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Author: Neville J. Mendham
Plant breeding is one of the oldest arts and is basic to our civilization. Hunter/gatherers in different parts of the world became so familiar with the wild plants which they gathered each year that they began planting them and selecting seed to be saved each year for the following season. This occurred around 10,000 years ago in the Middle East (based on wheat, barley, peas, lucerne and other crops), and somewhat more recently in Central America (maize, beans, tomatoes, sunflower) and Asia (rice, soybeans). The main domestication process in these crops was completed at an early stage, whereas many other food and fibre crops and ornamental plants have been taken into cultivation since, with the process still underway for crops such as fennel and boronia.
As a science, plant breeding dates to the 19th century, in either established crops like cereals, where the Australian, William Farrer, was a pioneer, or in new crops such as sugar beet and rubber. An understanding of
Author: Robert Van Der Staay
Zantedeschias have been a very small part of the flower industry for many years. The traditional colours grown were white (arum lily) and yellow. In one state in Australia the arum lily has been declared a noxious weed, as it has escaped into native marshland.
Zantedeschias can be considered in two main groups: (1) "Zantz," the summer-flowering group that has the greatest marketability, and (2) the cool-temperature, late autumn to early spring flowering group, the "Kiwi Calla."
Both these groups have very distinctive behaviour. The summer-flowering group does not do well under wet conditions, and is deciduous in winter. The winter-
Author: Rick Wells
In 1969, the California legislature, upon recommendation from the State Water Resources Control Board, passed the Porter-Cologne Water Quality Act, and in 1972 Congress amended the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (which was originally drafted in 1956). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency had delegated to the regional Boards the responsibility of setting water standards for their areas. The Los Angeles Water Quality Control Board set certain parameters for discharge water (Table 1), and in 1975 we were asked to monitor our discharges.
Author: Carol S. Glenister
Biological control is the use of beneficial organisms to keep pest organisms under control. In the context of the greenhouse and nursery, such beneficial organisms include beneficial bacteria, beneficial fungi, beneficial nematodes, beneficial insects, and beneficial mites (1, 2). Beneficial insects and mites are used extensively throughout European glasshouse vegetables for control of greenhouse whiteflies and spider mites (4, 6) and are seeing increased use in interior landscapes (5).
This paper describes a demonstration project using beneficial insects and mites for control of greenhouse pests in Arthur H. Steffen’s clematis in Rochester, New York. Steffen’s, the largest propagator of clematis worldwide, first experimented with biological controls in 1977 (3). They see innovation toward biological controls as one of the answers to public and worker concerns with chemical pesticides.
The project was originally intended to be a demonstration of biological control of
Author: Francis R. Gouin
Author: Poul Erik Brander
Author: Dale G. Deppe
"To supply the propagation department with cutting wood", that’s an easy statement to make, but not so easy to do. How many of you have been able to collect the cutting wood you needed this year? How many of you attained a high percentage of rooting and rooted those big cuttings that transplant so well? Did you take only the wood that was the proper size or did you take some cuttings that were thin or short? How many times did you go back to the same plants and try to get a few more cuttings? Did you find out later that the sales department was blaming propagation for reducing the size of salable plant material. Did the
Author: Mark L. Richey
I look back over the years at Zelenka Nursery and see how propagation has evolved. Think for a moment about your experiences. Some are pleasurable moments that give you great satisfaction, while others still give you a twinge in the pit of your stomach over how a project turned sour. What did you learn from those experiences? I was told when I first started propagating that I would learn propagation by killing cuttings. However, I also understood that when I did kill cuttings, I would not do it again the same way!
Setting up a
Author: Calvin Chong, Wayne Brown
Author: Arthur J. Oslach
We, therefore, experimented with a new type of propagating structure and designed and built it especially for conifer production. Our first venture into root zone heating several years ago consisted of an in-ground bed lined with ½ in. polystyrene, with steel ¾ in. hot water pipes spaced approximately 10 in. apart. These pipes were embedded in cement sand and then further covered up with a layer of polyester to prevent damage to the system by rooting out of the bottom of the flats into the pipes and heat pipe areas. This system works quite effectively and we found that our production increased and the quality of our cuttings improved. At the
Author: William Flemer III
Plant propagation by
Author: Robert T. Schilpzand
15 red maple cultivars
15 crab apple cultivars
2 ornamental cherry cultivars
4 birch cultivars
2 linden cultivars
1 sugar maple cultivar
1 amelanchier cultivar
We have been very successful in producing a field-ready plant for our growing fields and also for outside sales. Motivated by our motto of "Quality from Vigilance" we have worked to ensure a live tree in every hole, the result has been producing material we can be proud of.
Author: Peter Lewis
- Reduction in vegetative growth leading to a more compact plant.
- Reduction in numbers of treatments required compared to other products.
- Longer duration of control.
- Increased and earlier flowering.
- Improved colouration, including darker green foliage and improved flower colour (Pers.comm.ICI).
The objective of this experiment was to observe the effect of five Bonzi® treatments on three Eucalyptus species and four Chamelaucium cultivars.
Author: Thomas S. Pinney Jr.
The mission of this paper is to present some thoughts on the place of sexual propagation in the nursery industry. There needs to be an intentional balance of sexual and asexual propagation used by our industry to fulfill world-wide environmental plant needs, i.e. "Global Releaf". This discussion assumes careful screening and selection of seed sources. I have purposely not referred to specific plants since I feel it is important for the reader to "dream" and think of his or her applicable plants.
Author: Wayne Lovelace
On behalf of the International Plant Propagators' Society-Eastern Region, a research grant of $1500 was presented to Knuttel Nursery for research, entitled "A Comparison of Rhododendron Juvenility in Seedlings, Microcuttings and Macrocuttings." Laura K. Judd and Anna J. Knuttel received the award for Knuttel Nursery.
Kathleen Freeland made the following presentation
AWARD OF MERIT
Being asked to present the Award of Merit is truly a privilege. As you know, this award is the most prestigious that the Eastern Region, IPPS, gives to one of their own. However, as this is the one scenario where we as a group seek to find the most worthy among us but then do not immediately share the name of the recipient until the Annual Meeting Banquet, often the gradual awareness of the recipient among us is the most exciting event of all.
