Volume 35

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Author: Kevin A. Handreck

PP: 36


In this paper I give preliminary results from experiments on two aspects of potting mixes. Not all of the relevant analytical data are yet available, nevertheless, the results so far are so clear cut that I am confident that further data will not alter the broad conclusions.


Author: R.E. Barke

PP: 92


Research in Australia and overseas has confirmed that the quality of planting material used in orchard establishment has far-reaching effects on subsequent plant vigour, fruit production and quality, and other crop characteristics.

Of prime importance in determining the potential productivity of planting material in many fruit crops is freedom from harmful virus diseases. These viruses may result in reduced vigour, yield, fruit quality, and orchard life. A list of some deleterious virus diseases of fruit crops is given in Table 1.


Author: Wayne Lovelace

PP: 507

We at Forrest Keeling Nursery are involved in our third year using companion grasses as an integral part of our field-grown seedling production program. Introduction of selective grass herbicides has rendered this program a valuable asset to seedling production.

Primary reasons for using companion grasses at Forest Keeling have been: erosion control; stabilization of mulching materials; prevention of crusting of mulch materials; and protection from a number of spring weather conditions including torrential rains, desiccating winds, and late spring frosts.


Author: Luce Diagneault, Calvin Chong

PP: 509

Using the mung bean rooting test, fractionation, and chromatographic techniques, attempts were made to identify and characterize the nature of the root promoting substances in crude and partially purified willow extracts. Clarified extracts increased the rooting response in comparison to crude extracts. Rooting activity was greater in extracts from plant materials collected in winter months than in those of the summer months. There was a positive correlation between root number of mung bean cuttings and total phenol content in seasonal willow extracts. Water extracts or their fractions showed greater root promoting activity than those of ethylacetate counterparts. The results suggest that water soluble phenolic and indolic compounds are major root-promoting substances in willow extracts.

Author: Norman E. Pellett, Karen Alpert

PP: 519

One-node cuttings from current shoots of six 18-year old Betula papyrifera trees were collected on 5 dates and treated with indolebutyric acid solution (IBA) 5-second dip at 0, 2000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 ppm. Three trees produced over 40% rooting over all dates compared to 12% or less for other trees. Cuttings from mid-shoot had higher rooting percentages than basal or apical cuttings except on the last two dates when apical cuttings had higher percentages. Three indices of maturity, which were stem length, stem diameter and leaf number, showed a linear growth pattern throughout the sampling period with no distinct change related to the time for best rooting. IBA concentrations of 4000 and 6000 ppm resulted in the highest rooting percentages for most trees on most dates of collection.

Author: Dennis P. Stimart, Michael A. Goodman

PP: 526


Stem cuttings of deciduous woody plants such as Acer, Cornus, Hamamelis, Magnolia, Prunus, Rhododendron, and Viburnum root satisfactorily but either do not survive the first winter or die after spring bud break (1,2,3,4,8,11,14). Inadequate carbohydrate levels to sustain plants during the winter or to support bud break in the spring have been postulated for the overwintering problem (1,11). Shoot growth following rooting improved survival of some species (1,3,4,8), supposedly by carbohydrate replenishment (1,11), but in other studies it had no effect (3,11,19).

Studies have been inconclusive as to the effect of fertilizer applications on cold acclimation. Fuchigami and Weiser (5) reported that plant health and carbohydrates may not be as important for development of vegetative maturity and cold acclimation as plant nutrition and cessation of growth. Salix purpurea grown without nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur resulted in early growth cessation and early onset of


Author: Brian M. Decker

PP: 532

At Decker Nursery we have added a new propagation season to our schedule. This is a spring propagation of softwood or semi?softwood cuttings prior to our usual June, July, or August propagation. Our goal is to produce cuttings of high demand species, rooted directly in cell pacs, ready for container production within 4 to 8 weeks after propagation.

Our method of preseason propagation begins with the propagation medium. This mix is two parts pine bark, two parts styrofoam or its equivalent, and one part sand. Good drainage is the most important factor in this mix; however, it must also serve as a growing mix that will hold together as a root and soil plug.

The propagation containers are sheets of 72 count cell pacs held in a plastic tray. This size cell pac seems to work best for two reasons. First, the cost averages out to less than 0.5 cents per plug. Secondly, the small soil volume is quick to fill with roots, thus producing a solid plug faster.

The hormone used is not critical as


Author: Dale G. Deppe

PP: 535

Spring Meadow Nursery produces 2 ¼ in. potted liners for resale to other growers. We have been growing potted liners for four years and currently grow ¾ million plants per year. Over 90 different kinds of plants, mostly deciduous, with a few broadleaf evergreens are grown. The system we use, rooting cuttings in a plug tray and transplanting to 2 ¼ in. pots, was designed to provide our customers with the most uniform plant possible. The system is clean and neat, easy to work with, easy to mechanize, and allows for maximum production from unskilled labor. I hope this paper gives you an idea of how we do it.

Author: Wray M. Bowden, Arthur J. Oslach

PP: 538

Since 1940, considerable data on the North American species and hybrids of Lobelia sect. Lobelia have been published by Bowden (3) and Bowden and Hirao (5). Some of the complex tetraploid hybrids that have resulted are excellent perennials for temperate-zone gardens. The parentage, ancestry, and history of these hybrids have been described by Bowden (1,2,3). The colour plates of Bowden and Hirao (5) illustrate seven clonal selections.

The three gene pools of these complex tetraploids can be stated in taxonomic terms as: Lobelia siphilitica L. var. siphilitica; L. cardinalis L. subsp. cardinalis var. cardinalis; and L. cardinalis L. subsp. graminea (Lam.) McVaugh var. propinqua (Paxton) Bowden cv. Queen Victoria and cv. Illumination. While the original plants were diploid (2n=14), the tetraploids (2n=28) originated spontaneously in several hybrid populations or the tetraploids were induced by colchicine treatments of diploid plants followed by selfing and selection.

In 1962, I (Bowden) grew a large population of


Author: William E. Brumback

PP: 542

The recent resurgence in popularity of herbaceous perennials in this country has prompted many growers to consider propagating native wildflowers for sale. Although many growers probably do not realize it, American natives have been a staple in perennial gardens for years. To name just a few, Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed), Baptisia australis (blue false indigo), the many Liatris species (blazing star), Echinacea purpurea (purple coneflower), Lobelia cardinalis (red cardinal flower) and Phlox stolonifera (creeping phlox) are all North American natives that have become so ubiquitous in perennial gardens that they are now thought of as perennials rather than wildflowers.

However, there are many other natives that deserve wider recognition and use by growers. There are two main reasons why more natives are not in greater use:

  1. Image — Wildflowers have been looked upon as being only for specialty gardens that contain unusual habitats. With the increasing sophistication of the

Author: Michael H. Dodge

PP: 548

Why propagate by root cuttings? It is a relatively cheap and simple way to propagate perennials and is the only way to propagate some cultivars asexually. In comparison to propagation by shoot cuttings, it is less costly because root cuttings do not require expensive humidification or misting systems and bottom heat is unnecessary. Many root cuttings will regenerate new plants without any added heat. Most commercially grown perennials are field-grown, mechanically harvested, and shipped bare-root. This facilities the taking of roots as the plants are being prepared for shipping. For plants with thick, fleshy roots the sticking of roots can be mechanized. This year we installed Bouldin and Lawson equipment the allowed us to reduce the time it takes to stick 20,000 oriental poppy roots from 2 or 3 days to less than one full day. Paper cutters are used to trim soft rooted plants, such as phlox, which saves a considerable amount of time.

