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Author: Andrew Carter, Mike Slee
Author: Frank Benson
There is a direct relationship between plant-out success and the quality of the product coming out of the micropropagation laboratory. As with other forms of plant propagation (cuttings, grafts and seeds), success rate is dependent on the health and pre-treatment of the stock plants.
With any new technology, it takes a while to identify the factors affecting quality and then how to go about manipulating these variables to maximize quality. In this paper I will present what I consider some of these variables, and my personal observations over the eight years I have been in commercial plant micropropagation.
My observations will be confined to three topic areas: 1) growth rate, 2) light intensity, and 3) relative humidity.
Author: Richard E. Bir, Thomas G. Ranney
As recently as 20 years ago horticulturists generally agreed that the addition of organic soil amendments to the planting hole would improve both the survival and subsequent growth of shrubs and trees transplanted into the landscape. However, about fifteen years ago evidence started to accumulate that has prompted reevaluation
Research using peat and/or pine bark to amend backfill when planting woody plants as diverse as Rhododendron ‘English Roseum’ and R. ‘Hino-Degiri’, shore juniper, Ilex crenata ‘Helleri’, flowering dogwood, sweet gum and silver maple in mineral soils (Corley, 1984; Schulte and Whitcomb, 1975) indicated that not only were we wasting our time when recommending organic matter but also wasting our customer's money (Hummel and Johnson, 1985). However, all of this research was done with individual planting holes. Other research showed that some cultivars of roses and evergreen azaleas did benefit from the addition of organic matter to an entire planting bed
Author: Calvin Chong, R.A. Cline, D.L. Rinker
The Ornamental Nursery Research Programme at the Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario (HRIO) has been evaluating the use of various organic waste by-products as growing medium ingredients or as substitutes for traditional organic products such as peat and bark. This paper highlights some of our recent investigations in this area of nursery culture.
Author: Edward L. Carpenter
To help understand the conclusions we have drawn, I will provide a brief explanation of our propagation systems at Midwest GroundCovers. Throughout a season lasting from March through October, we will propagate approximately 12 million cuttings. These cuttings range from groundcovers such as Euonymus fortunei ‘Colorata’ and Pachysandra terminalis cultivars to conifers such as Juniperus chinensis var. sargentii ‘Viridis’. All cuttings are field prepared by cutting crews and then stored in a cooler. Once the sticking site is prepared, the sticking crews take the cuttings from the cooler, dip them in hormone, and stick them at the site. We use 8 cutters and 7 tickers—so speed is essential for these 12 million cuttings.
Certain criteria must be met
Author: Peter Del Tredici
In order to be properly understood, the phenomenon of topophysis must be examined within the conceptual framework of tree architecture, as
Author: Michael Marcotrigiano
Author: Alfred J. Fordham
In autumn when the nesting season has passed and birds have reared their young, some species gather in multitudes and roam the countryside In nature's scheme of things, this timing coincides with the dispersal of many kinds of plant seeds Fleshy fruits containing seeds dependent on birds for dispersal ripen and change to a variety of highly attractive colors. Birds have no teeth, do not chew but gulp their food. Therefore, cleaned and undamaged seeds pass through the birds and are scattered about the countryside in their droppings.
Many other seeds that rely on wind for dispersal are contained in vertical capsules which when ripe open only at their tops. Therefore,
Author: C. Dale Hendricks
It is finally becoming noticed, certainly not yet common knowledge, that growing and maintaining plants is positive and lifegiving to the gardener as well as to the planetary ecology at large. The increasing interest in natives provides a chance for growers, gardeners, researchers and the whole green industry to be viewed in a better, more positive light. We can be seen as friends of nature, pointing out forgotten (newly discovered?) interconnectedness between the plant world and the rest of the web of life—the wind,
Author: Dan W. Studebaker
Author: James R. Johnson
Author: Ronald F. Kujawski
Frequent and prominent media attention to such studies has prompted public outcry to limit or ban the use of pesticides. This in turn has spurred an increasing number of state and federal regulations regarding what, where and how pesticides are used.
Consequently, agricultural producers are required to be more informed about the pesticides they apply and the potential risks those chemicals pose to ground and surface water supplies. Determining potential risks involves evaluation of pesticide and soil properties, site conditions and management practices.
Author: Denis Scott
This paper details our efforts as a specialist tube nursery to mechanise the tubing stage, using a potting machine. We were aiming to achieve several objectives:
- To increase the production output per person.
- To decrease the time allocated to potting.
- Achieve these goals with unskilled labour.
There are several potting machines available, each slightly different in its operation. We looked at two machines, the Javo and the Tolley Plantmaster.
The Javo, as is the case with most potting machines, overfills the
Author: Bruce A. Briggs, James A. Robbins, James L. Green
Author: Richard E. Watson
After many trials over several years with different covers and supports I settled on the following system. In early spring prior to germination we cover individual seedbeds with 10 ft wide freeze covers weighing 1.5 ounces per yard and later with grow covers of 0.6 ounces per yard. These tarps, manufactured by Kimberly Farms, are made of UV-stable, white-polypropylene, spunbonded fabric and are porous to water and self-ventilating.
The tarps are supported on ½ in. PVC pipe hoops fitted on 18 in. steel stakes which have been driven
Author: Dale G. Deppe
What the customer wants is "perfection". They may not say it that way but it's true The first impression when seeing your plant material is the one remembered. The better the plant material looks when it's received the better off the liner grower is going to be If there is a problem growing the plant material at a later date, customers will look inward at their own company, and what their employees may have done or what else may have happened during the growing cycle. If the plant material looks smashed or jumbled, has broken branches, dead leaves, isn't in the pots anymore, or what ever, you can bet everyone
Author: Elwin R. Orton Jr.
Foremost among the listings of C. kousa in many nursery catalogs has been C. kousa var. chinensis ‘Milky Way’, an introduction of Wayside Gardens in the 1960s. Apparently the demand for plants of ‘Milky Way’ outstripped the production capacity of growers as listings of "Seedlings of ‘Milky Way’" appeared in various nursery catalogs during the last decade. To this day, it is not uncommon to see such listings in nursery catalogs.
Author: Daniel Gilrein
All surfaces should be clean and dry before application. Test for mildew with a 1:1 bleach:water spray If mildew is present it will turn a light grey color. Mildew can be scrubbed off 30 minutes after spraying with a mixture of 3 oz trisodium phosphate (Oakite, Soilax, Spic & Span), 1 qt household bleach, and 3 qt warm water.
Author: Ralph Freeman
Investigations were conducted in commercial grower operations and the following germination conditions were found: germination medium, Peat-lite mix; germinating environment, 70 to 75°F ambient; media temperatures, 70°F; relative humidity, 60 to 100%, light levels, 4000 to 6000 ft-c, and moisture of the mix was uniform and adequate.
Numerous investigations were conducted to determine the cause of these losses. It was found that the presence of surfactants and/or fungicides in mixes influenced these effects. Under controlled conditions in
Author: Murdick McLeod, Scott Clark
The melon aphid can be very difficult to control, partly due to insecticide resistance, and its even distribution throughout the plant makes pesticide penetration to the lower portion of the canopy very important.
