deep-pink, Z. jucunda—yellow flowers in the summer, Z. elliottiana—yellow flowers with spotted leaves, Z. pentlandii—varying colors from white to yellow, and Z. albomaculata—strong growing with pale cream-lemon flowers.

The hybrids we are working with at the lab were developed in New Zealand from these species.

The calla lily cornes from the summer rainfall areas of South Africa, growing and flowering in the early summer and dying back in late autumn to a

Propagation of Ornamental Varieties of Spruce (Picea spp.) through Somatic Embryogenesis

Author: Robert Cervelli, Fiona Webster

PP: 300

Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a potent tool for rapid vegetative propagation and can produce high volumes of cloned embryos from a single seed. The impact of this new propagation technology on the ornamental conifer landscape industry may be substantial. Grafting of named cultivars is expensive and results in poor form requiring years of pruning and shaping. Somatic seedlings have the trueness-to-type of grafts, but also demonstrate the growth and form of true seedlings. We describe applications of SE for the commercial development of ornamental varieties of Colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens) and white spruce (P. glauca). At least 150 clonal lines of somatic seedlings have been established in nursery trials and cryopreservation. Trials will be assessed for landscape characteristics over the next several years prior to volume production of selected clones.


PP: 303

Anonymous: What's the best way to do the irrigation?

Fred Rauch: In that particular case he waters them in very well and with the use of the plastic covering he's able to keep enough moisture in there especially for seeds that germinate quickly. If you had something extremely slow (serveral months) then this probably wouldn't be useful.

Anonymous: Do you have any strains from wester Samoa?

Chuck Ades: No.

Anonymous: They have plants with leaves that are 15 to 18 in. long with beautiful variegations?

Chuck Ades: Do these characteristics hold in the United States?

Anonymous: They seem to.

Anonymous: What kind of insect problems do you have on your plants?

Chuck Ades: The main problem wiht pothos (Epipremnum aureum)

is spider mites. Syringing the undersides of leaves gets rid of the mits.
Palm Seed Germination

Author: Fred D. Rauch

PP: 304


The production of indoor tropical foliage plants in Hawaii has increased significantly over the past 20 years. This growth peaked in 1990 at a wholesale value of $14.6 million with about 30% of this production in palms.

Palms are generally slow-growing, but the growing conditions found in Hawaii give our growers an advantage. Palms are generally propagated from seeds, but growers have reported that many palm species are slow to germinate or are irregular in their germination pattern. I would like to summarize some of our observations and research findings relative to palm seed germination.

Propagation of Persoonia Species by Seeds and Cuttings

Author: Lynda M. Ketelhohn, Margaret E. Johnston, Jim Gage

PP: 72


Several species from the genus Persoonia have been noted for their horticultural potential (Wrigley and Fagg, 1989), either as a floricultural or an ornamental crop. The genus belongs to the Proteaceae family. There are approximately 72 species ofPersoonia, all endemic to Australia exceptP. toru, which is found in New Zealand (Closs and Orchard, 1985).

The flowers and foliage of P. virgata, a species in south-east Queensland, are currently bush-picked and sold on the domestic market. Being an evergreen shrub that flowers year round, this filler has the potential to supply both the domestic and export markets continuously. However, as the propagation of this species has not been resolved, it cannot be cultivated. This limits the export potential of this product due to the fact that there is no guarantee of continuity of supply, uniformity, or quality of the product.

Pothos: Identification, Selection, and Propagation

Author: Chuck Ades

PP: 308


Pothos or more correctly,Epipremnum aureus ‘Gold’ (syn. Scindapsus aureus ‘Gold Pothos’), a native to the Solomon Islands, is one of the staple plants in the United States indoor houseplant trade. This is due primarily to its colorful variegated leaves, durability, and versatility. Additional cultivars include: ‘Marble Queen’, ‘Green Queen’ (a sport of ‘Marble Queen’), and ‘Leilani’ (a sport that I developed from ‘Gold’ Hawaiian strain) and Scindapsus pictus ‘Argyraeus’ (syn. ‘Satin Pothos’) from Indonesia and the Philippines.