There are many plants that produce underground


Author: Sidney Waxman

PP: 555

At the University of Connecticut we have been working on the development of new forms of dwarf conifers. The dwarf plants we develop are not the result of hybridization, but are seedlings obtained from mutations found on various conifers. These mutations, called witches'-brooms, produce seed that yield plants which are 50% normal and 50% dwarf.

We have 20,000 seedlings at our nursery that range in age from 2 to 21 years. Most of these seedlings are from witches'-brooms found on: two Larix species, one Picea species, one Tsuga species, and six Pinus species.

Although we could obtain dwarf shrubs by merely grafting scions from witches'-brooms, we prefer to collect and grow seeds from the brooms. We do this because with seedlings we obtain a highly variable population from which we could select some unique forms.

Although the variation among seedlings obtained from witches'-broom is, most likely, similar to the variation obtained with normal seedlings, the


Author: R.B. Wells

PP: 96

Grafting is the implanting of a piece of tissue from one plant into another in such a manner that they will maintain a permanent bond. It is one of the oldest arts of plantcraft.

Natural grafting has been around at least as long as plants have had cambium layers to unite, and this natural grafting probably stimulated the early practitioners by way of approach grafting.

References are available to show that grafting techniques were used by the Chinese 3000 years ago (9). At approximately 2000 years ago Aristotle (9) (384 to 322 B.C.), Virgil (4) in his "Georgics" or "The Art of Husbandry" (30 B.C.) and Pliny the Elder (4), in his "Historia Naturalis Volume II" (77 A.D.) all discussed grafting with considerable understanding. Paul the Apostle (9), in his Epistle to the Romans (Chapter XI, Verses 17 to 24) "And if some of the branches be broken off, and thou, being a wild olive tree, wert graffed in among them, and with them partakest of the root…


Author: Richard E. Bir

PP: 560


To understand why we grow hemlock seedlings the way we do in Western North Carolina (WNC), you need to know something about us. Although we are nearly as far south as Los Angeles, WNC has nursery production areas in hardiness zones 5, 6, 7 and 8. Such dramatic differences in climate in a relatively small area are due to elevation and slope. Most of our hemlock seedling production is in the Blue Ridge and Smokey Mountains at elevations between 1500 and 3500 feet. Most hemlock field production is in Zone 7 while most seedlings and transplants are grown in Zone 6.

The mountains contribute to regular rainfall, abundant high quality irrigation water and morning fog, almost daily during mid-summer and early fall, in the coves and valleys where we grow hemlock seedlings. Our southern latitudes give us a frost-free growing season from about May 10 to October 10. This very closely parallels the period of active growth for above ground portions of hemlock seedlings. The southern


Author: Peter Del Tredici

PP: 565


According to the literature, the main factors affecting the rooting ability of Tsuga canadensis, the Canada hemlock, are the time of year when the cuttings are taken and the type and concentration of auxin used. With regard to proper timing, the literature is ambiguous. Thimann and Delisle (12) had success with rooting both the species and the cultivar Pendula in October and December. Deuber (3) had good success rooting cuttings of the species in November, and Jenkins (9), in reporting the works of nurserymen, variously recommended March, July, December, and August. In 1941, Doran (4) reported success in rooting cuttings from a species plant as well as the cultivars Pendula and Minuta at all times of the year, except early summer. In a later work (5), with the species, he narrowed his recommendation down to any time from mid-August to late January. Swartley (10) recommended February as the optimal time, provided bottom heat was available. In 1984, Swartley (11)


Author: James R. Johnson

PP: 569

A quonset nursery overwintering structure was built using a floor which was heated with 55 to 55.5°F well water as the heat source. The structure was covered with milky-colored, air-inflated polyethylene.

Medium temperatures during two study periods dropped only to 29°F with a typical minimum difference of 2.1° over a normal unheated overwintering structure. Preliminary liner observations showed some benefit with Euonymus alata ‘Compacta’ and Rhododendron ‘Hino Crimson’, but none with Ilex crenata ‘Hetzii’ which was successfully overwintered in both structures.


Author: Christoph Kessel

PP: 575

Although propagation by root cuttings generally plays a minor role in the nursery industry, it presents a potential source of readily available material and perhaps should be considered more widely for those species which can be economically and practically propagated by this method. Plants propagated by root cuttings will be true-to-type, except for periclinal chimera plant types which do not reproduce true-to-type. A favorable aspect of root propagation, especially for the manager or foreman, is that it requires little skill to do and can be easily taught. Root cutting propagation will be illustrated by discussing some of our methods employed at Sheridan Nurseries and highlighted by examples of some species propagated.

A year prior to planting a field with root cuttings, it is seeded with a clover cover crop. A relatively sandy soil is preferred. The field is prepared for spring planting by fall plowing, adding required P and K according to a soil test, and cultivating. An


Author: Daniel K. Struve

PP: 577

Three year height data from a Betula papyrifera provenance test was used to show the economic benefits of proper selection of propagation material. The best of 8 commercially available seed sources (number 1306, obtained from Musser Forest and Herbst Tree Seed) averaged 8.3 ft in heights vs. 7.4 ft for the 8 commercial source average. The shortest source was 6.1 ft. Based on fall 1985 wholesale prices, planting seedlings from source 1306 would have grossed an additional $5.60 per plant or an additional $10.00 per plant compared to the 8 commercial seed source average or the shortest commercial source, respectively. Seedling heights within source 1306 ranged form 6.1 to 11.8 ft. Asexual propagation of the tallest individual within source 1306 would have grossed an additional $20.00 per plant compared with the 8 commercial source average and $14.40 per plant compared to the average of source 1306. By recognizing and exploiting variation among and within seed sources, a nursery manager can realize significant increases in nursery (more dollars per acre per year) without changing current production practices.