Tonight the award goes
Author: Thomas L. Green
Congress translated IPM as the replacement of chemical pesticides with biological and other means of pest control. Yet, I learned that IPM was only one component of an economic management program for crop production, or forest management, or golf course management, or arboretum management, or whatever.
Ladybugs may be an excellent control for green bugs on a vegetable crop. But where do you get 10 million; how do you disperse them; how do you get them to eat the pest; and how do you prevent them from
Author: Steven M. Still, Tracy DiSabato-Aust, Tim Rhodus
Research in overwintering container perennials has not kept pace with the needs of the industry. There has been limited published research on root and crown hardiness of perennials. Research is needed to determine the minimum soil temperature to which roots of different perennial species can be subjected.
Some research has been done in identifying successful overwintering methods for perennials; however, this area still needs much attention. Various overwintering methods are utilized by growers across the United States and Canada. Most of what is known is based on grower experience. Growers may be providing high priced overwintering measures that provide more protection
Author: Ralph Shugert, Bruce Briggs
MODERATOR SHUGERT: Question for Dr. Waxman. What pregermination treatments do you apply to seeds of eastern larch?
SID WAXMAN: Stratify for 30 to 60 days and then plant.
MODERATOR SHUGERT: Question for Dale Deppe. How often do you replace stock block plants?
DALE DEPPE: We do not have a system of continuous stock block replacement. When we first plant we usually plant about ¼ of the number that we eventually will need. So we have had to replant additional blocks later as we increase production. By pruning back the stock blocks hard we have had good success rooting the cuttings with the stock blocks and have not had to replant.
RALPH SHUGERT: When I worked for the old Cole Nursery we used to keep blocks for 8 years. That timing was just the owners decision and may have been related to juvenility. We would start a new block after 6 years so it would be ready
Author: Jack Alexander
Pinus strobus ‘David’ was a seedling collected from a witches'-broom in Granby, Connecticut. It is faster growing than most of the other white pine dwarfs. After 25 years it has reached a height of 15 ft and width of 11.5 ft. This tree was selected because of its growth habit and form. While most other dwarf white pines are either equal in their height and width dimensions, or wider than high; this selection is taller than wide and should be a good
Author: Michael Garrett
The majority of Tasmanian native ferns can be successfully raised from spore when it is available. By following the correct technique, thousands of fern plants can be ready for potting on within 8 to 12 months.
Author: A. Tom Keane
When the anthers ripen first it is known as protandry, and when the stigma is receptive first, it is known as protogyny. The carnation is protandrous as the pollen is mature when the flower opens.
When breeding anything, whether it is plant or animal it is generally accepted that the final result will be as in nature, that is the strongest will be more dominant and eventually the most successful. So the first lesson comes from nature.
Selection for breeding. When selecting carnations for breeding, pick strong and vigorous plants. Usually the pollen-bearing male plants contribute more to the physical make up than the female plants, but they both contribute to the progeny.
The things to look at in carnation parent stock are:
- resistance to disease, particularly rust.
- a strong and lengthy stem.
- a flower to look you in the
Author: Hildegard C. Jackson
We propagate using spores, not by seeds, but by spores. Here lies one of the most fascinating differences between flowering plants and ferns. A single seed is a composite of more cells, a momentarily dormant embryo, in many cases already a tiny, tiny plant, visible only under the microscope.
A spore is a single cell, not an embryo, just a single cell, which by itself is not able to develop into a plant, not even into an embryo. A group of many spores, with the help of one another, will go through a pro-embryo stage—the so-called prothallium. If collected successfully, spores are put down on a medium. We use straight peat moss. In a few days or weeks the whole surface will turn into a wondrous, beautiful, green moss-like carpet. This is the prothallia, which is the gametophyte stage in the alternation of generations.
Author: Edward S. Carman
In the late 1960’s I became sole owner and in 1970 we moved our house and nursery 1½ miles to our present location on one acre. Here
Author: Michael A. Gatzman
Author: Robert L. Mazalewski
Author: Steve McCulloch
Lilacs may be propagated several different ways. The methods used include: 1. seed (2); 2. layering (simple, stool) (2); 3. root suckers (2, 11); 4. softwood cuttings (2, 3, 4, 11); 5. Grafting and budding (2, 11); and 6. tissue culture.
There are several reports on tissue culture of lilacs (1,2,5,6,8,10). At Briggs Nursery, we have been micropropagating Syringa since 1982. We have propagated many hundreds of
Author: Dan E. Parfitt
In-vitro germplasm maintenance is an alternative to field maintenance of clones (7,21). Germplasm can be maintained in-vitro as shoot tips or meristems, as callus, or as somatic embryos. Shoot tips or meristems are the
Author: Darby Munro
The presence of plant viruses can often be difficult to detect and, even if detected, the casual virus can be difficult to identify. This is in contrast to the obvious presence of most fungal disease and the ready identification of fungi. This difficulty creates a problem in perennials as the systemic nature of viruses in plant tissue and their persistence in plants means that all progeny obtained by vegetative propagation from infected perennial stock will also be infected.
The detection and identification of plant viruses is carried out by several means. Many virus diseases are self–indicating by their symptoms on leaves, flowers, or fruit. In cultivars that do not show clear symptoms infection can often be demonstrated by budding or grafting tissue into known sensitive "indicator" cultivars. Similarly herbaceous plants can be used as indicators if they show diagnostic symptoms when viruses are transmitted to them by insects or sap inoculation.
Other approaches to
Author: R.L. Ticknor
Normally hardwood cuttings are used for propagation of forsythia and these were used in 1980 by graduate student, Robert Staton, to produced plants for evaluation of Dikegulac sodium (Atramec, Atrinal) to induce branching. Atrinal was used at 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm, with 1000 ppm applied twice—April 15 and June 26—producing the best branching and flower bud formation. In later trials, softwood cuttings (2 to 3 nodes in length), obtained from forced stock plants during January and March, produced better plants.
’Lynwood’ and ‘Spring Glory’
Author: Michael Nevin Smith
A variety of "low-tech" strategies have been followed, reflecting both our own goals and the reproductive features of particular plants. I would like to briefly share some of our experiences here.