Horticultural oils and insecticidal soap are gaining wide acceptance in pest management programs due to their environmental and plant safety along with their effectiveness in controlling a wide range of pests. Using them in combination with traditional pesticides has shown increased activity and the potential for
Author: M.L. Daughtrey, W.S. Clark, M.T. Macksel
Author: W. David Thompson
Dwarf and unusual forms of conifers have been recognized since the 1800s. Ten dwarf forms were first listed in 1938, and by 1966 over 1000 forms were available. Now the cultivars available are abundant. In developing a market for these specimens, we need to consider today's economy and the time available to home owners for work in their landscape. Building lots are becoming increasingly smaller in size as real estate prices soar. Funds required for care of massive plantings has led to a serious look at the benefits of smaller, compact plantings in this day of economic stress. A new home owner must consider time and effort, as well as expense, when planting a harmonious landscape. Dwarf and unusual conifers in a landscape will provide years of beauty, balance and growing interest to the space limited gardener, as well as eliminating yearly garden chores that are a must for massive plantings. Limited space and great expectations support the need for various forms of
Author: Robert R. Arntzen
Currently we are growing about
Author: V.J. Hartney, J.G.P. Svensson
Author: Wen Quan Sun, Nina Bassuk
Author: R. Wayne Mezitt
Because of this winter hardiness deficiency there is a need for more reliability in evergreen-azalea-type plants in
Author: David Schmidt, Richard Haworth
Because of difficulty in rooting double white lilacs at the Royal Botanical Gardens (R.B.G.) using our conventional method of 8000 ppm IBA in talc, we decided to treat cuttings of seven double-white, French-hybrid cultivars with 5000 ppm IBA in alcohol and compare the results with our conventional method. The results showed there may be a minimal advantage towards using alcohol over the talcum powder and that Syringa vulgaris ‘Krasavitsa Muskovy’ was by far the best double white lilac to be rooted from softwood cuttings.
Lilac propagation has been a leading priority of R.B.G. for some time. A concern has been to make sure lilacs are on their own roots to help insure trueness to name and to help avoid incompatibility problems, hence the reason for rooting lilacs from softwood cuttings.
Author: Richard P. Wolff
Author: Deborah McCown
This year's Research Grant has been awarded to Drs. Barry Goldfarb and Wesley Hackett form the University of Minnesota. Their proposal is titled: Rejuvination of Conifer Meristems in Relation to Clonal Propagation.
DR. PAUL L. SMEAL made the following Fellow Award an Qward of Merit presentations.
Author: Paul L. Smeal
Mr. Al Fordham, who received the Award of Merit in 1971 and was named an Honorary Member in 1978.
Dr. John McGuire, retired professor from the University of Rhode Island, Eastern Region President in 1977&ndah;78 and recipient of the Award of Merit in 1982.
Mr. Tom Pinney, Jr. who was president in 1970&ndah;71 and received the Award of Merit in 1976.
Author: Paul L. Smeal
Employment with the U.S. Soil Conservation Service and later as a Supervisor of grading and seeding, at the Ravenna Arsenal, was followed by volunteering for service in the U.S. Navy Seabees in 1942 where he achieved the rank of chief petty officer. He became a member of the Scouts and Raiders underwater demolition team, and supervised sanitation and insect control behind enemy lines in China. He was able to eradicate malarial disease in this area for the first time in history. He was awarded the Bronze Star in 1946.
Wars end in 1946 saw our recipient employed first, for three years, as Deputy Nursery Inspector for the State of Ohio. He moved on to Chataqua County, New York where as Cornell University
Author: Ralph Shugert
On 17 April 1991 as a part of the I.P.P.S.
Author: Richard H. Munson
The issuance of plant patents to clones with trademarked fancy names and nonsensical cultivar names continues without apparent abatement. During the past three years I have encountered numerous examples of this practice in our trade publications, nursery catalogs, and popular horticultural magazines. It is important to understand the basic rationale for assigning a nonsensical cultivar name to a patented clone while at the same time obtaining a "fancy"
Author: Peggy Walsh Craig
Similar, but not identical, to the protection a US plant patent offers, the new legislation grants Canadian breeders exclusive rights over their cultivars' reproductive material. lf growers wish to grow or sell the cultivars, they must obtain the breeders' permission and pay royalties.
Eugene Whelan, Minister of Agriculture for many years in the Trudeau cabinet, is reported to have said that he'd seen more rubbish written on plant breeders' rights than on any other subject. The Plant Breeders' Rights Act is one of the most publicized, persistent, and controversial pieces of legislation ever to be passed by Canada's Parliament. The debate leading to its enactment lasted for more
Author: Robert J. Appleton
Appletons' Tree Nursery grows a range of 350 species of deciduous trees and conifers. Production consists of two million, one-and two-year-old seedlings grown in open-ground raised seedbeds. Climatic conditions are very favourable for seedling growth with a long growing season and defined winter dormancy period. The soil is less ideal being a silt clay loam over compacted clay which results in poor drainage during heavy periods of rain.
We practice a fixed seed bed production system. Once a seed bed is established, all subsequent operations are carried out from the tractor alleyways and after a crop is lifted the seed bed is ripped and reformed. A fixed bed production system allows for improvement of the seed bed soil structure without the soil compacted by the tractor tyres being incorporated into the seed bed. This method of seed bed management has led to an improvement in soil structure over a 15 year period. Past practice was one of complete cultivation which
Author: Jack Alexander
I volunteered to present this plant with a great deal of pleasure. The person for whom it is named is very special to me and through the years has been a pillar of knowledge and strength to many of us. Having a plant named for oneself is like being given a bit of immortality and I cannot think of a better person to have his name in perpetuity!!!!
A new and distinct cultivar of Vinca minor has been patented by Hortech of Spring Lake, Michigan and is being grown by Midwest Groundcovers, St. Charles, IL; Wayside Gardens of South Carolina; and Shadow Nursery of Tennessee.
This plant, V. minor ‘Ralph Shugert’ originated as a sport of V. minor ‘Bowles Variety’ and was first propagated by David Mackenzie using intermittent mist and root inducing substances during 1986. The plant is characterized by foliage which is the same shape and size as ‘Bowles Variety’. It has leaves that are colored deep glossy green, edged with a thin margin of white. Flowers are typical of
Author: Ralph Shugert, Bruce Briggs
MODERATOR BRIGGS: Question for Deb McCown. You have in tissue culture Cornus kousa 'Milky Way Select'. What is the source of this plant?
DEB MCCOWN: Origins of Milky Way Select. Original plant from old Lake County Nursery Exchange (L.C.N.E.), now Lake County Nursery, who were growing dogwood from seed of original 'Milky Way' plant. L.C.N.E. said seed was pretty "true" to original clonal plant. We brought in seedlings and selected one that was particularly nice. We could not call our microcuttings 'Milky Way' but wanted to indicate that our plants would be similar to original 'Milky Way' clone-hence 'Milky Way Select'. We have carefully explained this in our catalogue.
MODERATOR SHUGERT: Question for Elwin Orton. How about telling us about Cornus kousa 'Summer Stars'. Is it a clone?
ELWIN ORTON: To the best of my knowledge it is a clone
Author: Carl E. Whitcomb
This study was conducted in six central Florida nurseries beginning April. The test plants were Fashion azalea, Hetzi Japanese holly, and blue Pacific shore juniper. The fertilizer sources were an 18–6–13 experimental Osmocote, 24–4–0 High N,
Author: Chris J. Barnaby, John Clemens
The commercial cultivation of cut Boronia, which is largely confined in New Zealand to Boronia heterophylla (red boronia), is a relatively recent development in Australasia and Central America. Exports from New Zealand have been received favourably in several markets, particularly in Japan. However, production and postharvest information for cut stems is limited for B. heterophylla and practically nonexistent for other members of the genus.