Author: Michael Marcotrigiano

PP: 582

A chimera is a plant possessing two or more genetically distinct tissues. In horticulturally important species, chimeras are manifested frequently by useful or ornamental characteristics. For example, some thornless blackberry cultivars contain epidermal tissue which has genes for "thornlessness", whereas the inner tissue layers can give rise to thorny branches (3). Chimeras for flower or bract color exist in carnations, mums, and poinsettias (9,10,11). In addition, leaf variegation can be caused by green and albino cell genotypes coexisting in a single shoot (4). While variegation is obvious in the leaves, its actual origin is from the cells which give rise to the leaves, namely the "apical initials" of the shoot tip or shoot apical meristem. Most higher plants have a structured shoot tip which contains two or three cell layers, each with a set of apical initials. These layers generally remain independent from each other as the apex continues to produce cells. The

Author: D.C. Milbocker, M.A. Stefani

PP: 587

Early attempts at high humidity propagation involved the natural humidification of enclosed chambers which contained the cuttings to be rooted (1). High temperatures during sunny weather and inadequate means of temperature control were frequent reasons for propagation failure (1). The concept of high humidity propagation was advanced during the 1940's by V.T. Stoutemyer of the U.S Plant Introduction Garden at Glenn Dale, Maryland. He supplemented natural humidity with mechanically-produced fog to minimize the effects of solar heating which lowered the humidity during the day. Because high humidity required frequent care by trained personnel and often produced unpredictable results, intermittent mist surpassed high humidity for commercial propagation use. Research was begun in 1974 to solve the problems of high humidity propagation and thus improve it for commercial use. After 4 years of work, the modern concept of ventilated high humidity propagation was developed. This concept

Author: Dalem M. Maronek, Daniel Studebaker, Beverly Oberly

PP: 591

Considerable information has been published regarding container media ingredients, their properties and their effects on root growth (1,2,3,4,6). Most modern day propagators use a soilless medium during propagation and/or for subsequent growing on in containers. Every medium has different physical and chemical properties that will affect rooting, and subsequent plant growth and development. In addition, a medium that may be best (poorest) for rooting may be the poorest (best) for growing on in larger containers (5). Consequently, finding a medium that would meet all of a growers specific requirements for both propagation and growing on may be difficult.

Optimum soilless medium properties alone will not eliminate all production problems, but understanding physical and chemical properties is a key component to improve rooting and subsequent plant growth. In addition, utilizing these factors will assist a grower in evaluating the cost benefits of a particular medium.

Some suggested medium


Author: Thomas L. McCloud

PP: 597

At Appalachian Nurseries, we produce a wide range of hardy ornamentals for sale as potted liners. At last count, our propagation schedule included 52 genera with 217 species and named cultivars. Because of this, we use four different media for cutting propagation. I will review these today, including costs and how much each medium is used in our propagation program.

Author: Mark L. Richey

PP: 600

I would like to share some observations I have made at Zelenka Nursery over the past several years as our propagation medium has evolved. Several years ago, the basic requirements of a medium were that it be inexpensive and reusable, as long as no major problems occurred. Our system originally consisted of ground beds under poly, using coarse sand as a medium. At that time, we were sticking about 750,000 softwood cuttings per year and space was not a problem. To reuse the beds the next year, we would mix in some perlite and fumigate. This system gave us acceptable results until we ran out of room to expand. Each year since 1979, our softwood rooting propagation has increased by an average of 750,000 cuttings per year. Therefore, a method had to be developed to increase our production in the same amount of space. We adopted a heavy plastic flat, figuring to get at least two crops of cuttings rooted under the existing mist lines. However, the weight of the flats with the sand medium was

Author: W.M. Hancock

PP: 102


The common pawpaw or papaya (Carica papaya) has been cultivated in Australia for many years but has not become of much commercial importance. Part of the reason behind this has been the problems involved with maintaining good lines and the inability to take advantage of a chance superior type(s) which may appear in mass populations.

Similarly, dioecious lines present horticultural difficulties which result in inefficiency of the cropping system.

Asexual or vegetative propagation offers an opportunity to overcome these problems (3,6). Cuttings have been successful in South Africa (1) and Australia, and side grafts have been used in Australia (4), Papua New Guinea and Asian countries (2). These do not make the best use of available scion (such as could be obtained from a chance seedling), so other methods need to be investigated.

The vegetative propagation of pawpaws has met with varied success and tissue culture techniques similarly have not been finalised as yet (2,5).


Author: Paul E. Read, Terry L. Ettinger

PP: 603

How does tissue culture benefit the practical plant propagator? A practical plant propagator might ask, is tissue culture propagation (i.e., micropropagation, or in vitro propagation) appropriate for my operation? If so, to what extent? How does a propagator determine whether to use tissue culture methods or not? What are the options? Which methods should be employed and on what species? These and numerous related questions need to be asked by the propagator who is considering tissue culture as a possible propagation method. In answering these questions it is important to remember how the practical plant propagator determines whether to use any practice, material, or equipment. The answer is, as always, will it be profitable?

Propagators should not be over-awed by the science involved in tissue culture propagation. Instead, they should think of tissue culture simply as a relatively new propagation tool. Admittedly, it is a potentially powerful tool, but it still should be thought of as


Author: John W. Einset

PP: 608

Using what has now become a standard technology, woody plant micropropagation takes advantage of the effect of cytokinins in stimulating growth and causing shoot multiplication under controlled tissue culture conditions. Although the greatest impact of micropropagation involves species in Ericaceae and Rosaceae, a systematic survey of 130 species in 33 families and 16 orders indicated that the method could probably be extended to several woody taxa that are not currently being exploited (e.g. other species in order Ericales and species in families Bignoniaceae and Rubiacaea). The survey also identified taxa that are unresponsive to the cytokinins, N6-isopentenyladenine (i6Ade), thidiazuron, and N6-benzyladenine. Apparently, woody species can be classified into three groups based on their tissue culture characteristics: 1) inherently responsive to cytokinins, 2) responsive to cytokinins after acclimation (e.g. Magnolia spp.), and 3) unresponsive. To obtain a better understanding of cytokinins in responsive plants, the uptake and metabolism of i6Ade was studied in Actinidia arguta shoot cultures using HPLC methodology. When established cultures were subdivided and individual shoots were recultured on basal medium plus 30 µM i6Ade, stem zeatin (io6Ade) levels increased rapidly from 145 nmol/g to >900 nmol/g after 15 days then they declined. It is concluded that during tissue culture growth on i6Ade, an important aspect of cytokinin metabolism in Actinidia involves the conversion of i6Ade to io6Ade which accumulates to levels in excess of the critical concentration (150 nmol/g) needed for optimal growth.

Author: Andrew Brand, Mark P. Bridgen

PP: 616

A comparison between variations of a proposed Home Tissue Culture Medium to the Murashige and Skoog basal medium is described. African violets, Boston ferns and variegated wandering Jew were able to be micropropagated on each medium. Although growth occurred on all media, the Home Tissue Culture Medium supplemented with a vitamin tablet produced the best growth. Results with this medium were comparable to those obtained with Murashige and skoog's medium. The Home Tissue Culture medium supplemented with coconut milk had the worst growth. By using the medium described, plant micropropagation can be performed at home using household items and simplified procedures.

Author: R. Wayne Mezitt

PP: 622


Although grown by relatively few nurseries until recently, the native mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia, has had a number of devotees over the years. It was one of the first broadleaf evergreens we grew at Weston Nurseries; we first listed it for sale in our 1935 catalog. Those early plants were collected from the wild and grown in our fields to regenerate roots. It wasn't long before we noticed a significant amount of variation in flower color and began to see potential for interesting color in late spring landscapes.

In 1937 we bought some plants from Ernest Borowski, a nurseryman from Norwood, Massachusetts, who grew pink-flowered seedlings. These plants were originally grown and perhaps hybridized by Charles O. Dexter in his quest for more colorful flowers. Dexter was the first person we know who worked on improving mountain laurel. We soon found that our customers enjoyed having more colors from which to choose and by about 1945 we were beginning


Author: John (Ed.) Kinsey

PP: 626

We had been experimenting with rooting cuttings of native mountain laurel taken from burned-over areas of our mountains for several years prior to the introduction of the new selections and Richard Jaynes' book, The Laurel Book. We had had enough success to know it was possible to root some clones, but our local demand was very low. Up until recently, most mountain laurel was produced from collected plants that were cut back and transplanted to the nursery, or simply cutback or burned over and then dug in place a few years later. Quality and survivial have usually been undependable and variable. There were no named clones available. Prices for this material were relatively low and knowledge of how to grow and landscape with them was limited.