Author: Dale E. Kester
The purpose of this paper is to discuss some basic concepts of source selection from a genetic standpoint and to describe some unique problems with clonal variability. Emphasis will be given to the propagation of fruit and nut crops, particularly California almonds.
Most clones originate as selections of superior individuals from seedling populations. Selections are vegetatively propagated for test plantings. Figure 8–17 in Hartmann, et al. (4) outlines the basic steps in the development and subsequent propagation sequences. An alternative approach is selection of bud-sports (bud-mutations)
Author: A. Bruce Macdonald
Rootstock Production. A quality rootstock should have a pencil-thickness caliper (6mm;¼in.), a straight stem, and a well-developed rootball. These are major criteria for success. The production or purchase of under-sized rootstocks with a poor root system results not only in low grafting success but also in poor subsequent scion growth. Quality rootstocks can be produced by using 2-year, graded, transplanted, or undercut open-ground
Author: F. Allan Elliott
The average propagator is dealing with several hundred plant cultivars. When items such as: propagation medium, hormone concentration, size and maturity of cuttings, flat density, and timing are all considered, this produces thousands of bits of information to remember. As years go by and crops are repeated, it becomes more difficult to remember the details of producing a particular crop.
Personal experience with these problems led me to develop a record keeping system and subsequent forms which can be used by the beginning and experienced propagator alike.
Author: J. Michael Evans
Certain plant species that are now or may become threatened with extinction are protected under one or several, international, federal, state, or local laws. These laws place restrictions on certain activities such as import, export, foreign or interstate commerce, and removal from areas under agency or governmental jurisdiction. The purpose of this paper is to outline the legal protection, explain the terminology, and mention certain programs regarding endangered plant species. A list of ten principles for propagation of endangered species is offered as a guide for restorationists and nursery professionals.
Author: Ann E. Fisher
Propagation of natives can be valuable for several reasons. One is to restore disrupted sites, caused by natural disasters or by human development, to its natural condition so that wildlife can continue to be supported in that area. Another is the value of ornamental native
Author: Gene Blythe
Author: F. David Hockings
The seed of some of these species often proves difficult to germinate, either failing completely or yielding a very poor and irregular percentage. In nature, such species may germinate only under very specific weather conditions or a sequence of weather conditions that may occur very infrequently, perhaps years apart. These specialised germination requirements have developed to enable those plants to survive in our extremes of climate.
Australia has an area of nearly three million square miles, almost equal in area to the U.S.A., and lays claim to being the driest continent. Only one-third of the continent receives 20 in. or more of rain per year, one-third 10 to 20 in., and
Author: Stephen Garton, Galen Peiser
Modern commercial cultivars of Alstroemeria are interspecific hybrids, containing genes from at least two species (1). Cultivars are usually propagated by rhizome division (2). The subterranean rhizome bears numerous buds which gives rise to both vegetative and reproductive shoots
Author: Henry Hilton
Author: Carl E. Whitcomb
Conducting research is a bit like being a sleuth, in that you are always probing a looking for clues. There had been clues suggesting a variation in root efficiency, but they could not be confirmed. In the fall of 1985, a total of 720 trees were excavated to try to determine why some had grown well while others grew poorly. All of the trees (180 of each of four species) were the same age, had been grown the same way and on the same soil for two years. The procedure used was to sharpen the teeth and sides of a 24-inch backhoe bucket and dig every tree. Before all the trees were dug it was clear that a wide variation in root systems
Author: Warren G. Roberts
Careful observation is the first step in choosing which plants look good with little or no irrigation. We must observe them in all seasons. The best place to look for appropriate plants is in the dry landscapes within our own area, or in places with very similar conditions. The best candidates for the green-but-dry landscapes that we want are plants that
Author: Bruce Briggs
Vaccinium crassifolium ‘Wells Delight’ is an ornamental form of creeping blueberry (Vaccinium crassifolium) selected from native stands in North Carolina. This selection was named and introduced to the trade by the North Carolina State University Breeders Release Board and Agriculture Research Service to honor the late Dr. Bertram W. Wells, former head of the N.C. State Department of Botany and renowned plant
Author: Philip McMillan Browse
Seedling production in the hardy ornamental stock industry in the U.K. has made dramatic steps forward in the last 15 years or so; previously it had been almost the exclusive prerogative of the European Continental nurseryman.
Seedling production, as a component of hardy ornamental plant production, however, is still a relatively minor sector. The vast majority of such plants, both in numbers and value, is still being produced by vegetative means. Nevertheless, the propagation of plants from seed in the U.K. has very rapidly developed a sophistication in terms of logistics, science, and economics which is comparable with the best conventional operations of vegetative propagation.
The production of seedlings falls into a series of categories, classified by the end product—none of these are mutually exclusive—but can be designated largely on the sophistication of production technique; for example: hedging plants, urban/amenity forestry, rootstocks, landscape uses, and
Author: A.T. Wood
- Production objectives—what are you trying to do?
- Minimising the variables—seed testing, organisation, and field factor.
- Securing the crop—Good husbandry.
There are cultural operations that can minimise errors but in both objective and economic terms if the correct number of seedlings are not in the right place at the right time that the seeds germinate there is little that can be done to achieve the target or objective.
There is one exception: the potted seedling liner crop. These are often sown densely, pricked or potted off on germination and can be roomed out in a way similar to normal potted or container production so as to achieve the size and type of plant that is required.
Author: A.G. Gordon
There are some advantages as well as some disadvantages in collecting one’s own seeds. Among the advantages are:
Origin. With care, truly native sources of seed, better adapted to local conditions can be obtained.
Freshness. Seed can be collected at time of maximum quality giving better yields than can be obtained from bought-in seed.
Earliness. Early collections can sometimes shorten the period required for seed treatment and so save on time required to produce plants from seed.
Low Cost. On occasions—where distance is small, seed set is good, and conditions are perfect, collecting one’s own seed can be very economical.
The major disadvantages are:
High cost. Unless properly organised, collecting one’s own seed can be quite significantly more expensive than bought-in seed. This is particularly true where large distances are involved and where expensive collecting equipment is needed.