The number of species readily available in New Zealand is not large but it does allow comparative evaluation of their suitability for cutting. The evaluation of these species was carried out according to modified standard criteria. (Salinger, 1985). These criteria were vase life, cutting season, form, growth rate, colour, physical character and pest/disease problems. The fragrance of Boronia, which can affect marketability and varies in strength and nature between species, was included as an evaluation criterion. Fragrance testing was
Author: John Clemens, C. Bruce Christie, Chris J. Barnaby
Irrigation affects the growth and quality of container plants in nurseries. Factors of importance may be the frequency and intensity of watering, and the quality of the water supply. Of fundamental significance, however, may be the very way in which the water is delivered to the plants (Welsh, 1989). Many nurseries rely heavily on overhead sprinkler systems; at the same time there has been enthusiastic advocacy of subirrigation systems, such as, those incorporating capillary and ebb-and-flood methods. A container plant growing-on area was established in the open at the Nursery Research Centre in which different irrigation regimes could be compared.
There were a number of objectives that could be wholly or partially fulfilled by the use of the facility Firstly, it was intended as a demonstration area; a place where people from the New Zealand nursery industry could gather ideas and get a feel for the effects different irrigation methods (and other factors interacting with
Author: Martin Cornall
The demand for pittosporums (Pittosporum spp.) in New Zealand has never waned, and with the introduction each year of exciting new hybrids, this trend is sure to continue. They are grown predominantly for their almost endless range of foliage colours. Couple this with their adaptability either as a hedge, a trimmed container plant, garden specimen, a floristry crop or contrast plant in the shrubbery, and it is not surprising that many New Zealand nurserymen consider these plants their "bread and butter" crop.
Author: John M. Follett
New Zealand's economy is largely based on its primary industries with this likely to continue into the foreseeable future In order to strengthen that base, many plants and animals not normally associated with New Zealand have and are being evaluated to determine their economic viability. Within the horticultural industry crops, such as, persimmons, nashi, autumn raspberries, chicory, babacos and pepinos have, with varying degrees of success, been grown for export.
One of the problems with the evaluation of new crops is that there is often little information available on propagation and production techniques because of language barriers and unfamiliar, traditional cropping practices also tending to confuse the issue.
This paper outlines some of the new and novel crops that have been evaluated at Ruakura along with the propagation techniques that we have found successful. These crops include florence fennel, ginseng, mitsuba, myoga, shungiku, stevia and wasabi.
Author: Terry C. Hatch
I purchased three of the D-shaped seeds of Worsleya 20 years ago for five pounds. Germination took place after only 4 weeks at 22°C. Having little information on the culture—except that they disliked lime—I used a peat and pumice mix for the three small plants They were repotted every summer using long-term controlled-release fertilizers and given occasional applications of dried blood.
The evergreen growth slows in the cooler months and very little moisture is needed. As
Author: D. John James, C. Bruce Christie
Author: Barrie Hadlow
Aboriginal people through experiment and expediency developed an extraordinary knowledge of the indigenous flora Besides the obvious use for food, plants were also needed for medicine, ceremony, art, weapons, poisons, snares, daily utensils, shelter, and transport.
It has been shown that Aboriginal technologies for obtaining food varied across regions of the continent. However, as food procurement strategists,
Author: Cathy Jones, Dale Smith, Ham Gifford, Ian Nicholas
At the turn of the century, Australian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) was a very popular cabinet making timber, but supplies diminished and other timber took its place in the market Since the early 1980s, it has attracted interest in New Zealand as a special purpose plantation tree, an alternative to local native timbers which have become expensive and not widely available (Nicholas, 1982). Acacia melanoxylon grows on a wide variety of sites and it is possible to achieve the desired 6-m sawlog with a 30–40 year rotation.
Acacia melanoxylon often exhibits a poor form, usually as the result of insect damage to shoot tips causing loss of apical dominance. Within stands of A. melanoxylon good trees exhibiting rapid growth and improved form can be recognised. The Forest Research Institute (FRI) Acacia melanoxylon Programme includes silviculture, breeding and propagation research. Tissue culture was included in the propagation research as it had the potential to provide an
Author: R.N. McMillan
After about five years our efforts were helped by the gift of a few packets of V & R seed from an old friend Alex Purdie of New Plymouth. Alex knew what we were trying to achieve and though it better that we had the "special seed to play around with".
Germination was patchy but we got a number of very unusual and, in some cases, strange plants. The best of these we selfed and repeated a second year. We matched colours and grouped them as V & R
Author: Neil Huxtable
In the 1950s there was more concentration on quantity than quality. From the 1960s consumer awareness led to increased inspection during the production process. The 1970s saw the oil crisis, and quality assurance came to the fore to conserve resources and reduce waste Quality through technical excellence was the key to Japanese pre-eminence in the 1980s and in the 1990s the combination of technical knowledge plus the effective use of people (the key to total quality management) is to the fore. In the future the issues at stake may well be quality of life and social cost quality.
A quality driven organization concentrates on breaking down the barriers typical in old hierarchical organizations. Instead we aim for a structure in which external customers provide feedback which is passed through all levels of the organization so that they can work in harmony to meet the customers needs. The organization also passes feedback to its external suppliers so that they can correctly
Author: Brian Howard
Attaining a plant of large saleable size as quickly as possible is the main objective of commercial nursery stock production, with due attention to shape in terms of branching and compactness, and the development of flower buds if appropriate for the variety. Batch uniformity should be high, and production methods must be cost-effective.
These objectives are undermined if a plant is difficult to propagate. Easy-to-root cuttings suffer least if the propagation environment is less than optimal, and well-rooted cuttings establish and harden with minimal difficulty, and grow-on to produce uniform batches of plants. On the other hand, cuttings of difficult-to-propagate plants may fail to survive, or may root only poorly. Subsequent weaning is difficult and the growth of those plants which reach the container will be variable, reflecting variation in root development. Initial propagation success is, therefore, an essential component of high quality
Author: W. Anthony Lord
This survey aims to specify which societies are possible sources of new or reintroduced plants for the trade, then define quality, and finally discuss how societies can achieve quality in plants, other than those which are already widely available.
Author: Graham Vallis
Propagation has more influence on the final quality of nursery stock than does any other stage of the production cycle. Both efficiency and effectiveness of production are controlled by the rate at which saleable plant size is achieved and this, too, depends to a large degree on the quality of the liner emerging from the propagation house.
Using modern technology to improve traditional cuttings propagation systems can come close to ensuring that each plant produced is of premium grade But they still have the drawback of being production-led rather than market-led. They fail to deliver high quality, fresh plants throughout the season. Instead they lead to maximum availability of plants in the autumn at a time when demand is below peak.
Author: Neil C. Bragg
The last 20 years has seen the steady development of peat dominated mixes for use in container nursery stock. The quantity of peat used by the nursery stock industry has now reached at least 220,000 m3/annum, (Bragg, 1991).
The most notable developments in the use of peat based mixes have been:
- The understanding of the physical nature of the materials being used,
- Development of the use of controlled release fertilizers, (CRFs),
- Managing the interaction of 1 and 2 above with the water requirements of the plants and the drainage away from the container.