Epipremnum aureus can be used as a cascading or hanging plant, a groundcover, or climbing plant. The leaf form most commonly seen is actually the juvenile form of E. aureus. The adult or mature form of the leaf is quite large, often more than 2 ft long and split similarly to the leaves of Monstera deliciosa, split-leaf philodendron.

Variation in Water Use of Container-Grown Plants

Author: Richard P. Regan

PP: 310


The nursery industry is taking steps to reduce its use of irrigation water. Public concerns about water use and pollution prevention and increasing irrigation costs are motivating this change. Kabashima (1993) believes nurseries will reduce water use by recycling water, increasing the water application uniformity, and by improving irrigation scheduling. Water is conserved when irrigation is scheduled to apply only the amount of water used by the plant. Growers have found that certain plants need more water than others, while other plants are easily over-watered. Burger et al. (1987) showed that water use varied greatly between different plant varieties when they reached market size.

The amount of water used by container-grown plants is influenced by the climate, production practices, and crop characteristics (Regan, 1991). Plants use the most water on sunny days that are hot, dry, and windy. Growers can use local daily meteorological data or reports to schedule

Using Computer Technology to Improve Irrigation Uniformity

Author: Roger Lah

PP: 313


The application of computer technology as an aid in the process of selection and design of irrigation systems has been growing rapidly in recent years. Previously, sprinkler spacings were based on "rule of thumb" guidelines established by the sprinkler manufacturers themselves. With overlapping sprinklers, phrases such as "head-to-head spacing" or "50% of diameter" were often used by manufacturers to assist customers in making the right decisions. These recommendations were based on previous experience and did not assure that uniformity of water applied would be acceptable. And to compound the problem, different crops had different requirements for acceptable uniformity. A pecan orchard in Willcox, Arizona, for example, required far less sprinkler uniformity than container-grown plants in Southern California because of the extensive and deep-rooted nature of the crop. Many resulting installations have applied extra water in order to adequately irrigate the driest areas

Water Filtration for Propagation Systems

Author: Michael R. Davidson

PP: 319

In standard irrigation practice, filtration is regrettably often one of the last components of the irrigation system considered. In propagation irrigation, it is vital that it be considered first. Filtration protects any system against pitting, corrosion, and plugging of irrigation emission devices, and, in so doing, leads to greater uniformity and more even distribution patterns of water and nutrients for any crop. The most sophisticated irrigation system cannot perform adequately if the drippers, sprayers, misters, or sprinklers are clogged. In standard, crop irrigation applications, clogging can result in lower yields for the grower. The grower will realize something less than 100% of the potential crop and suffer a concomitant loss of income. In propagation applications, where the crop value is inordinately high, if the distribution patterns and uniformity are compromised by emitter clogging the cost is potentially much greater. The propagator may realize a total loss of
Treasures of The Sierra Madre Oriental

Author: Daniel Zambrano

PP: 323

My home is Monterrey, México, a city of three million inhabitants right at the footsteps of the Sierra Madre Oriental, (Eastern Sierra Madre), on the frontier between the desert and the mountain forests. My first experiments in propagation of native plants began 2 years ago on a very small scale.

Everything started on weekend trips to the sierra. On these trips I was not only surprised by its beauty and majesty, but also with the great diversity of conifers, oaks, and other plants that grow on its slopes, rivers, and cliffs. There were trees and plants I had never seen before in the city and yet of unique beauty. Then the idea of learning more about the native species as well the techniques to propagate them, came to me.