Conflict of interest. Because of other pressures in the nursery, seed may not always be collected at
Author: Alastair G.R. Luke
As Government policy in Britain shifts towards encouraging the planting of more broadleaved trees many nurserymen are increasing production with an emphasis on native species. For those nurseries which have produced such stock over a number of years this task is relatively straightforward, but those expanding into production of seedling stock for the first time are not as successful as they could be because of a lack of knowledge of the seed that they handle.
As one of the British companies supplying the home market it is of concern that seed improperly handled will generate poor results, cause significant lost production, waste valuable seed, and reduce future trading prospects. This paper therefore addresses the problems contributing to loss of seed viability from the parent tree to the new seedbed or container unit. Special reference is made to the storage of Quercus robur acorns.
Author: Dennis Fordham
Dormancy is a condition of nature which has evolved to ensure the seed’s survival, that is to say it will only germinate when the correct environmental conditions occur.
Treatment to remove or prevent dormancy is easier if you consider where the species grows naturally and what type of climatic conditions it is subjected to. This gives you an indication of the possible treatment and handling of the seed to achieve satisfactory germination:
- Hot dry conditions tend to produce seeds with very dry and hard seed coats, e.g. Gleditsia triacanthos.
- Seed from areas that are subjected to long periods of low temperatures tend to need long-term chilling, e.g. Sorbus aucuparia
Author: J.C. King
Impermeable Seedcoats. The effect on impermeable seedcoats, such as can be found in legumes, was illustrated by Liu et al (6) by using a scanning electron microscope on seeds following acid treatment. The surface of these seeds consists of an impermeable, waxy cuticle layer on the exterior, beneath which is found a palisade layer of
Author: David West
In the 85 or so years since its first introduction from China to Britain, the dove tree has become one of the best known of all hardy exotic trees. Despite this, plants are still surprisingly difficult to obtain in the trade, perhaps due to the inability of propagators to find a reliable method of rooting cuttings. Seed production still remains the only simple means by which this tree can be produced in quantity.
In this paper, I hope to be able to briefly outline, how I have been successful with seed germination over the past few years.
Seed source is the first consideration for successful germination. Davidia seed is available commercially from various seed houses but by far the best source is one's own collection.
Author: E.F.K. Denny
On the other hand, the propagation of plants, and the selection of those plants that are worth propagating, is fundamental to all those industries and individuals that depend ultimately on things that grow in the soil. One way or another that includes us all. But to speak in general terms on this subject, would be like Mark Anthony, to "tell you only that which you do know." However, it may interest you to hear
Author: Stephen Ashworth
Soil sterilisation gives further benefits because it can control soil-borne diseases and stimulates crop growth.
In a survey of 15 British seedling nurseries the typical sterilisation operation involves the following:
Timed in September, Basamid (dazomet) Granular is applied at standard rate (380kg per ha) to a moist soil using a Sisis Lo-spread applicator. Incorporation to a depth of 15cm (6 in.) is made using a rotavator. To seal the soil surface 80% of nurseries lay polythene, the remainder roll and irrigate.
Using standard rate Basamid and polythene covering, materials cost is some £1300 per ha at 1989 prices. Including the labour cost of application,
Author: Mark Walker
At The Nurseries we have found that using vermiculite as a covering has helped us to provide the right conditions for growing alpines from seed, but the technique would be equally suitable for nursery stock.
We sow our seeds in seed trays using a compost of 50:50 peat and sand. Once sown, the seeds are covered with a thin layer of vermiculite and placed on a heated bed to germinate.
The advantages of using vermiculite are:
Prevents capping. This allows air and water to reach the seed. It also makes it easier to remove the seedlings at pricking out.
Retains moisture. It is critical that the seed does not dry out; the vermiculite provides a film of water to protect it.
Permeable to light. Where needed, enough light reaches the seed to prevent germination being inhibited.
Reflects heat. Useful where high temperatures inhibit germination.
However, there are
Author: Elton M. Smith, Sharon A. Treaster
The use of slow-release herbicide tablets have several advantages in the production of container-grown nursery stock. Included are the greater accuracy of herbicide application, greater safety to humans and plants, and reduction of possible environmental pollution. To be commercially acceptable, however, the tablets must also provide long lasting wide spectrum weed control without phytotoxicity to the plants.
Tablets have been formulated with water-soluble herbicides such as alachlor and metolachlor and, although they are effective, they do not control a broad range of weed species. Most pre-emergence herbicides currently in nursery use have a low water solubility and have not been successfully utilized in a slow-release technology.
In recent work by Horowitz et al. (1), the area of weed control surrounding a slow-release herbicide tablet was markedly increased by adding a surfactant to the tablet. As a follow-up to this work we conducted studies to; screen a number of
Author: P.J. Carson
Author: D.N. Clark
Author: S. Marczynski, M.K. Joustra
Betula, Corylus, and Pinus are genera to which belong many valuable species of ornamental plants. They are usually propagated by grafting in the greenhouse, but Corylus cultivars also by layering (1). They are not generally recommended for propagation by cuttings (8). Ondruska and Schmidt (16) propagated cultivars of Betula pendula by cuttings, Pellett and Alpert (17) propagated those of Betula papyrifera and they obtained about 80% rooting but over half the cuttings died after potting. It is known that rooting can be influenced by etiolation (9, 13) and daylength; the level of irradiance of the stock plants can also influence rooting (15, 20), but the results depend mostly on the species. Levels of irradiance provided to the cuttings can also influence rooting (4, 20).
Author: Robin F. Sym
The Company began operations in 1948 with it’s principal work being advising landowners on the best methods for replanting the areas of woodland felled during the Second World War. It was soon realised that plant supply was an important aspect of reafforestation so the Nursery was developed and the choice of a heathland site was very fortunate.
The Nursery is situated at Tilford near Farnham, Surrey, on 100 hectares of sandy heathland soil with a natural pH of 3.5 which is raised to between 4.5 and 6.0 by the application of ground magnesium limestone.
Advantages of the site:
100 ha on one site of relatively flat ground approximately 60 metre above sea level.
A very light sandy soil, free draining and workable all year round and which warms up rapidly promoting growth.