The following sections of this paper will look at the three points above before looking at the future of peat use and at possible alternatives for nursery stock use.
Author: Donnchadh Mac Carthaigh
There have been vast changes since the fall of the Iron Curtain in Europe in 1989 Change continues at a fast rate so any attempt to describe the situation in Eastern Europe will be out of date by the time it is published. This report is a result of information from numerous contacts and personal visits to nurseries in each of three former East Block countries and East Germany. Poland and Hungary were visited last in 1990 and Czechoslovakia in summer 1991. Eastern Germany was visited many times since 1989. Many Westerners do not realise that the situation in each of the former East Block countries was very different. For example more than 70% of Polish land was fully privately owned, whereas in Czechoslovakia nearly 100% of the land was owned by the State or was co-operatively worked—not so much as one private nursery survived collectivisation in that country. In East Germany a number of smaller private interprises survived 40 years in a communist state. The selling of trees
Author: Athanassios C. Rubos
The nursery industry in Greece has flourished since before the age of Homer because of the vast range of climatic conditions favouring the cultivation of species ranging from tropical to hardy and alpine types During the last 20 years, the nursery industry has achieved significant progress which has established the acceptance of the Greek nurseryman and his propagation skills in many other countries There are many possibilities for further development, for example, the localization of extended geothermal fields and the use of solar energy will add a new dimension to the nursery technology.
Author: John Adlam
Quality on the nursery is like the red thread that runs through every inch of rope used by the Royal Navy. It should be addressed in every aspect of our work. With consumer environmental awareness increasing, nursery stock growers cannot afford to lower quality standards. The day of the pest-damaged plant being acceptable because it was in a biological control regime is over. In the Eric Gardener Memorial Lecture at BGLA (British Growers Look Ahead exhibition run by National Farmers Union) this year Jonathan Porritt (former director, Friends of the Earth) made the following statement: "Consumer demand for higher quality produce in terms of safety and the phenomenon of green consumerism with its emphasis on higher environmental quality are by no means the negative factors some growers see them as. The key to the future is to be found in adding value." The value added element is primarily a marketing tool but at the production level we must embrace the techniques available
Author: C.J. Nazer
The greenhouse environment provides optimum conditions for plant growth; these conditions also favour many plant pests and diseases. Pesticides are frequently required to control these problems, but in Australia there is little published information on the safety requirements specific to their use.
The occupational health and safety legislation introduced throughout Australia in recent years highlights the health and safety concerns employers have for their staff. Pesticides when used in greenhouses can undoubtedly pose increased hazards to either the pesticide operator or other staff via exposure factors arising from the confined air space and contact with surfaces associated with greenhouse operations.
This paper outlines key principles of pest management in greenhouses. The main emphasis of these principles is upon occupational health and safety aspects, and the use of integrated pest management to minimise the hazards of pest control. A means is provided for reducing
Author: James W. Goodford
The consequences of this decision, now on the way to implementation, are that by 31 December 1992 (the date set in the Single Market Act) there will be a slackening of frontier controls at any border between two member states. The Customs Entry form, a document which has always represented the focus of control and monitoring of goods entering the UK will disappear completely for imports—and this of course includes plants and plant propagating material—from other member states. However
Author: B.E. Humphrey
The whole emphasis of producing, selling and distributing nursery stock today is on quality. Unfortunately, quality does not come cheap It normally implies more input, more attention to detail, more knowledge of what to do, more uniformity of materials and procedures, more organisation, more communication, more commitment, more participation—in short more skill and professionalism. The implication of all this is that more training is required, which in turn requires careful planning. The steps necessary are:
- Set quality goals.
- Identify and devise methods for meeting these goals and draw up a plan.
- Implement the methods.
- Monitor performance against the plan.
- Setting Quality Goals. Normally this takes the form of an appraisal of what you are currently doing and how it can be improved; often a reaction to customer criticisms, past problems and failures.
A recent and highly significant development in setting quality standards is the British Standard B S 5750
Author: Dermot E.M. Crummy
The initial meeting between myself and the pupils was to decide which crops the pupils were going to grow and work out a rough format for prices, etc. At this planning stage a number of problems became apparent to the students, because they had no pots, no compost,
Author: Douglas K. Reade
Far too many of the companies I encounter are production-led, thus finding it difficult to establish a sound basis in the current competitive market place Equally there are many companies who are approaching the future on the basis of sales-led promotions thinking that this is marketing. Such approaches create compartmentalized companies with a narrow-minded approach to quality management.
Quality Management is about
- Knowing what the customer wants
- Getting the best performance throughout the company.
Author: Peter Catt
Author: Michael L. Dunnett
When we talk about promotion, we are actually talking about promotion of the pastime of gardening, because it is within this pastime that our products (plants) are used So how do we go about this? We must support every aspect of gardening at all opportunities and on every occasion. We must offer encouragement and advice wherever possible. The following are some examples of how we as professionals can support and promote the pastime of gardening.
- Encourage good amenity planting. People who are exposed to plants in their public places start to expect them as a part of everyday life. Britain in Bloom is a good example of one of the reasons why bedding plants have become popular in the last decade.
- We must sponsor and provide information for the media whether this be local newspapers, national magazines or television. As we all know, television is incredible as a promotion medium. We are fortunate that there are so many programmes on the television,
Author: Sean Sweeney
Monrovia has had an excellent history of producing the best quality containerized nursery stock in the United States and has an exciting future ahead of it. There are now three company locations.
The site in Azusa is 500 acres, of which 400 are used in production. This site is in a Zone 10 area on the U.S.D.A. hardiness map, so all of the tropical plants are grown here. The Oregon site was purchased in 1984 and is at present 510 acres. This site is used to grow the hardier plants. The nursery has recently purchased a third property in Visalia, in central California, which is approximately 1,500 acres in size. One thousand-two hundred of the acres have a slope of less than five percent which is usable for nursery stock. By 1995, all the production in Azusa will have been moved to Visalia, and in December 1995, a total of 900 acres is planned to have been developed. In 1995, the nursery plans to have 1,660 acres in production in comparison to 425 acres in 1984. This is an
Author: Angella Evans
The eucalypt is a member of the family Myrtaceae with a natural range extending from 7°N to 43°S in Australasia. The eucalypt owes it's dominance in Australia, in part, to its ability to colonise bare ground, and the growth of lignotubers, indefinite shoots, naked buds and epicormic shoots that enable rapid growth. When planted outside Australia in localities that do not have insects that defoliate them their
Author: Maurice Barletta
Discussion began with the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM), and how the propagation unit of a nursery could fit in with this. The point was made that propagation was the starting point for quality production in all the subsequent stages on the nursery.
This was considered a difficult ideal to achieve if the nursery was not large enough to support a full time propagator On small nurseries, propagation itself is just one aspect of the propagator's job. Activities further down the production process, such as potting up liners for sale to generate cash flow, tend to push propagation down the priority list.
Author: Spence Gunn
Smaller nurseries in particular found that while they identified a need for training, it was difficult to allocate sufficient time. Training often conflicted with the demands of production and for this reason it was considered that, ideally, one person should be given responsibility for training, fulfilling the role of training or personnel officer—although it was recognised this person may have other duties too.
Induction training, when people first join a nursery, was seen as vital. To give sufficient attention to induction training, nurseries should avoid taking on new staff during busy periods. Working longer hours with existing staff was thought to be preferable. Recruitment should be planned so that new staff were taken on when there was sufficient time for induction training.