With the publication of Richard Jaynes' book (1) and his development of distinctively colored named clones, my interest in mountain laurel became much greater. Several years ago after an IPPS meeting at Rutgers University, Richard Jaynes sent me my first


Author: Lawrence Carville

PP: 629

Tonight we are privileged to honor one of our members with the highest recognition the Eastern Region can bestow, the Award of Merit. This award was first given in 1957 and has been awarded annually whenever a deserving recipient is nominated by the membership. The Award of Merit recognizes outstanding contributions to the art and science of plant propagation, either by a practitioner or an academician.

Our recipient this evening has been chosen from the practical field because he is a propagator in every sense of the word. To him, the motto of our Society, TO SEEK AND TO SHARE, is more than words. They are his daily creed.

Our honoree became a member of the Eastern Region in 1962 and presented his first of many papers in Cleveland in 1965. Some of you will recognize him from the title of this paper: "Corylus and Cornus from cutting." His papers appeared in subsequent Proceedings every year for six consecutive years.

I came to know this propagator because his knowledge was


Author: Henry F. Hughes

PP: 630

As are their ornamental cousins of the domestic landscape, species of forest trees are subject to intensive selection and breeding. Genotypes superior in growth rate, disease resistance, wood characteristics, etc. are exchanged among members of forest tree improvement cooperatives. Grafted scions of these genotypes arranged in the field for adequate clonal dispersion and cross pollination grow to become production seed orchards. As more and more seed is collected from orchards, forest tree nurseries are being stocked increasingly with genetically improved seedlings.

To enhance the development of improved seedlings, nursery culture is intensified. Sites for new bareroot nurseries are carefully selected for soil and water quality. Intensively managed containerized forest nurseries are being established, some with rooted cuttings as well as with seedlings.

As has been the practice in Europe for many years, management of forest nurseries in the U.S. is increasingly being viewed as the prerogative


Author: Ralph Shugert, Joerg Leiss

PP: 633

The Question Box Session was convened at 8:40 a.m. with Ralph Shugert and Joerg Leiss serving as moderators.

MODERATOR LEISS: Question for Dale Deppe. What is your missing nozzle?

DALE DEPPE: A Spraying System 1/4 E10. We operator it at 70 pis. It is available from Spraying Systems.

MODERATOR LEISS: Why do such outstanding nurseries, such as we saw Wednesday, hold to cow manure instead of chemical fertilizers; to hoeing and mule cultivation instead of machine and herbicides; and hand digging instead of machine?

RON ST. JAMES: The reason Rhode Island Nurseries uses mules is because they plant very close together and could not cultivate with a tractor. Van Hof Nurseries still uses hand weeding but also has a herbicide program.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: To any Newport, Rhode Island Taxus grower. Why do you pound (beat) the sand in your propagation benches?

RON ST. JAMES: Because it works and we see no reason to change.

MODERATOR SHUGERT: Question for Dale Maronek on


Author: Ruth Kvaalen

PP: 641

Some time ago I read an article about Callery pear cultivars which mentioned the name of a cultivar with which I was not familiar — ‘King Road.’ No details about this cultivar were given. Let me tell you about my search for information. First, I consulted the "Checklist of Cultivars of Calley Pear," by Frank Santamour and Alice Jacot McArdle, from the Journal of Arboriculture in April, 1983, which contained a comprehensive list of cultivars. However, ‘King Road’ was not among the names listed.

I looked in McClintock and Leiser's Annotated Checklist of Woody Ornamental Plants, Dirr's Manual of Woody Landscape Plants, Gerd Krussmann's Manual of Cultivated Broadleaved Trees and Shrubs, the lists of patented plants, W.J. Bean's Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, and the indexes of HortScience, all without success. Next I turned to nursery catalogs, but I didn't find the cultivar in question.

I wrote letters


Author: Jack Alexander, Gary Koller

PP: 644

JOERG LEISS: Dianthus ‘Frosty Flame’ starts to flower in May and continues to flower until frost. The color is an attractive deep red. The originator is Tony Huber of W. Perron and Cie, Montreal. It is easily propagated by softwood cuttings during the summer months under intermittent mist or under plastic.

Taxus cuspidata ‘Aurescens’ is a plant that has been in commerce for quite a while. It is sometimes falsely called T. baccata ‘Aurea’. The foliage is banded in shade and bright yellow in full sun. There is a plant at the Arnold Arboretum. It propagates easily as does most Taxus, but grows best under light shade.


Author: G.M. Moore

PP: 105


A well formed root system is an essential prerequisite for the growth and development of a vigorous tree and the achievement of a full life-span (5). There has been a long history of concern about the malformation of root systems by propagation and planting (or transplanting) techniques (7). Distortions of the root system may be so severe that poor growth, toppling or even death may result (4).

Harris (5) identifies two types of root defects:

  1. kinked roots in which the major roots are bent, and
  2. circling or girdled roots in which the roots circle around the stem or other roots.

The degree of root deformation is affected by nursery practice, container design, planting method and the site (6). Such factors can cause the development of abnormal root systems in container-grown plants. Indeed the root system of container-grown plants may never develop the same structure as the "normal" system of direct sown plants.

The root formation of plants grown from


Author: Mike J. Young

PP: 650

Seven gelling substances were evaluated for the micropropagation of Gerbera jamesonii ‘Pink Quill’ and Hemerocallis ‘Aztec Gold’. Although multiplication and rooting for both plants were similar on media gelled with several of the gelling substances, the commercial grade of Phytagar was generally superior and Nutrient Agar inferior to the others. Normal plantlets were produced on all gels except Gelrite, the use of which resulted in watersoaked and strap-shaped leaves in gerbera cultures.

Author: Elwin R. Orton Jr

PP: 655

A program of interspecific hybridization of plants of Cornus florida, C. kousa, and C. nuttallii has resulted in the selection of five F1 interspecific hybrids (C. kousa × C. florida) deemed worthy of patenting and introduction to commerce. These hybrids are noteworthy for their floral display, high vigor, and resistance to the dogwood borer. Material being evaluated in the field also includes hybrids of C. florida × C. nuttallii, C. kousa × C. nuttallii and hybrids combining genomes of all three species as in (C. nuttallii × C. florida) × C. kousa.

Starting in 1965, bare-root whips of many of the cultivars and/or numbered selections of Cornus florida L., C. kousa Hance, and C. nuttallii Audubon available in the nursery trade were assembled in performance trials at the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, Cook College, Rutgers University. This was the first step in initiating a breeding program devoted to the development of new and superior cultivars of the large-bracted dogwoods through intra- and inter-specific hybridization. This paper describes the breeding value of the plant material, discusses the general approach, goals, and techniques involved in the work devoted to interspecific hybridization, and provides a progress report of those efforts.