Geographically situated in southern England having a very long
Author: W.L. Mason, H. McKay
Author: Bruce Macdonald
This paper is to discuss some of the species that the University of British Columbia considers as a basis for further selection and introduction into nursery production for sale as ornamental plants for the urban landscape.
Besides the many economically important forestry species such as Abies grandis, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Thuja plicata, and Tsuga heterophylla, perhaps the best known native tree is the Pacific or western flowering dogwood, Cornus nuttallii.
Cornus nuttallii. This is distributed naturally throughout southern British Columbia
Author: Gabor Schmidt
Author: Sandra Hetherington, R. Keith Orme
Author: N.D. Dunn
The main reasons for taking on this large production approach to budwood and graftwood came about for the following reasons:
EMLA virus-free programme in fruit trees. The first introductions of virus-free fruit material were made in 1969 by East Malling and Long Ashton Research Stations. This required the establishment of isolated scion blocks under the scrutiny of the Ministry of Agriculture and the Plant Health Propagation Scheme.
Increase in demand. It was soon recognized that managed stock trees were very productive and increased the availability of quality
Author: John L. Machen Sr
- Popularity in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic States.
- Cold hardiness in our market area.
- Cultural requirements that our production system can fulfill.
Though we are constantly searching for hollies to meet these criteria, the following are currently in production:
- Ilex. ‘Nellie R. Stevens’, a putative hybrid between I. aquifolium and I. cornuta, is a large evergreen shrub or small pyramidal tree. It is hardy in Zones 6 to 9 (U.S. Dept. of Agriculture hardiness map). This plant was released by G. A. Van Lennep, Jr. of St. Michael, Maryland, USA, in 1954. (1)
- Ilex attenuata ‘Foster No. 2’ is one of a group of five interspecific hybrids of I. cassine and I. opaca. It has a compact, narrow growth habit to 30 ft. at maturity and is heavily fruited with small red berries. Also hardy in Zones 6 to 9, this plant was selected by. E. E. Foster of Bessemer, Alabama, USA. (2)
- Ilex x attenuata
Author: David N. Whalley
A conference, convened by the Royal Horticultural Society in October, 1978, proposed the formation of a National Gardens and Plants Council and put forward the idea of national reference collections (now known as National Collections), (1). Interested parties identified at that time included botanic gardens, arboreta and other similar gardens, National Trust gardens, parks and other gardens of local authorities, nurseries, specialist societies, state research and other establishments, educational establishments, private gardens and small groups within horticultural societies.
Author: Willem A. Sanders
Our propagation methods are similar to those in most Boskoop nurseries, using polythene and bottom heat from hot water pipes lying about 6 in. deep below the surface.
About five years ago we were in a position to expand our greenhouses by about 2.5 acres on a plot situated about 10 miles from Boskoop. We started propagation there in the way we were accustomed to, but found that three or four weeks after sticking the cuttings, the compost (peat and sand) had turned extremely wet.
Then we realized that our new department was situated in a deep polder 16 ft. below sea level. The heated pipes together with the excessive natural capillary action not only sent heat but also humidity upwards.
That experience made us change the complete propagation system. A complete new drainage system meant covering the soil with 2 in. polystyrene sheets to
Author: Barbara A. Horrell, Paula E. Jameson, Peter Bannister
When gibberellic acid (0.4 mg per plant) was applied to rooted cuttings of adult plants it produced a transient elongation of stems of all species investigated and induced a juvenile-like habit and leaf form in Carpodetus serratus and Pennantia corymbosa, a juvenile growth form with transitional leaf-form in Parsonsia heterophylla, but no such changes in Elaeocarpus hookerianus, whereas treated adult rooted cuttings of Pseudopanax crassifolius died. Attempts to manipulate the internal gibberellin levels of juvenile rooted cuttings by the application of gibberellin acid (GA3) and paclobutrazol (PP333) failed to induce any adult characteristics.
Author: John Stanley
You may ask how the marketing revolution affects the propagator, especially as we are told we have to be market-driven rather than production-driven if we are to survive as businesses until the next century, which happens to be only
Author: Rob B. Bayly
Bayly’s Nurseries Ltd have been engaged in the propagation of hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) for the past 25 years, since founding the nursery in Gisborne. All hibiscus in the early days were propagated by cuttings only, including the "so called" Fijian type, which was found growing well in the New Zealand East coast climate. Occasional frosts were experienced in winter, but the summers were usually hot and dry.
Cultivars popular at that time were: ‘Agnes Gault’, ‘Suva Queen’, ‘Mrs Tonkins’, ‘Wrightii’, ‘Lambertii’, ‘Primrose’, and ‘Island Empress’. Eighteen years ago, we decided to grow more exotic types, mainly Hawaiian cultivars. Those on which we concentrated were: ‘Golden Belle’, ‘Nathan Charles’, ‘Betty Patterson’, ‘Haywood’, ‘Ben James’, ‘Christine Phillips’, ‘Double Rainbow’, ‘Golden Oriel’, ‘Hawaiian Sunset’, ‘J.F. Kennedy’, ‘Molly Cummings’, ‘Powder Puff’, ‘Surfrider’, and ‘Tango’.
These more exotic and tender cultivars need a strong, resistant rootstock
Author: Ian R. Hall
Author: J.W. Sturrock, J.D. Ferguson
Author: Michael R. Oates
"...40,000 species, or about a quarter of those found in the
tropics, will probably persist in the South American
tropics and Zaire beyond the middle of the next century.
An additional 130,000 species, however, occur in the
tropics but not in these regions-only in areas where the
vegetation will be demolished during the next few
decades. Liberally assuming that half these species may
be weedy or persist in small pockets
Author: Alan M. Lewis
My interest in arresting salt encroachment goes back many years. However I have only become involved in a positive way over the past ten years. My hope is that by encouraging the planting of salt tolerant species of native vegetation the land can be reclaimed, stabilised, and in time returned to productive use. It is well known that some species of plants are naturally salt tolerant but these plants may not suit particular areas or even the end use of the land. By selecting salt tolerant species that have a definite end use, and have been indigenous to the area, we are well on the way to successful rehabilitation.