It is also
Author: Andrew Guerin
Amaryllis is the common name applied to hybrids and cultivars derived from various species in the genus Hippeastrum. They are from the family Amaryllidaceae (included in Liliaceae), and were from the genus Amaryllis when the initial hybridization was begun at the turn of the 18th Century. Later, when the genus Amaryllis was divided and these species were shifted to Hippeastrum, amaryllis was retained as a rather confusing common name.
Author: Edward Back
Marketing is often viewed by horticulturalists as something apart from production and even further from propagation, but of course it isn't. In commercial horticulture, it is only marketing that makes production and propagation possible, without a market there would be no point in either.
Conversely of course there is no point in employing the most sophisticated marketing techniques to define a market, quantify the potential demand and specify the product needed to satisfy that demand if you don't have the ability to produce it profitably.
Marketing is not something practised by others, spending large sums of money in city offices, running massive businesses. Anywhere a demand meets a supply whether for money, for barter or for free, a market exists and we are all part of it.
Author: D.P. Elliott
Marketing is most concisely defined as getting the right product in the right place at the right time. This leaves too many loose ends for me and I prefer its definition as the process of balancing the company's need for profit against the benefit required by consumers, so as to maximise long term earnings per share (or return on capital). It is this need to maintain long term profitability, and thus the survival and development of a business, that places the emphasis on strategy and planning to develop the marketing ethos.
There is a conflict between the consumers' need for benefits and the firm's need for efficiency and profitability. There are marginally profitable plants or groups
A position at the UBC Botanic Garden lured Macdonald from his native England to British Columbia in 1980. He became involved in Western Region activities soon after transferring from Region of Great Britain and Ireland that same year.
He has initiated a number of Western Region innovations. The Region's first area meeting was organized by Macdonald in 1988. He was instrumental in developing the Region's publicity and promotion program. He authored the Region's first information brochure, and also its recent revision. His idea of a travel scholarship is just now being initiated. The Region Executive Committee has just approved his suggestion to sponsor the I.P.P.S. Membership of a Chinese horticulturist.
Macdonald was Western Region President in
Author: Jheri Ketcham
I don't disagree, the logic is sound, but what we fail to hear or understand, is how? What does marketing consist of? Where do you begin? How can you practically implement marketing without spending a fortune. What can you, as nursery owners and managers, do to assure a market is ready and willing when you're ready to sell.
You do this by becoming market-driven. By letting the market be your guide, your road map to your business decisions. By setting your antenna on your market and letting them shape your business. This does not mean printing a bigger and better catalog or hiring another sales
Author: Robin Rose
This paper is about the Target Seedling Concept (Rose et al., 1990) and its use as a marketing tool First, what is the definition of the target seedling concept? In a forestry context it means to target specific physiological and morphological seedling characteristics that can be quantitatively linked with reforestation success. The idea is that for whatever purpose the plants are intended, it is important that they are physiologically and morphologically prepared to
Author: Robert L. Fincham
It is our responsibility to introduce new plants in such away as to create a market for these new introductions and to have sufficient stock to supply this created market.
We have an advantage that allows us to make many more introductions than most nurseries. When we find a plant with definite merit for the home owner and the grower, we can have that plant in our catalog in just a few years. If we discover a new plant, we can first produce it in small quantities for evaluation purposes, thus saving considerable capital investment, and still shift into heavy production for immediate release in only one additional year.
Let me first mention a few facts about why we are able to introduce many new plants before I explain how we introduce and market them.
One particular plant that we recently introduced through Mitsch Nursery was Pinus
Author: Michael Poynter
Up until about 8 years ago computers for use in business were pretty well confined to larger multi-user mini or main frame machines that were exceedingly expensive. With the advent of personal computers even the horticulture industry saw several companies offer software to growers that they would help them run their businesses. Although the dealers claimed that they would do quite a wide variety of things they were best used for handling accounting functions.
With the advent of the spreadsheet programs,
Author: Gale A. Gingrich
Agrostis sp, bentgrass
Dactylis glomerata, orchardgrass
Festuca rubra, fine fescue
Festuca arundinacea, tall fescue
Lolium sp., ryegrass
Poa sp., bluegrass
The state produces both forage and turf cultivars Oregon's rise to world-wide prominence in grass seed production did not happen over night. Growing began nearly 100 years ago.
Author: John W. Weeks
One could probably state without rebuke that the strawberry plant has been a key factor in the evolution of modern horticultural science and technology. Genetic "fingerprinting" to maintain the identity of cultivars was pioneered mostly using strawberry plants; it is also an aid to plant patent holders (Smith) A lot of what we know about tissue culture today was pioneered using the strawberry. Strawberry plants have always been popular in plant research because of their growth habit and small size. Much of the very best and valuable nutrient deficiency
Author: William M. Proebsting, Michael A. Reihs
Presently, the filbert (hazel nut) (Corylus avellana) is propagated primarily by layerage, because of difficulties inherent in other methods of propagation (Bergougnoux et al., 1976) Either of two factors may limit propagation of filbert by stem cuttings: poor root initiation (Bergougnoux et al., 1976; Falaschi and Loreti, 1969), or abscission of the vegetative buds on otherwise well-rooted cuttings (Lagerstedt, 1970; Lagerstedt, 1982). Bud abscission is the major problem we encounter Rooting of terminal stem cuttings varies by cultivar but is generally excellent. Unfortunately, the percentage of these cuttings that retain buds is generally low, so the propagation rate (the percentage of cuttings with both roots and one or more vegetative buds) is low as well. Bud retention of 0 to 10% is typical of terminal cuttings of filbert cultivars.
There is interest in propagation by stem cuttings for at least three reasons: 1) With identification of Eastern filbert blight in the
Author: P.G. Boland, B.C. Hanger
Rooting hormones (auxins) promote root initiation on cuttings Dip applications of the auxin indolebutyric acid (IBA) at concentrations up to 6000 ppm are commonly used. In aeroponic systems (systems which use regular misting of the root zone with nutrient solution) it has been shown that cuttings will root equally well when continuously exposed to low auxin concentrations in the solution misting the cutting bases (Nir, 1980).
Oxygen is essential for root formation to take place (Zimmerman, 1930). The propagation medium used for cuttings must therefore have the correct balance between available water and oxygen. Failure to achieve this balance can result in stress either in the form of dehydration or anaerobic conditions. Such stress in the rooting zone can result in collapse and death of the cutting. The aerial part of the cutting is protected from dehydration, usually by misting or fogging.
The Ein Gedi Aero-hydroponic System developed by Soffer (1989) has been adapted
Author: F. Allan Elliott
Motivation for a program of mechanization comes in the form of savings through: 1) a reduction in the labor required to do an activity, 2) reduced exposure of employees to potential injury, 3) better utilization of existing equipment, 4) fuel conservation, and 5) lower payroll costs. Even with these incentives, mechanization must become a priority to the nursery person in order for the program to be successful. This is to say that one must be conscious of the opportunity for improving by changing methods through mechanization.
The process starts by challenging activities and asking:
Author: Terri L. Bell
The necessity in the beginning, 13 years ago, was money. Lots of children bound for college, two jobs that wouldn't provide that kind of income, and a two-acre home in the country.
We were going to raise berries but Jack Bigeji, a nurseryman friend, suggested that we go into the nursery business. Not knowing anything about the nursery business, we felt it was necessary to educate ourselves. We selected a propagation night course at our local community college and away we went in the fall.