Author: David J. Beattie, J.K. Iles, L.J. Kuhns

PP: 661

The effectiveness of rooting rhododendron cuttings in polytunnels heated with Flexwatt electric heating mats during late winter and early spring was examined. Mats maintained root-zone temperatures above 20.0°C (69.0°F) even when night temperatures dropped to -20.4°C (-4.7°F). Placing a Microfoam insulating blanket over the rooting medium and sticking cuttings through it reduced energy consumption by about 20%, but also reduced rooting and complicated removal of rooted cuttings. Time when cuttings were stuck, as well as length of the rooting period, influenced rooting percentage, root quality, and subsequent growth.

Author: Carl E. Whitcomb

PP: 672

When considering factors that affect plant production in containers, water quality is generally considered but only passively. In the past, as long as the water had a salt level below 500 ppm, it was considered acceptable. The other factor often measured was pH. Unfortunately, pH is frequently used to judge the quality of irrigation water. But pH is only a measure of the relative proportions of acids and bases in the water. Neither soluble salts nor pH measurements give any clue to what salts are actually dissolved in the water. If pH is below 7.0, it means only that there are more acid-forming materials in the water than bases, or vice versa if it is above 7.0.

To demonstrate how little information pH of water actually provides, try this: take a sample of distilled water and measure the pH. If the distillation process was working properly, pH will be 7.0; and if a chemical analysis of the water is done, it will show no dissolved salts. Now add enough acid, any acid, to another


Author: Butch Gaddy

PP: 677

We have been using high-humidity propagation at Colesville Nursery for five or six years. In 1982 I presented a paper to the IPPS - Southern Region (1), on our use of the Agritech high-humidity propagation system. While this system did work fairly well for us, the maintenance cost on the motors and other moving parts in the units became prohibitive. Also, the uniformity of the moisture was very irregular.

While visiting nurseries in Oregon in 1984, Al Gardner and I saw a small fog system at Mitch Nursery, which John Mitch was experimenting with in his operation. John, very graciously, shared all the information he had with us. Back in Virginia we began to construct a similar fog system in our 20 × 100 ft. propagation house.

A fog or high humidity system operates by atomizing water into microscopic droplets. These droplets are suspended in the air of the greenhouse creating an ideal atmosphere for plant propagation. The air is kept humid while not overly wetting the soil medium. In


Author: Bill Craven III

PP: 680

The propagation house is full of problems and pitfalls. One of the trickiest problems is controlling humidity around the cuttings. The usual methods of controlling mist cycles with standard time clocks and electronic leaves both have unacceptable trade-offs. Standard time clocks do not have enough flexibility, and electronic leaves and screen balances are too expensive to be used on a large scale. The mist controller outlined below is very flexible and is reasonably priced.

The Controller. The mist clock is a Richdel, Lawn Genie, 6-station lawn sprinkler controller (Figure 1). This controller is a common residential unit. The standard 24-hr. motor (M007) has been replaced with a motor (M001) that cycles every six min. The cycle is adjusted to mist once every two, three, or six min. This adjustment is easily accomplished by simply adding or removing tripper gears. Each station has an independently variable misting time that is adjusted by simply turning a dial. The mist can be set to


Author: Paul C.H. Chu

PP: 682

The purpose of water sampling is to collect a portion of the water source small enough in volume to be transported conveniently and handled easily in the laboratory while still representing the water source being sampled. A representative sample is the most important single element in the water analysis since the result of any test can be no better than the sample on which it is performed. A representative sample means that the concentrations of all components are the same in the sample as in the water source. The task of obtaining a representative sample often becomes more difficult as the size of the water source increases. A good grab sample can be representative if it is collected from a well-mixed water tank but will not be representative if it is collected from a pond. The sampling program should take into account the variations of time, area, depth, and the rate of the water flow. Quality can change overnight even with city water if a decision is made by city officials to soften

Author: Ronald W. Copeland

PP: 684

The escalating cost of fossil fuels in the winter of 1981 led our nursery to seek a more economical and reliable method of heating our propagating and liner-growing houses. After much research and evaluation it was decided that a wood-burning furnace was the answer to our needs. It was important that we answer the following questions:
  1. Could the wood-burning furnace provide the heat needed?
  2. What unit was needed and what would it cost?
  3. Was hardwood available?
  4. How much time would be required to operate and maintain the unit?
  5. How much could we save by using wood instead of fossil fuel?

During the winter of 1981 our nursery spent about $10,000 heating approximately 13,000 ft.2 of space. The space heated included three houses used for propagation and four houses used for growing-on the rooted cuttings. Three of our units were heated by means of hot water using black pipe, fin radiation as bottom heat in raised beds. These three units were heated with an oil-fired boiler capable of


Author: Jerry Billington

PP: 687

The idea of bottom heat in rooting cuttings is not new. The major drawbacks for most systems are the cost of installation, the purchase of equipment, and the maintenance. The system developed at Tawakoni Plant Farm has proven to be cost-effective and has returned the original investment more than twice in its first year of use. It was very easy to install and was built out of materials readily available through local supply firms. The goal was to install a system not so much for protecting liners, but more for rooting cuttings during the winter months. Both objectives have been achieved with this system. Admittedly, the winter of 1983–1984 was a deciding factor in building the system. That year almost 1/3 of all rooted liners were lost to freezing, causing serious planning, financing, and organizing problems. This system has the potential to alleviate losses of that nature and expand the propagation season to a year-round endeavor.

Author: Peter Van Der Giessen

PP: 692

The purpose of this project was to find an efficient and economical heat source for our liner houses.

Before Hurricane Frederic of 1979, the houses at Cottage Hill Nursery container division were equipped with Modine heaters. After the storm we had to rebuild, so this was a good time to consider changes in heating equipment. We decided to try different heaters to make our heating more efficient and economical. We considered three possibilities:

  1. Replace Modine heaters.
  2. Use an open-flame heater topped by a container of water.
  3. Turn on the misting system during extremely cold nights.

These houses are used for overwintering liner stock, so we do not need a growing temperature. Choose (a) was out because of cost. Choice (c) required the presence of an employee at night, checking to see that timers were working properly. This also could present a problem of over-watering. Choice (b) seemed the simplest solution. We thought it would be economical. It produced warm moist air, required no ventilation,


Author: Ross M. Lisle

PP: 112


Plant protection is the management of insects, diseases, weeds, and other organisms which interfere with plant growth — and it experiences its own set of difficulties within the nursery industry. These embrace the high standard of cosmetic appearance demanded of the industry's products, the diversity of species cultivated and production environments utilized, and the need for workers to enter agrochemically-treated areas and handle treated plants daily. Other factors which complicate the day-to-day decision making associated with plant protection in plant nurseries include the lack of applied research information on the cultivar(s) and pests, and the interactions between the nursery environment and the pesticides used.