Some nurseries have grown salt–tolerant species for many years. The methods used to select salt tolerant plants are many and varied. Simply
Author: John Clemens
At first sight our sense of smell appears to be overlooked when we choose plants as consumers. Garden centres can be visual delights and garish extravaganzas of green and red, but they may not be consciously designed for fragrance. Presumably, in our choice of plants to propagate and grow we tend to reflect the perceived demands of the marketplace. We place overwhelming emphasis on appearance or other selection criteria before fragrance, which may come as a bonus except in the most emphatically scented plants.
We are drawn as bees are by a pleasant fragrance, "home-in" on the supposed source by eye, and verify that we have made the right contact by sniffing at close quarters. I will briefly review our understanding of the subject and speculate on the implications for:
- breeding and selection programmes in which fragrance may be an important evaluation criterion;
- how consumers select plants; we "use" scented plants to sell themselves but perhaps we do not "design" with
Author: Pauline A. Cooper, Jan E. Grant, Tonya J. Frew
Author: Franz Ripphausen
Due to an increasing demand for High Health (virus-free) stock plants of Daphne odora ‘Leucanthe’, the rapid bulking-up of cuttings using a small population of existing stock plants was investigated. Owing to a shaded growing environment, shoots of stock plants had become elongated and unbranched, unlike plants grown in the open.
The literature available on propagation of Daphne is limited compared with that for many other genera. Reports tend to stress that shoots of current season’s growth should be used (1), or tip cuttings only, preferably terminated (2). One report states that stem cuttings are not used because the leaves can yellow and defoliate even though they are sound at the time of making the cuttings (2). However, this can also happen with tip cuttings. The acceptability of plants raised from cuttings taken from different parts of the parent plant needed to be studied under our conditions.
It has been stated that Daphne plants must have acid soil conditions to
Author: Bob Austin
Author: Bruce Briggs, Steve McCulloch
Among the problems in those early days was a lack of materials such as the cytokinin, 2iP. Actually, it is amazing how
Author: Edward A. Brown
The fungus that causes dogwood anthracnose is a Discula sp. Dogwood anthracnose should not be confused with the very common disease, spot anthracnose (Elsinoe corni). Dogwood anthracnose causes foliage leaf spots, shoot mortality, stem cankers, and eventually significant decline or death of the tree. Initial symptoms include small purple-
Author: Stephen Burns
Author: David Byers
Byers Nursery Company has been involved with this work since the 1950s, before the first four selections were distributed to the industry. The comments I make today are my own opinion and the result of 30 years of observations and conversations, not the result of carefully designed, scholarly experimentation.
The new selections I am discussing today are all Lagerstroemia indica × fauriei hybrids. These crosses were made possible when Dr. John Creech of the National Arboretum staff found wild specimens of Lagerstroemia fauriei in the mountains of Japan in 1957 and brought home the potential for many new and varied
Author: Homer L. Collins
Author: W.L. Corley
Author: David W. Daly
With the small quantities of beech seed produced in Australia, it is extremely difficult to obtain seed and, hence, to produce seedlings for rootstocks.
Beech seed has only a very short life and must be sown very soon after collection or it loses its viability. For this reason it is not possible to obtain large amounts of seed from overseas.
As I was looking to attempt the grafting of many different beech cultivars I wanted to explore the best method of seedling production for my rootstocks.
Author: Ben Davis II
Therefore, in September, 1985, the owners invited me to join the firm to help them establish a container-growing operation. Our basic strategy was to concentrate on production of deciduous trees in 5-gal. containers, for which we believed there was a large, unmet demand. The trees would be sold by the company’s well-
Author: Michael A. Dirr
Ulmus parvifolia ‘Emerald Isle’, ‘Emerald Vase’, ‘Burgundy’,
Magnolia grandiflora ‘Spring Grove #16’, ‘Spring Grove #19’,
‘Spring Grove #43’
Photinia × fraseri ‘Dudley Nursery Variegated’
Hydrangea quercifolia ‘Alice’, ‘Alison’
Cornus kousa ‘Select’
Cornus mas ‘Spring Grove’
Author: Larry D. Edwards
Several years ago we started growing container trees, predominantly dogwoods, since that was the most popular tree we were selling. We were successful enough so that we decided to specialize in growing container dogwoods and other selected trees. Most of the comments made for dogwoods also apply to the other trees we grow.
The largest markets for our plant material are garden centers and landscapers in the Baltimore, Md., Washington, D. C., Richmond, VA, and Norfolk, VA areas. We also have a cash-and-carry trade of local landscapers and a retail outlet on our premises.
We grow white and pink seedling dogwoods; ‘Cherokee Chief’, red; ‘Cherokee Princess’, white; ‘Cloud 9’, white; ‘Cherokee Sunset’, red with
Author: Dewayne L. Ingram, Chris Martin, John Ruter
Container medium temperatures substantially above air temperature are possible due to direct solar radiation on container walls. Container medium temperatures in
Author: Adolph J. Laiche Jr, Steven E. Newman
The production of woody landscape plants in containers began to gain in popularity in the early 1950s. Production has primarily been limited to small containers ranging from 3.8 to 18.9 L. The demand for plants in containers greater than 18.9 L has increased in recent years (1). There is a great volume of literature concerning production practices on smaller container sizes, but little is available concerning production practices in larger containers.
Slow-release fertilizers are applied to container plants by incorporation during blending of growth medium components, top-dressed, or applied in a dibble hole directly beneath the transplanted liner. Rates are determined on a volume (cubic meter) basis (2, 7, 8 10). Methods of incorporation during blending and dibble application may only be used at planting. Subsequent slow release fertilization is accomplished by surface application. Regardless of the method of application, fertilization on a volume basis results in
Author: Chris A. Martin, Dewayne L. Ingram
Author: Sandra Martinez
What’s it all about? In 1987 the Texas legislature passed the Agricultural Hazard Communication Act (Right to Know). The purpose of this law is to give farm workers access to information about pesticides used on Texas crops, their health effects, and ways to reduce pesticide risks to themselves and their families.
Who is covered by this law? You are a covered employer by this law if you meet both of the following criteria:
- Use, store, purchase, or cause to be used, more than the threshold amount of any one covered chemical.