In November, 1992, I had the opportunity of visiting South Africa. What surprised me on this trip was to see that in a country where there are no native pines, they have planted them on thousands of acres. According to Department of Forestry, Republic of South

Forest Nursery Production in the United States and Mexico

Author: John G. Mexal, Richard Phillips, Rosalia Adela Cuevas Rangel

PP: 327


Timber harvests in the United States have increased 57% over the last 40 years without a loss in timber growth. In fact, timber growth has increased 45% in the same period. In contrast, timber harvests in Mexico have declined 29% in the last 5 years because of deforestation, resulting in the closure of mills and the loss of jobs (Anon., 1994). Both countries have a large forested land base covering 30% to 40% of the country. Mexico has 0.58 ha forest land/person, while the United States has 0.75 ha forest land/person. The United States has reforested at least 200,000 ha every year since 1950 (Fig. 1). Mexico reforested 100,000 ha for the first time in 1991 (Fig. 1). Consequently, deforestation is claiming over 400,000 ha/year. Before the forest industry of Mexico can recover, deforested lands must be replanted and reforestation must become part of the land use plan. The objective of this paper is to compare the forest nursery production systems in the United

Hawaiian Native Plants in the Landscape

Author: Paul R. Weissich

PP: 332

The Hawaiian flora developed on islands that range in elevation from sea level to 14,000 ft and rainfall varying from only a few inches per year to the world's wettest place, Waialeale on Kaua'i averaging over 500 inches of rainfall per year. Temperatures vary from hot/wet to hot/dry tropical with every gradation in between. Areas above 4,000 ft elevation may experience light frosts. Two mountains, Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, are snow-capped each year while Mauna Kea has a permanently frozen lake at its summit. Soils are equally variable, ranging from sand and cinder (a'a and pahoehoe) to heavy latosols and rich alluviums.

The flora that evolved under these circumstances is unique. Approximately 1,000 species of flowering plants are native to the Islands. Of these, 89% are endemic, the highest of any floristic area of the world. Unfortunately, 38% of these species are considered threatened or endangered while 10% of previously recorded species are considered extinct. Only the State



PP: 335

Mike Evans: How is the Mexican agency that would be the same as our Forest Service promoting either private industry or their own nursery program for reforestation?

Richard Phillips: Inside of Mexican agencies like our USDA there are forestry researchers and agronomists. Other agencies are responsible for four major areas: reforestation, plantation, urban forestry, and environmental protection. The Army which has very little experience in nursery management has been asked to grow 123,000,000 seedlings. This has been very difficult in some cases, but in others it has succeeded due to personal interests of those involved. To date, there has not been investment necessary to bring the nurseries up to standards that will be needed to be competitive in the forestry industry.

Analyze Now or Pay Later: A Role for Testing in the Business of Plant Propagation

Author: Nat B. Dellavalle

PP: 336

It is amazing how much money is spent needlessly due to the lack of testing. The reasons for not testing are as many and varied as the people who give them. They include "I have no problems," "It costs too much," "I know my business" or "my land," "Testing doesn't work," or "If I wait to test I'll lose too much profit."

Testing services provide information used to make more accurate, less risky management decisions that justify the cost. The point of testing is to prevent problems, to make better business decisions. There are things that can not be known about land, media, or water without some type of testing. Testing services DO work. They are based on sound research and years of experience. Some, who don't take the time to test, realize losses not profits. Testing uses a sample of a population to learn something about a population, instead of using the whole population to learn as many people do.

Several examples of problems created due to the lack of testing will be presented. Not all are

The Process of Plant Disease Diagnosis

Author: Randolph Keim

PP: 342


Illnesses of plants are caused by factors that are either living or nonliving and that may predispose to each other. For example, overly wet roots may be weakened and more susceptible to biotic root rot, and biotically infected roots may reduce water uptake and cause normally watered plants to suffer from lack of oxygen.

Formulation of a Production Program for Container-Grown Plants—A Nursery Manager's Approach

Author: Peter Lewis

PP: 77

One of the most rewarding experiences for a nursery person is observing the successful release of new and improved product lines into a discerning market. However, many fail to appreciate the challenging and sometimes frustrating stages necessary in developing a product from "grow" to "woah". While often it may be tempting to take a chance in the rush to introduce new lines to the market, a methodical approach is more likely to be successful.