Author: Frank A. Blazich, Robert D. Wright, Henry E. Schaffer

PP: 694

Hardwood stem cuttings of Ilex crenata ‘Convexa’ Thunb., treated with and without indolebutyric acid (IBA), were inserted into a perlite rooting medium and misted with deionized water during intermittent mist propagation in a controlled-environment chamber. Initially, and at weekly intervals for 6 weeks, leaves, upper stems (portion of stem above rooting medium) and lower stems (portion of stem in rooting medium) were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. At the conclusion of the study, both nontreated and IBA-treated cuttings showed a slight increase in dry weight with detectable but slight leaching of N and K and no detectable leaching of P, Ca, and Mg. Mineral nutrient mobilization to the lower stem was not detected during root initiation for nontreated and IBA-treated cuttings. Following root initiation and later budbreak on the upper stem, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were all mobilized from the leaves of nontreated and IBA-treated cuttings to the upper stem, whereas only N, P, and K were mobilized to the lower stem of IBA-treated cuttings. For nontreated cuttings, all nutrients were mobilized from the lower stem to the upper stem, while for IBA-treated cuttings only Ca and Mg were mobilized from the lower stem to the upper stem. Root development, as influenced by IBA treatment and budbreak on the upper stem, had a strong influence on mineral nutrient mobilization.

Author: Jules J. Jaeger

PP: 701

Goal® (oxyfluorfen) is a diphenyl ether herbicide with broad spectrum preemergence and postemergence activity. It was discovered and developed at the Rohm and Haas Research Laboratories, Spring House, Pennsylvania. Goal was first synthesized in 1971, and initial field testing was conducted in 1972, under the experimental code RH-2915. The first projects selected for field development was preemergence weed control in soybeans and post-directed applications for witchweed control in field corn.

The first commercial registration in the United States was approved by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) in May, 1979, for nonbearing fruit trees. In December, 1980, the registration was expanded to include bearing fruit trees. Conifers were added to the label in 1979; soybeans and corn in 1981; cotton, spearmint, and fallow bed in 1982; onions in 1984, and artichokes in 1985. Goal has rapidly filled many niches in modern agriculture, and new uses continue to be developed. An experimental use


Author: Richard Bailey

PP: 705

The objective of Sierra Chemical's ornamental-herbicide research program encompassed the development of an herbicide product with an effectiveness/tolerance spectrum equal or superior to any product currently marketed. Strategy involved the combination of two unlike chemical structures with complementing activity. Specific combinations were evaluated to provide primary and backup candidates for product registration.

Target weed species for which control data was required included: common groundsel, prostrate spurge, and common chickweed. These weed species are noted for their prevalence and difficulty of control.


Author: Patrick H. Duck

PP: 710

There is very little room for error in the propagation phase of Ilex vomitoria ‘Nana’ (dwarf yaupon). Any mistake reduces percentage of take and profit goes down rapidly. To avoid this, a propagator must pay very close attention to detail from the time the cuttings are taken until the time all the cuttings are rooted and the mist is turned off. It is very important that the cuttings are not allowed to go through any type of heat stress or water stress. This will probably have more effect on success than anything else.

Cuttings should be taken from clean stock, with care taken that there are no infestations of spider mites or leaf miners. These two pests can greatly reduce rooting percentage. I prefer cuttings taken from container stock over field stock because the container stock in normally more vigorous and healthy. We immediately put the cuttings under wet burlap and take them back to the propagation house at regular intervals. Take large-caliper branch cuttings if


Author: Bill Barr

PP: 711

There are three factors that I feel are extremely important in the rooting of all Berberis species. They are timing, application of mist, and the hardening-off process. I am convinced the most critical of the three is the mist control.

In Houston, we like to take cuttings as early in the spring as possible. The cuttings are taken from our container-grown plants in May and June. We start propagating as soon as the new growth is firm at the base of the cutting. The stem of the cuttings are a greenish yellow color; we do not use any brown wood. We use 5– to 6-in. cuttings.

These cuttings are then stored in a walk-in cooler until they are prepared. The propagators wear 0.02 gauge latex gloves while preparing this plant. The bottom leaves are stripped off the plant, which also removes most of the thorns. The cuttings are then put into bundles, and basal stems and tops trimmed to about 4 in. in length. The cuttings are then dipped in a fungicide bath of Benlate, captan and Agristrep at the


Author: Blaine A. Bunting

PP: 712

We propagate Clethra alnifola from two sources:

1.) Old stock plant, or 2.) liners, bedding plants

We usually take cuttings by the second week of June in our area, which is lower Delaware (Zone 7) along the Mason/Dixon Line of the DelMarVa Peninsula. These cuttings must be taken at this time as the percentage of rooting drops drastically as the growth on the stock plants harden off.

The second group used is the young plants (liners). Softwood cuttings of 3 to 6 in. can be taken any time as long as they are growing or have green stems. These softwood tip cuttings will root easily in about a month under mist. We take growing tip cuttings from liners up until October with reasonably good results.

We use Chloromone at a 1:3 dilution for our rooting compound. Wood's Rooting Compound has ben used with the same good results.

Clethra cuttings will root in almost any medium. However, I prefer half peat and half perlite in trays in outside mist beds under full sun. The mist is set 3 sec. every


Author: Milton P. Schaefer Jr

PP: 713

Viburnum carlesii cultivars and hybrids are desirable for their fragrant flowers, excellent foliage, lack of serious pests, hardiness, and some fall color. The U.S. National Arboretum has introduced several interspecific hybrids that show promise.

We propagate several hybrids of Viburnum carlesii by cuttings. Viburnum carlesii ‘Compactum’, Viburnum × juddii (V. bitchiuense × V. carlesii), Viburnum × carlcephalum (V.carlessi × V. macrocephalum var. keteleerii), Viburnum ‘Cayuga’ (V. carlesii × V. carcelephalum), Viburnum burkwoodii (V. carlesii × V. utile), Viburnum × burkwoodii ‘Mohawk’ (V. × V. carlesii), Viburnum ‘Chesapeake’ (V. Cayuga; × V. utile), and Viburnum &lsquoEskimo’ (V. ‘Cayuga’ × V. utile) are among those we produce./P>

Description of ground beds and equipment. We propagate in 4- × 48-ft. ground beds bordered by crossties or treated 6-in. wood poles. The rooting medium is Emory soil, a fine sandy loam,


Author: David L. Morgan

PP: 716

Traditionally live oak (Quercus virginiana) trees are propagated by seed. But oaks are wind-pollinated and are heterozygous by nature, so they often exhibit genetic variation in a great variety of characteristics, only some of which are visible.

Obvious differences can be found among individual live oaks in branching habit, height, leaf shape, even color. It is likely that other sources of variations may occur, such as in susceptibility to insects and diseases, response to fertility, vigor, and winter hardiness. Attaining the ability to select outstanding trees and successfully propagate them for their inheritable characteristics would represent a significant contribution to the landscape industry. Development of practical means of vegetative propagation is an important step toward that end.

Propagation by cuttings is generally regarded as the most important method of vegetatively increasing both deciduous and evergreen species. It is a means by which the parent plant is usually


Author: Dennis M. Connor

PP: 719

Some of the upright growing junipers have been a problem for propagators for as long as both have been around. Grafting has been the conventional method of propagating many of these, but it is a very costly and labor intensive method. Rooting of these junipers is gaining more and more momentum as more experiments with various rooting hormones continue. I will, therefore, focus this report on rooting some of the upright junipers — Juniperus chinensis, J. scopulorum, and J. virginiana cultivars.