Four weeks into the course we rooted a plant. It seemed easy and I could see dollar signs all over the place. Just cut a stem from a plant, put some
Author: Mark Buchholz
There are many costs associated with operating a nursery business. Tractors, greenhouses, canning machines, computers, and other production equipment all cost money to operate and maintain. Better efficiencies in these areas will certainly result in a stronger bottom line. There is one major area in our businesses that if properly managed will yield the most at year end. That area is labor.
At Monrovia Nursery
Author: Richard P. Regan
When to irrigate and how much water to apply is best determined by the crop water requirements, the capacity of the root-zone medium to store water, the water application uniformity, the leaching requirements, and the availability of irrigation water. The most common methods used to determine when to irrigate container plants are the visual crop appearance and the relative weight loss judged by lifting the container. Plants with similar crop water requirements should be grouped together, and irrigation scheduled accordingly.
Author: Sharon Leopold
Originally, the problem of irrigation of containers in shadehouses with covers at or below 10 ft led us to the low angle design of the NAAN Turbo Hammer model (Figure 1). At a separate propagation facility the problem of elevation changes of 80 ft in 600 ft of line distance and limited water availability demanded some unusual solutions. To compound the problem, growing space on a small hilly acreage looks more like grandma's crazy quilt than an efficient, high tech nursery facility. Level space for container beds and shade houses does not come in regular shapes and sizes Small sprinkler patterns were needed to avoid waste. The NAAN 7102 has been most useful in production of 2- and
Author: F. Allan Elliott
The advantage of this system is that the pipe does not have to be disconnected, moved by hand, and reconnected. One person can irrigate many acres by just starting up the power unit and rolling the lines to the next position. It is fast, easy and safe. The system we utilize has 64 in. diameter wheels, 4 in × 40 ft pipe sections and Rainbird 30 sprinklers.
Cost for 1200 ft of wheel line and one power mover runs between $6,500 and $7,250. This is about four to five times the cost of a regular hand line. However, costs are recovered through labor savings, as one person can irrigate several hundred acres
Author: Mike Scott
The system is very simple and consists of a polyethylene feeder pipe into which a multi-outlet dripper is plumbed. Each dripper feeds eight regulating sticks that are placed in the pots. The drippers operate under low pressure, 35 psi and deliver 0.25 gph per stick at a 97% uniformity. The most important component of any drip system is filtration. A 140-mesh, 2-in. Arkal disc filter along with Netafim's design of a turbulent flow path in the regulating sticks prevent clogging from particulate matter in the water.
We are able to irrigate 1800, 5-gal containers on 2700 sq ft. Water usage is approximately 900 gal per day as opposed to 1780 gal
Author: Lowen Pankey
Author: Lucile Whitman
However, it has taken ten years to develop a suitable irrigation system. Since we have very limited water, drip was the only option, but there are
Author: Bob Schilpzand
McGill Nursery does not have an abundance of water available. We don't have any wells and our only water supply comes from a small spring-fed pond. If we start pumping out of that pond for big overhead sprinkler lines, it will not take long to empty. So, McGill Nursery was forced to conserve water years ago.
Our solution came in the form of a DRIP-TAPE system. DRIP-TAPE is manufactured by T-Tape Systems, San Diego, California The water is pumped from the pond to the "DRIPHUT". In the driphut are the filters and regulators. From there, the water flows into a network of plastic pipes. In the plastic pipes are hook-up tubes every 44 in. (44 in. is our row spacing). When we start planting, we hook the drip-tape to the hook-up tubes and we are ready to go.
After the initial investment of pump, filters and regulators, the system is relatively inexpensive. Our drip-tape comes in 7500 ft
Author: Des Boorman
Certain Grevillea species are at risk due to a restricted distribution. This may have occurred naturally due to soil type or through habitat destruction by livestock and development, or the spread of non-endemic diseases such as Phytophthora cinnamomi.
The disease problem can be circumvented through use of Grevillea robusta as a rootstock. Grafting allows large-scale production of rare species.
Author: Sally J. Campbell
Author: James G. Todd
The three elements of an IPM program are. economic thresholds, control methods, and monitoring techniques. Monitoring binds thresholds and controls together into a workable IPM program It measures pest populations against the economic threshold to ensure that controls are timed correctly and are used only when necessary. Intensive monitoring systems
Author: Kirk A. Smith
Author: Jay W. Pscheidt
Author: Helmut Riedl
Author: Linda C. McMahan
In 1984, a national organization called the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) was formed to use the resources of botanical gardens and arboreta to help conserve rare and endangered native plant species. The Berry Botanic Garden was one of the charter participating institutions for the CPC, and is responsible for the plants of our region, including Oregon, Washington, and northern California. We are joined by 19 other botanic gardens, including the Missouri Botanical Garden, New York Botanical Garden, the University of California at Berkeley Botanical Garden, and the Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden in Claremont,
Author: Keith Warren
The fact that understock choice affects landscape performance in trees has long been known. Budding Acer rubrum cultivars onto A. rubrum seedling understock produces trees which exhibit a 30 to 40% frequency of delayed incompatibility. These incompatible trees snap off cleanly at the bud point, but often not until they reach 3- or 4- inch stem diameter. This problem has been almost eliminated from the nursery trade by propagating A. rubrum cultivars on their own roots
Author: Bob Schilpzand
We at McGill's;s Nursery try to start with the best possible plant, so we can dig the best possible product 1 or 2 years down the road.
Besides this, our goal is to have a live tree in every hole Just to give you a little information, we went through our records of many years and came up with the following percentages in comparing budding, softwood cuttings, and tissue-culture plants:
Author: J.D. Vertrees
Grafting on proper understock is necessary because:
- Cultivars generally do not come true from seed, cannot be named for the parent, and must be propagated only asexually.
- Seed from most desirable species is extremely rare, unobtainable, or the germination often may be entirely undependable. Also, many species are quite easily hybridized in open pollination situations found in collections or arboreta.
- While it is possible to put roots on almost any species or cultivar, these rooted plants often lack vigor and will fail in a period of one to eight or more years. There are exceptions to this within certain
Author: Don Richards
There are many factors that influence the harvesting dates of deciduous trees and shrubs. As an Oregon nursery, we employ several methods for determining the proper digging date to meet both production and sales objectives.
The major factors that influence our decision are: (not necessarily in this order.)
- General health and condition of the plants.
- Carbohydrate reserves in the root system.
- Visual defoliation status of the plants.
- Field conditions and weather.
- Requested delivery dates from our customers.
- Past history of the plants regarding specific digging dates.
In Oregon, we are always anxious to begin harvesting before the fall rains begin. However, we must be patient when it comes to
Author: Keith V. Garzoli
Greenhouse heating frequently represents an important cost in nursery operations. Many greenhouses currently in use are of a European design and do not perform well under Australian conditions, particularly in terms of their energy requirements and ventilation performance Currently, methods of extracting and storing heat generated in the greenhouse itself, for later use for greenhouse heating, are being investigated. This is the basis of solar greenhouse technology.