- Hire agricultural laborers and pay them more than the "payroll thresholds."
The terms "pesticide threshold" and "payroll threshold" are defined below.
Who meets the pesticide threshold?
A. Persons who use, store, cause to be used, or purchase
Author: Hubert A. Nicholson
Plant Patent: A plant patent is granted to provide the patent owner control over the propagation, use, and sale of a plant during the 17 year life of the patent. A patent is intended to cover a specific plant to protect the rights of the inventor to the plant patented and provides a specific basis for preventing the propagation, growing, and distribution of said plant.
Trademark: A federal trademark is "any word, name, symbol, or device or any combination thereof adopted and used by a manufacturer or merchant to identify his goods and distinguish them from those manufactured or sold by other." A trademark identifies the source or origin of a product. It lasts for 20 years and may be renewed without limit. A trademark is established to cover a class or broad selection of items or plants and to disclose the origin or source. Economic rewards to owner is a basic reason.
Author: Benny J. Simpson
In other words, Texas has a rather distinct "eastern" and "western" flora, and the boundaries of these two plant regions occur at an almost mystical line of demarcation—the 98th meridian. To the east of the 98th lie Dallas, Fort Worth, and Austin; to the west, Wichita Falls and San Antonio, while the city of Lampassas sits astride. Curtis Fletcher Marbut’s line (11) closely parallels this meridian and to the east of that line (to the Atlantic Ocean)
Author: G. Shannon Smith
Author: Anthony J. Herve
Hydroponics as a propagation tool has come of age due to the lack of good clean soil and the cost of soil sterilization. In Australia, the nursery industry has been using different forms of hydroponics for some time. Propagators generally use a natural or artificial solid medium or a mixture of the two, but some produce bare–rooted plants in either a deep flow system, aeroponics, or nutrient film technique (N.F.T.), as in our case.
There are really only two types of systems—open and closed. In an open system the nutrient solution is not recovered while in a closed system the nutrient solution is recycled. In an ideal closed system, pure water is used and it is only necessary to flush out the system every four months or so. In our nursery, where high salts are present in the main's water, it is necessary to flush out the system every 10 to 14 days in summer and every 3 to 4 weeks in winter. In spring, our water showed a reading of 360 mg/l of chloride (Cl) and 170 mg/l of
Author: Sven E. Svenson, Fred T. Davies Jr
Author: Doug Torn
At the nursery we have eleven double-poly propagation houses that are 14 × 96 ft. They are all vented using a W. W. Grainger 24-in. exhaust fan and a 37 × 63 in. Acme intake shutter. Both of these units are controlled by a thermostat set at 80 to 85°F. We use two layers of 40% white shade cloth over these houses when propagating. This is available from V-J Growers Supply. In the winter these houses are heated with Modine gas-fired heaters.
Two of the eleven propagation houses are used as a fog-houses for tissue-cultured plantlets. In these greenhouses we use ½ in. copper tubing suspended from the center purlin which is approximately 7 ft. from the floor. We used eight nozzles in the first house, spaced 10 ft. apart. The
Author: William C. Welch
Annuals are plants that complete growing and flowering processes in one year or less. In the South’s hot and often humid climate, most annuals last for a season or three to four months at most. Perennials, however, are plants that return from the same root part each year. Consumers are fascinated by plants that provide color yet do not have to be purchased and replanted each year.
Once a mainstay of our gardens, perennials lost favor during the last 50 years. Their new prominence has resulted in numerous catalogs offering a broad range of plants. The problem is that few of these sources are in the southern United States,
Author: John B. Wight Jr.
Following is an outline of what we consider the key elements in a management program that will give these results.
Author: T.H. Yeager, G.W. Knox, G.W. Simone, H.M. Gramling, R.D. Newton
Author: Ralph Shugert
It is fitting that Program Chairman, Peter Orum, has asked me to say a few words as to the background of our beloved Society, since it was 21 years ago I had the honor of serving as Eastern Region President during our Conference held in this marvelous hotel. That 1968 meeting was our initial Canadian visit and was truly successful.
As we commence our Conference I would like to review, with you, the history of our Society since the inaugural meeting held at the Startler Hotel, Cleveland, Ohio, November, 1951. The Society, at that time named the Plant Propagators’ Society, was the dream of a few far-sighted individuals who felt such a society would be of great benefit to the professional nurseryman, the nursery community, and the academic facet of the nursery profession. The first officers elected in 1951, were President, Jim Wells; Vice-President, L.C.
Author: William J. Intven, Thomas J. Intven
For brevity in this presentation we will use Acer for A. palmatum, or Japanese maple. Until 1980 we had been importing Acer from the North American West Coast and from Europe. These were well-grown plants but sometimes there was some difficulty in acclimatization to our harsher Ontario, Canadian winters. The root washing requirement for imports from Europe was also a negative factor. In addition, the great transport distances substantially increased the cost. Hence, the decision to propagate Acer at our nursery.
As to grafting versus growing from cuttings, we had observed that in some species, notably Viburnum and Cornus, plants from cuttings were more difficult to overwinter in the first years and also were slower growing that grafted types. Our conviction regarding Japanese maple was confirmed after hearing a report by William Flemer III of Princeton Nurseries at the IPPS Annual meeting in Grand Rapids, Michigan, citing a recent experience with grafted and
Author: Edward L. Carpenter
This paper is divided into two parts. The first is record keeping on the grafter and the second is record keeping on the plant material. Before starting, an action plan is given to all those involved with the grafting process. The plan explains the grafting schedules, how to prepare understocks, how to take a scion, how to make a graft, the cultural care of the graft, spray program, and how the "takes" will be measured. This eliminates any confusion and problems that might arise.
Author: Harry Jan Swartz, Nabil El-Shirbini, Robert Bors, David Maas, S.