A suggested plan for the formulation of a production program includes:

  • Identify any special production requirements of the plant species/cultivar for a new or existing stock line. Background information can be obtained from past production experience with related species and published literature. Concisely summarise these findings, highlighting the important agronomic traits.
  • Conduct trials using existing nursery production programs. Grow trial batches throughout the nursery for at least a 1-year production cycle. This will give an indication of how
Propagation of Mycorrhizal Plants for Restoration

Author: Ted St. John

PP: 344

There is increasing interest in the propagation of native plants for use in habitat restoration. Mycorrhizae are essential to the survival of most native plant species and a defining feature of functional ecosystems. Native plant nurseries are now being called upon to provide mycorrhizal plants for habitat restoration (St. John, 1993). Production of mycorrhizal plants requires a source of inoculum, care in providing growing conditions favorable for both plant and symbiosis, and an ability to verify successful colonization.


PP: 347

Barbara Selemon: Will mycorrhizae work with exotic plants? Can mycorrhizae be introduced after the plant has been grown for 1 year?

Ted St. John: It is not too late. You can certainly inoculate after the fact. It's not the best thing to do when plants are in large containers. With special plants or for research purposes, it has been done. For the first question, whether the fungus is suitable, the only real question here is whether your plants are the vesicular-arbuscular type. If they are, then these general fungi are suitable. In fact, the same species are probably found in their home countries. They tend to be globally distributed and there are 200 species. You do have to make sure it's the right kind of fungus and the fungi tend to be quite specialized for soil althought they are very unspecialized with regard to host. The fungus that comes from an acid spil will not work in a neutral or basic soil, for instance.

Christy Alterman: How can you tell the difference between

Understanding Fog Technology

Author: Thomas R. Mee

PP: 350

Historically, many methods have been used in the attempt to retain moisture in unrooted cuttings. These have included sprinkling, misting, intermittent mist, and more recently micromist and fog. It has long been recognized that large droplets get the rooting medium too wet and soggy and that intermittent application of a fine mist is superior to sprinkling. Intermittent misting works fine for some applications, but it is difficult to control and sometimes results in an environment that is either too wet or too dry. Fog technology can solve those problems, but few people understand that the application of fog technology in propagation is entirely different from that of intermittent misting.

First, it's important to understand the difference between fog, micromist, mist, and sprinklers (rain size drops). The difference to the grower boils down to how wet things get, specifically plants and the growing medium. Big drops hold much more water than tiny droplets, so on a drop-by-drop

Some Plant Propagation Methods Used in China

Author: Bruce Macdonald

PP: 354

During 1989, the University of British Columbia Botanical Garden signed a 5-year agreement with the Nanjing Botanical Garden, People's Republic of China, for cooperative programs in research, plant exploration and educational programs. In 1991, I was invited by Dr. He, Shan-An, Director of Nanjing Botanical Garden, to give presentations, and workshops on propagation and new plants with commercial potential.

Besides visiting other gardens, arboretums, and mountain forests, I did have the opportunity to visit some nurseries to see the propagation techniques used. Much of it was very traditional and facilities were well below the standard used in the Westem world. Nonetheless, I was impressed with their enthusiasm and skills.

The nursery at the Nanjing Botanical Garden contained a wide variety of plants from their research programs and wild collections. One program is the hybridization of Taxodium for urban planting. A number of hybrids were made using T. distichum var. imbricatum

Mediterranean Plants Under Glass at Longwood Gardens

Author: James R. Ault

PP: 356


Longwood Gardens is a display garden situated on 1060 acres in southeastern Pennsylvania. Longwood is open year-round, attracting visitors to its 200 acres of outdoor displays and 3½ acres of conservatories and greenhouses. Longwood has been incorporating Mediterranean-climate plants into its conservatory displays since the mid 1980s. This was done to maintain lower greenhouse winter temperatures because of the escalating costs of heating fuel and to increase visitation during the winter months by providing the visitors with a kaleidoscope of plants in bloom. Longwood is located in USDA Hardiness Zone 6B, characterized by an average minimum winter temperature of 0 to -5F; as such, relatively few Mediterranean-climate plants are hardy outdoors in our area.