Recent research has led to the development of accurate methods of determining the rate of heat accumulation in greenhouses exposed to solar radiation (Garzoli, 1984). Air inside the greenhouse is heated by convective transfer from the floor, plants and other surfaces that absorb solar radiation. In conventional greenhouses, excess heat generated during the day is vented to waste; that is, once the greenhouse air is heated to above its required setpoint temperature, ventilators are opened to exhaust hot air
Author: Rita L. Hummel, Diane W. Privett
Author: Ray Maleike, Rita L. Hummel
Nursery plants are propagated by seeds for many reasons (Hartmann and Kester, 1983). One important objective of seedling production is to have uniform germination, emergence, and growth of the seedlings Seed from many commonly grown north and south temperate zone plants often exhibit one or more types of dormancy which may require an after-ripening period in nature, or an artificial chemical/ physical manipulation for germination Physiological dormancy is a common dormancy encountered. It is usually broken in nature by a chill period (Dirr and Heuser, 1987; Hartmann and Kester, 1983). Artificially this may sometimes be done with the application of gibberellic acid (Bretzloff and Pellett, 1979) Artificial removal of these various dormancies usually leads to increased and more uniform germination and ultimately results in more uniform plants at sales time. This research was designed to more accurately determine the germination requirements of a native Pacific Northwest
Author: Ray Maleike, Rita L. Hummel
Cornus canadensis (bunchberry or dwarf cornel) is a Pacific Northwest native perennial that attains a height of 7 to 20+ cm (3 to 9+ in ) and spreads by subsurface stems Bunchberry ranges from Greenland across northern Canada to Alaska and as far south as Maryland, South Dakota, New Mexico and California (Dirr 1990; Schopmeyer, 1974). This low-growing, herbaceous plant generally grows best in moist, shady areas but tolerates drier shady areas also. It has few pest problems.
Bunchberry flowers are small, greenish-white terminal clusters, subtended by four showy white bracts borne in a fashion similar to Cornus florida and C. kousa. The fruits are ¼ in. scarlet clusters of drupes, ripening in August and continuing to be effective into the winter. Autumn color is light red to crimson.
Propagation has been by digging mats of the material, seed, and more recently, by tissue culture (Dirr and Heuser, 1987; McMillan-Browse, 1979; Bruce Briggs, Briggs Nursery, Olympia,
Author: John M. Englert, Brian K. Maynard, Nina L. Bassuk
Author: Richard E. Bir, G.D. Hoyt
Water use efficiency and nutrient movement are among the most important factors facing nurserymen. Soil loss due to erosion can be reduced by 92% (Cripps and Bates, 1987) and plant growth increased (Skroch, et al , 1986) by planting ground covers instead of keeping aisles bare.
Nitrogen (N) is the fertilizer element used in greatest quantity by nurseries EPA has set a limit of 10 ppm nitrate-N as the maximum level tolerated in drinking water All North Carolina water has been designated as "highest use - drinking water"; that is, all fresh water for nursery use can legally be claimed for drinking water and must meet the 10 ppm nitrate-N limit. North Carolina nurseries need to (1) use the most efficient means for irrigating crops, (2) use the least N fertilizer resulting in profitable growth, (3) know whether 10 ppm nitrate-N or more leave the nursery and, (4) adopt practices that limit the runoff potential for nitrate-N.
Author: Tim Brubaker
Author: Bruce A. Briggs, James L. Green
Author: Don Bailey
- We have a problem that will not go away.
- We have tried several ideas.
- We have new ideas.
- We have some ideas for results.
Author: Ken Tilt, Bill Goff, John Olive
In-ground containers were discussed at this meeting last year. Since that time a number of nursery producers and researchers throughout the Southeast have tried this idea and are pleased with the early results.
Other innovations have been subirrigation, Environmental Friendly containers, Soil Sock and the Poly-Jacket/Water Saver. Also, growers now seem more interested in automated potting machines.
Over the past two years I have worked with some innovative nursery producers who have developed special containers.
Author: R. Denny Blew
"What do you see when you look at an immigrant?" Those who consider hiring immigrants see barriers. "What do you see when you look at an immigrant?" The answer to that lies in what you see .. .. in yourself.
Our international corps developed in an effort to repay a debt, I was once an immigrant. My dad took a job in Ecuador, South America I know what it's like to be thrown into a culture where you don't speak the language—to be the outsider.
There were other Americans in Ecuador I watched them "hermitize", erecting micro-Americas of card clubs and coffee klatches from which they never emerged.
But I was encouraged by my new-found Ecuadorian friends to immerse myself in their society. This I did and received compassion and understanding in return
Author: Thomas D. Deering
The deciduous tree Juglans regia (English walnut) is of worldwide importance both for its edible nuts and valuable timber. Australia annually imports the majority of its walnut requirements from the USA and China.
Nurseries attempting to vegetatively propagate walnuts typically experience difficulties. Propagation from cuttings is generally not used because the results are too variable (Lagerstedt, 1981). Grafting and budding are more successful (Harrison, 1978, Graves, 1965), but in Australia, even these methods are often associated with low percentage take and inconsistent results Similar problems have been reported in other countries (Avanzato and Tamponi, 1988).
This research aimed to develop a successful walnut grafting technique which would enable nurserymen to rapidly supply the local industry with superior cultivars Work was performed over a period of two years (1988–89) using bench grafting in conjunction with a hot callusing device (HCD) (Lagerstedt, 1981). This
Author: James L. Sherald, Tammy M. Hunter
In about 15 years dogwood anthracnose has moved south along the
Author: Tom Saunders
We use Lerio 18- × 18-in. flats, which hold 64/flat of the #425 peat pots—a round, 2 ¼-in diameter, 3-in. deep pot. I like the Lerio flat because an employee is 62% more efficient when he moves it than he is when he moves a 10- × 20-in flat
Old flats are not sterilized, and we project a minimum of four years of use out of new ones. With this in mind, the high cost of the flat is easier to digest. Disregarding the time value of money, it's less than ½ ¢ per unit per year.
The propagation medium we use is four parts pine bark, two parts horticultural-grade perlite, one part peatmoss. The pine bark is not screened and is the same as is used in container production Because of the high fertility levels maintained in the containers, we do not
Author: J.A. Reeder, C.H. Gilliam, G.R. Wehtje, D.B. South
Because of increasing hand labor cost, many people are using herbicides to control weeds in seed beds. South (1984) reported nurseries in the past have relied upon fumigation with methyl bromide for weed control. Herbicides are an alternative to soil fumigation.
Graunke and Gouin (1983) tested several herbicides with mixed results on northern red oak, black walnut, loblolly pine, dogwood, and tulip poplar. Devinrol and Modown applied in combination reduced population and growth of dogwood and tulip
Author: Phillip C. Flanagan, Willard T. Witte
Up to 1987, propagation of white fringetree by cuttings had not been successful (Dirr, 1990; Dirr and Heuser, 1987). At the Southern Region Plant Propagators' Society meeting in October 1990, a grower reported successful development of a population of rootable juvenile plants. The grower successfully rooted cuttings from 4% of a large seedling
Author: Victor M. Priapi
Over the last 35 years Angelica Nurseries has grown to its present size of approximately 2,000 acres. Along with the increase in acreage and production has come a need for large quantities of high quality rooted cuttings.
In our propagation department we produce nearly 90% of our own plant material by cuttings, seed, and grafting. Our annual rooted-cutting production is nearly 750,000 of which 500,000 are rooted in outdoor mist beds.
Our system of propagation is exceptionally well suited to our production needs. It is a low-cost, highly efficient method of producing large numbers of high quality, uniformly rooted cuttings.