Cuttings of all cultivars are prepared from about November through February. Although January and February are the best times, we cannot produce enough to meet our requirements in two months. Cuttings are collected from our own container stock. Approximately 3–in. cuttings are made with at least some hard wood at the base. Heel cuttings are preferred and used when possible. All of the foliage is stripped from the bottom inch of the cuttings. After the cuttings are prepared, they are


Author: Joe C. Powell

PP: 722

I feel that Leyland cypress can become a profitable plant for the commercial nursery, but like any plant it must be looked at carefully before beginning production.


PP: 120

This award was set up in memory of the late Rod Tallis, a young Sydney nurseryman who had been very active in IPPS.

The award is offered each year to persons under 25 in the State where the Conference is being held. Young people in nurseries, educational institutions, and government departments, who have an interest in plant propagation, are invited to apply.

The applicants, who need not be members of IPPS must outline why they should be given the chance to attend the IPPS Conference. They also need to present a biography and to outline their interest in horticulture and plant propagation.

The winner of the award attends the Conference as a guest of the Society and must prepare a paper for presentation at the Conference. The winner also receives a book award.

In 1985 Peter J. Lewis, a recent graduate in horticulture from the Queensland Agricultural College won this year's award and presented the following paper:


Author: J.C. Raulston

PP: 723

Flowering trees are one of the most important visible parts of the landscape, adding color and drama against a green background. The southeastern U.S. is climatically suited for an enormous range of species and cultivars of flowering trees, yet relatively few taxa have become important in the nursery/landscape industries of this region. Probably 90% or more of the flowering trees now being used would be included in the following small list: Cercis canadensis; Cornus florida and cvs.; Koelreuteria paniculata; Lagerstroemia indica cvs.; Magnolia stellata, M. × soulangiana, and M. grandiflora; Malus cvs; Prunus subhirtella; and Pyrus calleryana cvs. Selecting just 10 recommended trees for this paper is a difficult task from the wide number of potential candidates available. Final selection of the ones presented was based on observation of plants in The NCSU Arboretum as being well adapted for use in this area of hot, humid summers and yet surviving without damage the recent years of record

Author: Michael A. Dirr

PP: 728

Describing ten new outstanding plants is impossible. Describing ten outstanding plants is easy. The following plants have crossed my path many times. I have observed them north and south — east and west. Many grow in my garden and others have been used in propagation studies. These plants offer the southeastern nurserymen an opportunity to compete in the burgeoning market for "new" and better plants.
  1. Magnolia grandiflora, southern magnolia, is embarrassingly variable when grown from seed. Most nurserymen realize this and have either made selections from seed populations or grow known cultivars. At least 25 cultivars are reported in the literature. Propagation is difficult. Grafting/budding, as well as cuttings are used. For the past three years we have worked with ‘Bracken's Brown Beauty’. These are handsome trees with lovely blooms and beautiful fruit. Initial results were disastrous but through trial and error the following propagation procedures

Author: Don Smedberg

PP: 734

Shemin International is a world-wide plant resource for growers throughout the U.S. and Canada. We concentrate mostly on sales of foliage and flowering plants, with some ornamentals and perennials. Plants are provided in various stages, such as rooted and unrooted cuttings, seedlings, liners, or tissue culture in stages 2, 3, and 4. Our buyers travel extensively in search of new plants as well as high quality established cultivars. Plants come from Holland, Denmark, Belgium, Israel, Ivory Coast, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Honduras, Guatemala, Australia, and the U.S. I will briefly describe the plants we feel have or will have potential impact on the U.S. and Canadian markets.
  1. Dieffenbachia ‘Nelly’. This plant is a mutation found in France. It has a U.S. patent and is sold as an unrooted cutting. It has a strong branching habit, does not develop a leggy cane like other "camro" cultivars. The leaves are durable, with blended tones of yellow, cream and green. One 4–

Author: Daan Kneppers

PP: 737

  1. Paeonia, family Paeoniaceae, peony:
  2. Peonies are rated among the most beautiful of all perennials, both in plant and flower. They are easy to grow and long-lived. The peony is hardy in every state of the U.S. and in Canada. Disease and insects rarely bother them if the following suggestions are followed. They make excellent cut flowers and give beautiful landscape effects.

    They do best in a sunny well-drained location. Plant a peony with the top of the eyes pointing up, eyes not over 2 in. below soil level. Plant in 1 gal. or 2 gal. container. The planting time is in the fall or early spring.

    Fertilize peonies with a slow-release fertilizer (low in nitrogen), after the first roots are established, in the spring or early fall.

    The stembuds, or "eyes" as they are called, are formed soon after blooming season at the base of the stems. They are the beginning of next year's growth.

    The blooming season begins in early spring, about the time the tulips open, and it ends


Author: Robert D. Wright

PP: 744

Acclimation and freeze tolerance of woody plants was addressed at the meeting of the Southern Region, IPPS in 1977 by this author and published in the Proceedings (9). In that paper the mechanisms whereby plants acclimate to cold temperatures and survive freezing temperature and desiccation injury were discussed. In the present paper an attempt will be made to build upon that information by explaining a new model for plant cold acclimation as it relates to winter storage, with emphasis on container production.

A physiological model called "Degree Growth Stage Model" (°GS) has been proposed by Fuchigami et al. to describe the annual growth and hardiness of woody plants (3). Plants go from 0°GS to 360°GS in one calendar year (Figures 1 and 2). The °GS is not related to days in the year but to the physiological condition of the plant. For example, 180°GS may coincide with leaf fall may be October 1 in northern Ohio but October 15 northern Alabama, depending


Author: Cal A. Froberg

PP: 750

Sophora secundiflora can be established in vitro by sterilizing explant material in 1% Liquinox for 3 min., 70% ETOH for 3 min., 10% Clorox for 30 min., with 3 rinses in sterile water. Explants can be multiplied on WPM with 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/l BA. There is currently not an adequate treatment for shoot elongation. Plantlets can be rooted using a quick-dip for 5 min. in 1000 ppm IBA.

Author: R.J. Hutton

PP: 755

What is a patent? Why do we have patents? What can be patented? What do you mean by a plant patent? All of these are questions of interest to plant breeders and plant propagators. Today I will give you a few answers I hope may clarify these questions and stimulate your interest in plant patents and other forms of breeders' rights.

Author: Cynthia J. Staha

PP: 761

Tatterson Greenhouses is a wholesale operation growing in 28 quonset greenhouses. Our greenhouse area equals 100,000 ft2, and we have 60,000 ft2 in outside growing areas equipped with sprinkler irrigation. We are located in Mathews County, Virginia, located about 60 miles east of Williamsburg, Virginia.

Our product line consists of, in order of volume, bedding plant flats, 10-inch hanging baskets, 4-in. annuals, hardy garden mums, poinsettias, 4-in. perennials, and zonal geraniums.

The spring season is our busiest, and accounts for 75% of our annual sales. In five months we turn over 800 different crops, and sell 300,000 units—all on 160,000 ft.2. So, from our perspective, we think our crops can be classified as fast-turnover crops.

Now, I would like to share with you how an operation like Tatterson Greenhouses plans, grows, and prevents total chaos in the bedding plant season, or in other words, "how do we forecast fast-turnover crops?"