The Mediterranean-climate regions of the world include the true Mediterranean, the California chaparral, parts of coastal Chile, western and southern Australia, and the southwestern cape of South Africa.

Innovations in Growing using Retractable Roof Greenhouses, Cold Protection, and Shade Houses

Author: Richard Vollebregt

PP: 360


Most growers, given the opportunity, would prefer to grow their plants outside. Not only is the outside environment the natural environment for all plants, but it also requires less capital to grow outside than in a greenhouse structure. However, due to the fluctuation in the outdoor environment from day to day and season to season, it became obvious that some sort of structure would be required to precisely control the growing environment. As a result, growers began to build greenhouses to protect their plants from adverse outside conditions.

While inside a greenhouse, the plants are protected against adverse conditions outside. However, when outside conditions warm up and dry up, and the sun comes out, the greenhouse environment becomes too hot and too humid. During these sunny, hot conditions, most growers experience some or all of the following problems when growing in a greenhouse:

  • Plant stretch
  • Higher incidence of pests and disease due to higher heat and


PP: 363

John LaForge: Have you seen any fog systems inside these retractable-roof houses for propagation?

Richard Vollebregt: At this point, not yet. We have only been promoting this for production ranges. As growers become more aware of it we see fog used in propagation. We have seen it in Arizona were people have flat-roof houses and they were using the fog simply for cooling whereby they would have a retractable shade to reduce the light level and then the fog system would be used to supplement the colling of the air temperature.

Marge Sweeney: In your Mediterranean house, what was your watering system?

James Ault: Everything is being manually watered in there right now. Since we move plants around so much, trickle irrigation systems have been difficult to use.The soil mix in there is well-drained and you can have a plant that has a high water requirement next to a plant that has a low water requirement and not have problems with irrigating either one.

Motivating Plant Growth With Your Heating System

Author: Jim Rearden

PP: 364


Plants exist in several temperature microclimates simultaneously. A microclimate is defined for this paper's purpose as a small environment that is confined by the structure of the greenhouse, the structure of the plant, and the root zone.

The primary aim of this paper is to heighten the reader's awareness of the existence of these microclimates and to outline the tools that are available today to control the temperature in each. It is essential to understand that providing the optimum temperatures to all the plant's microclimates is essential to achieving maximum quality and production.

To create a reference point for this, I suggest that you try to understand the way a specific plant evolved in nature. Very often this simple approach will yield a very good recipe for creative use of the tools that are available for this purpose. To illustrate the impact microclimate temperature control can have, I asked several growers for feedback as to what effect this approach

Information Available on Native Hawaiian Plants

Author: Fred D. Rauch

PP: 367

A number of extension publications have been developed to inform the public about some of the more common native Hawaiian plants. Those currently available include:

Information sheets

Plant                            Publication number
    Wiliwili                                 10
    'Ohi'a lehua                           11
    'Akia                                    12
    Ma'o (Hawaiian cotton)         13
    Beach Naupaka                     14
    'Ilima                                    15
     Hapu‘u (Hawaiian tree fern)  16
The Eugenia Psyllid

Author: John Kabashima, Linda Farrar

PP: 367

The Eugenia psyllid (Eugenia myrtifolia) is a pest on the ornamental shrub Australian brush cherry, Syzygium paniculatum. Eugenia psyllid was introduced into California from Australia in 1988. The adult females lay tiny golden eggs along the edges of the leaves. The nymphs then crawl to the underside of the leaf surface and form their characteristic pits.

Dr. Don Dahlsten from U.C. Berkeley and Dr. Donald Kent from Walt Disney collected parasites from Australia and selected Tamarixia sp. for release in California. The Tamarixia adult females deposit their eggs in the pits under the psyllid nymphs. Upon hatching tamarixia larvae feed upon the mummified psyllid. Adult Tamarixia will live approximately 6 weeks and lay eggs in numerous psyllid nymph pits. Adults also feed on unparasitized nymphs.

Tamarixia seems to have established in several areas of California and will hopefully provide to have a level of control that will keep the psyllid populations from seriously damaging Eugenia foliage.