Author: Fred T. Davies Jr
Powder (talc) formulations of auxins are still used to stimulate rooting of cuttings. A problem with talcs is that they may not be uniformly applied at the base of cuttings and they are easily removed when cuttings are inserted into the propagation medium. Spray or quick-dip applications of 1 to 5 sec are the preferred methods to apply auxins since a more uniform response and potentially better penetration of auxins occurs. Indolebutyric acid (IBA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) are the two most common forms of auxin used singly or in combination in commercial propagation.
Author: Nick Hand
Author: Jim Berry
Over the years we have made numerous attempts to root several cultivars ‘Samuel Sommer’ roots fairly well; the other cultivars year after year have been almost total failures. Two years ago a friend, Mitchell McGee of Poplarville, Mississippi, called to tell me of his success with cleft grafting magnolias. I made a special trip to visit, and the following procedure is one that he worked out. In January 1991 I followed his procedure and was pleased with the
Author: Edward Garvey
Advisory Groups. This repository is unlike the other NPGS sites in that it's responsible for 175 genera of woody plants versus one to 40 for most collections. Because of this, we must conduct many of our activities differently; we rely heavily on cooperators.
Advisory groups are the first major cooperative effort common to all NPGS crops. These groups advise the NPGS on how to carry out its objectives with a particular crop. The Crop Advisory Committee for Woody Landscape Plants is a very strong group composed of representatives from the nursery industry, the botanic community, the universities, Forest Service and American Association of
Author: Charles H. Parkerson
Quality is the characteristic that makes a nursery profitable. If we have quality people producing a quality product and provide quality service, our business is assured of success. The start of quality in the nursery is the propagation department. The purpose of this paper is to share with you the simple method we use to begin our quest for quality.
Author: Roderick A. Drew
Author: Mike Bracken
Success in acclimating tissue cultured plants balances on the fulcrum of carefulness. Tissue cultured plants are similar to a newborn baby in an incubator. The work is critical and each stage demands close attention. Trained professionals assure that the process can be done successfully.
I have developed seven Ps that direct us through each stage of the process:
Author: Wayne Sawyer
I have developed six major categories which you as a professional should carefully plan and execute to establish a successful liner business.
Marketing. Marketing your product is number one Without a marketing plan to sell what you produce you will soon be out of business You must determine what cultivars or varieties of liners will sell best You must also determine the quantities that should be grown to meet the anticipated demand without overproducing, and what size the liners should be to meet the market you are targeting. Timeliness is also a key factor. The liners must be ready when the market is ready.
Be prepared to advertise
Author: David Threatt
The goal of our company is to offer a full product line, with salable plants every day of the year.
In June 1988 ground was broken in Mt. Dora, Florida for a second nursery. Its purpose was to have a facility in a warmer climate to produce foliage and germinate seed.
Baucom's Nursery totals 300 acres in use including both the Florida and North Carolina operations Two and one-half million square feet are under greenhouse plastic, of which 360,000 square feet are under mist.
I am attempting today to show very briefly the diversity of the propagation at our nursery. Each nursery present today has its own methods based on its own variables. I would like to share some ideas we have gained through trial and
Author: Steven E. Newman
Many temperate zone plants have developed highly specialized organs for protection from would-be foragers, drought, and temperature extremes. For example, Opuntia spines protect it from animals; barley awns help dissipate heat; corms, bulbs and tubers serve as reservoirs of food and water; winter bud scales protect shoot apices form cold winter winds; and seed serve to transmit genetic information accumulated in response to the environment to new generations (Janick, 1986).
Probably the most important adaptation and the most intriguing mechanism temperate plants have developed is the ability to survive the long winter months in a state of rest Herbaceous perennials survive by underground storage structures, woody plants by winter buds and massive root systems, and annual plants by seeds (Khan, et al. 1977, Oosting, 1956).
Seeds are the primary means of surviving and increasing the population. Seeds rest through conditions unfavorable for growth by mechanisms best
Author: Timothy C. Lockley
Imported fire ants are unique pests causing a wide variety of problems ranging from medical, to agricultural, to structural, to ecological. The imported fire ant has been in the United States only a short time, as the first specimens of the black imported fire ant (BIFA), Solenopsis richteri, were collected in Mobile in 1928. They were introduced into the port of Mobile around 1918, possibly from discarded ballast or packing from cargo ships. Until 1912 and the passage of the Plant Quarantine Act, it was common practice to discard packing from ships once they were unloaded. Soleopsis richteri spread very slowly after its introduction into the United States. By 1931, BIFA was found in only three counties, Mobile and Fairhope in Alabama and Baldwin County, Florida. Sometime within the next 10 years, another species of imported fire ant arrived on our shores, again in Mobile. This new invader, the red imported fire ant (RIFA), S. invicta, proved to be much more adaptable
Author: Tom Kimmel
In the 1980s the gardening public's demand for greater variety combined with nostalgia for long established favorites helped fuel the resurgence of some old time perennials. These perennials were made new to the public by the introduction of many improved cultivars.
In response to this demand our nursery, like many others, found itself not only growing perennial in ever increasing numbers, but soon establishing a perennial program as an extension of our regular operations. At present we propagate mostly by cuttings and divisions and grow 490 cultivars in containers ranging in size from liners to a 1-gal container.
Author: Robert L. Geneve, Nining Wartidiningsih, Sharon T. Kester
Seed priming is a seed pre-treatment which can significantly enhance germination efficiency in a diverse group of seed-grown plants including agronomic, vegetable and flower crops (Bradford, 1986; Finch-Savage, 1991). In some cases, germination percentage can be improved by seed priming. This is particularly evident for poor quality seed lots or
Author: Mark P. Bridgen, Joseph J. King, Charlotte Pedersen, Mark A. Smi
Alstroemeria is traditionally propagated asexually by the division of their rhizomes. The triploid nature of most commercial cut flower cultivars makes asexual propagation essential. However, this procedure is too slow and tedious for large, commercial propagators. Consequently, the dissemination of new cultivars is delayed and the cost of propagules is
Author: David J. Beattie
Herbaceous perennials are one of the fastest growing segments of ornamental horticulture. Like woody perennials, they live from year to year. However, in most instances they are grown primarily for their floral display The plantsmen propagating and raising herbaceous perennials are neither traditional floriculturists nor nurserymen, but something in between, and use many of the cultural methods common to both groups.
Herbaceous perennials grow above ground during the growing season, but with the onset of short days and freezing weather, the tops die and the plant retreats to an underground storage organ. These storage organs assume many sizes, shapes and names. They may be fibrous roots, bulbs, tuberous roots, tubers, rhizomes, stolons, crowns, or pips. These storage organs all share the same function, acting as a reservoir of growth regulators, water, and nutrients which propel the plant into growth the following season. They also share many propagation similarities
Author: Christopher S. Rogers
Epigaea repens has been grown horticulturally for over 200 years; it was introduced in 1736. It is commonly known as the trailing arbutus, May-flower, or ground laurel. Epigaea is uncommon in gardens because of its tendency to fade away after transplanting from the wild. It grows best in a woodland setting on an acidic sandy loam. Once established, one can look forward to its extremely fragrant white to pink flowers that appear in March through May. The glossy evergreen foliage lies flat on the ground and plants can attain a size of 2 ft in diameter. Epigaea repens is the state flower of Massachusetts.
As soon as the fruits form, I cut them in half to