Author: Ralph Shugert
The phrase "carbohydrate-reserves" was capably explained by Sid Waxman (12) at our 1962 meeting in Cincinnati. He was discussing the taking of Taxus wood prior to the rest (dormancy) in the buds being completely broken. At this same meeting, Ray Halward (6) advised us to store dormant scionwood at 2 to 5°C (35 to 40°F) with high humidity. He commented that without sufficient humidity this technique will not be successful. At our Newport, Rhode Island meeting in 1966, Jim Law read Darrell Holmes’ (7) paper discussing storing
Author: Natalie F. Peate
In general, cutting media should satisfy certain physical, chemical, and biological criteria as well as those of availability, consistency of quality, and ease of use by the propagator. In addition, other factors such as climate, cultivar, and housing for cuttings will also have some influence on selection of suitable media ingredients. Cost of ingredients should be of secondary importance in structuring successful propagation media.
Author: Howard W. Barnes
Liquid quick-dips have steadily gained popularity as a means of treating cuttings with auxin. Traditionally, alcohols have been the primary solvents for synthetic auxins (4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10). However, in some cases alcohols in combination with auxins have proven to be deleterious to cuttings. Alcohols have been implicated with basal necrosis, premature leaf drop, and abnormal root development (1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12). Alternatives to alcohols do exist and have been used on a limited scale, (5, 6). Barnes (2) and McCrachen (9) have both done research with propylene glycol reduces the oxidation rate of IBA in solution and that the activity of propylene glycol-IBA solutions remains stable after one year. His work also showed that dips of IBA in propylene glycol at concentrations of 1000, 3000, and 5000 ppm were slightly superior to equal concentrations in ethyl alcohol. In some cases the positive correlation was as much as a 10% improvement. Dirr (6) lists Berberis thungbergii
Author: Sidney Waxman
Grafts made from a witches’-broom will of course, result in a group of dwarf plants genetically identical. Propagation of seeds from a broom, however, will result in a group of diverse seedlings, each having its own genetic makeup. Witches’-broom progenies usually consist of seedlings in which half are dwarf and half are normal. The normal seedlings are either discarded or used for rootstocks. It is among the former group of seedlings that we
Author: Darrel Apps
Today there are over 30,000 registered cultivars and nearly 200 active hybridizers. Last year alone 189 different breeders named 1116 new daylilies. Although marketing statistics are not available, daylilies are thought by many to be the number one perennial plant sold in the United States. One of the reasons for their recent popularity is the color diversity in new cultivars; this is especially surprising since the original 23 species were primarily yellow and orange. Today the only color missing is true blue. The fact that daylilies are not native to the North American continent makes their recent widespread acceptance even more intriguing!
Author: Richard E. Bir, T.E. Bilderback
For the past decade a group has formed in the corners, halls, restaurants, and elsewhere at the Eastern Region IPPS meetings to discuss mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) propagation and production. Some of the finest nurserymen and researchers from North America and Europe have participated in these conversations. Therefore, when asked to assemble something coherent on the current state of knowledge concerning mountain laurel production for the 1989 meeting, we expected that all we would have to do was visit some of the better nurseries and we would know how to grow excellent mountain laurel. We were wrong.
During the past year we have visited nurseries growing mountain laurel in eight eastern states (hardiness Zones 5 to 8) and talked with growers throughout the country by phone. Only two nurseries were consistently producing excellent mountain laurel in containers. Nearly all of the nurserymen we visited were growing good, but less than excellent, mountain laurels in
Author: Michael A. Dirr, Orville M. Lindstrom Jr.
‘Ballerina’ is described as "small, upright rounded, heavily flowering tree to 15 ft high; leaves dark green, disease resistant; white buds opening to large, very cupped, white, single but showy blossoms; fruits, 2/5 to ½ in., bright yellow, persistent to hard frosts. Excellent tree for narrow places."
Does this information really tell one anything about geographical and cultural adaptability? Certainly not! In Athens, Georgia will this crabapple receive
Author: Richard H. Zimmerman
Propagation methods. Micropropagated plants can be produced from axillary or adventitious shoots or from somatic embryos. Production from axillary shoots is the most common method used and involves using plant growth regulators called cytokinins to prematurely stimulate the growth of buds in the axils of leaves on shoots growing in tissue-culture. Shoots produced from axillary buds are most likely to maintain genotypic and phenotypic fidelity. This method is used for a wide range of plants, such as Dieffenbachia, Syngonium, Rhododendron, Acer, and Rubus, for
Author: Robert L. Geneve
A clone is described by the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants as a "genetically uniform assemblage of individuals derived from a single individual." However, being "genetically uniform" does not necessarily mean that variation cannot occur within a clone. Tissue culture propagation represents a new challenge to the propagator to maintain the integrity of the individual clone. New challenges, but challenges from the same influences that induce clonal variation during standard vegetative propagation. Variation within a clone occurs by
Author: Deborah D. Mccown, David D. Ellis
The last ten years have established micropropagation as a commercial production technique for horticultural crops. Zimmerman estimates that approximately half the production has been in foliage crops, a quarter in woody ornamental plants and shade trees, and the remaining quarter shared by fruits and non-woody flowering plants (7). The first part of the 1980s recorded a huge increase in both capacity and production of micropropagules. In the second half of the decade overall U.S. production has probably increased only slightly, with the largest gains in the micropropagation of woody ornamentals, shade trees, and fruit crops. The micropropagation industry appears to be in a maturation phase, experiencing consolidation and market development. Market development has focused on maintaining or improving quality, dependability, and position.
Micropropagation is usually considered a part of the biotechnology industry. Like micropropagation, the other components of the
Author: Anna J. Knuttel
We have had good results from each method, and each method has merit in our program.
To propagate Kalmia latifolia from stem cuttings, we implemented a program inspired by the research presented by Alfred J. Fordham of Weston Nurseries Inc., Hopkinton, Massachusetts, at the 1977 meeting of the Eastern Region International Plant Propagators’ Society (1).
Kalmia latifolia cuttings are taken the first week in December from the current year’s growth. We generally take cuttings from 2 to 4 in. in length. The cutting is wounded on one side. The wound is approximately one inch long and treated with a hormone. The hormone powder is a 2.2% IBA mixture (5 tbsp 4.4% IBA, 3 tbsp 0.1% IBA, 1 tbsp
Author: John E. Rodebaugh
Environmental issues are expected to become extremely important during the next 10 year period. Agriculture will receive special attention due to at least in part the large quantities of chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and other pesticides that are applied to agricultural land. The nursery and greenhouse