We have two types of


Author: Richard L. Marshall

PP: 764

What do we grow? Broadleaved evergreens primarily in raised field beds. How many do we grow? Currently over 300,000 plants of about 100 cultivars annually. What is the length of production cycle from propagation to sale?

Almost ½ of production is sold in 2 to 2½ years.

Almost ½ of production is sold in 3 to 3½ years.

(Exceptions — A few items are sold within 15 months. A few items are held for almost 4 years.)


Author: Earle Robert Marvin

PP: 766

Wildwood Nurseries is a three generation nursery, which will be 50 years old in 1986. My grandparents, W.R. and Alta Marvin, started our nursery, planting plants they loved, azaleas and camellias. Today, we are not so fortunate, we have to choose plant material that will meet wide geographical conditions and also meet the need of a changing population and environment.

Our nursery is located on 480 acres, of which we use about 150. We have a very intensive field operation, extending from field to container operation. This field to container operation gives us flexibility, and we have been working on improving this system for 11 years.

My father, Robert E. Marvin, and I own Wildwood Nurseries. Dad is a landscape architect. We base our sales goals and plant material cultivars on the needs of the landscape architect. Their certain needs are our specialty, whether it be small or large evergreens, flowering trees, large trees for sun control, large or small screening material, plant


Author: Peter J. Lewis

PP: 120


Australia is the custodian of an amazing diversity of native plants. This diversity is linked with the widely varying environments that cover Australia. From the topics of the north, the deserts in the centre and the west, and the alpine areas of the south, the natural environment is constantly changing.

As a native plant collector, I would like to be able to collect selected natives from these environments and successfully grow them together in one place. By achieving this I can share with other people the beauty and distinctive habits of species such as Eremophila maculata from Western Queensland, Prostanthera magnifica and Banksia coccinea from Western Australia. If these species from vastly differing environments are to be grown together however nature alone cannot be relied on and it becomes necessary to lend a helping hand. One method that has proven effective is the ancient art of grafting.

The greatest value of grafting lies in the propagation and production of


Author: Al Fritz

PP: 767

Shemin Nurseries, Inc. is a joint venture with Weyerhaeuser Co., Inc., Tacoma, Washington. In 1979 Emanual Shemin joined with the Weyerhaeuser Company in a venture designed to expand Manny's original unique concept of a "one-stop horticultural distribution center". From 1963 to 1979 Shemin's was a wholesale-retail center in Bronx, New York and later was changed to strictly wholesale in Greenwich, Connecticut.

With the financial backing of a committed international company, expansion of this concept began in the fall of 1980 with the purchase of property in the Washington, D.C.-Baltimore, Maryland area. Centers were soon added in Atlanta, Georgia, in spring of 1981; Chicago, Illinois in 1983; Detroit, Michigan, Miami, Florida and Aalsmeer the Netherlands in 1984. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1983; Toronto, Canada and Boston, Massachusetts will follow in 1986. Future plans include many other major cities. Each site is from 22 to 40 acres of to fully-automated


Author: Fred T. Davies Jr

PP: 770


Webster defines a model as information, data or principles which are arranged or grouped mathematically. The algebraic formula y = mx + b, which is used to fit a straight line, is a simplified form of a model. Basically a model is a means of classifying or categorizing. In order to simplify daily activities, we use models frequently. When meeting a stranger, we may categorize or classify that person based on our previous experience or "models" in our minds. We may classify or categorize how we produce an azalea crop versus a Pittosporum or Ligustrum from the standpoint of media requirements, pH, and light intensity. The difference with plant modeling is that we are using hard data. We take quantitative values and plug these numbers into a statistical program (equation) to derive a statistical model.

In September, 1985, the American Association of Nurseryman published a list of research priorities that included the need to determine growth dynamics for various nursery crops;


Author: Carl E. Whitcomb

PP: 776

A "model" is another term for a set of equations that describe the system in question. Their purpose is to help make decisions. These models can be very simple or complicated and are simply an organized expression of knowledge about the interacting factors in a given system. Models may cover very broad areas or deal with only very specific situations. Vrecenak and Harrington (1) attempted to model the transpiration of trees in urban areas. They concluded that modeling held promise of aiding in urban plant management but noted that more accurate input information for the model was required.

An example of a very broad model would be one describing the demand for large container-grown trees in succeeding years. The model might consist of the following equation:

          D = C + L + S + / - A + / - P + / - W - O      D = demand for container grown trees in general      C = construction starts in your geographic sales area      L = local attitudes for tree planting      S = sales effort promotion      A = alternative tree production practices      P = price

Author: Bryson James, Carl Whitcomb

PP: 780

In 1985 Southern Region Question Box was moderated by Bryson James, McMinnville, Tennessee, and Carl Whitcomb, Stillwater, Oklahoma.

Author: Alan Subritzky

PP: 125


About four years ago a South Auckland nurseryman began investigating the use of some kind of controlled environment for the transfer of tissue culture material. This led to attempts to alter the air pressure inside the cabinet. This often resulted in the cabinet blowing up or collapsing inwards. Several cabinets were constructed and discarded, until finally two units, one constructed of steel, the other of aluminum, were considered to be satisfactory. Aluminum was tried because of its light weight. The aluminum cabinet weighed 240 kg compared to the steel unit which weighed 360 kg.

In February 1985 Hortex was approached by the inventor to trial this unit, which he believed would revolutionize propagation methods as we know them today.

Hortex agreed to trial the invention and this paper out-lines the machine, its principles and the trials carried out in it.

This cabinet differs from other controlled environmental cabinets in that it is completely sealed, and the


Author: Ed Artlett, Gwen Artlett

PP: 128

We have a small, cold climate nursery about 820 metres above sea level. We have developed a method of producing a reliable crop of Pieris japonica which has proved to be very successful.

It is essential to have healthy stock plants, as the percentage strike falls if the stock plants are neglected. Cuttings are taken in late summer or early fall (February and March and even in April), but the percentage strike falls if the outside temperature drops below 20°C.

Tip cuttings are collected in the early morning. Cuttings of a uniform length are taken for each cultivar (an abundance of stock material is required to do this). The cuttings are treated with a basal dip of liquid IBA at 5000 ppm for 5 sec. Cuttings are not wounded and only sufficient basal leaves are removed to allow the cuttings to be inserted into the propagating medium.

The cuttings are placed in Growool propagating sheets, size PB 25&ndash40. Three sheets are placed in a standard punnet tray holding 108 cuttings. The trays of


Author: Robert L. Dawson

PP: 130

The plants grown at our nursery have been collected from a wide variety of sources. These include plants from enthusiastic native plant collectors, from members of the Society for Growing Australian Plants, other nurseries and, more recently, from hybrids, which have occurred naturally in most cases in gardens.

Grevillea's generally hybridize very readily and seedlings that have come up in gardens in and around Brisbane are the source of many of the hybrids in cultivation.

The majority of the tropical grevillea's are grown from cuttings, which appear to be superior to seedlings. They flower much younger than seedlings, usually in the same season, and have uniformity in flower colour and growth habit.

Evaluating new plants for use in our production is done in several ways. Plants are grown in large shrub tubs, and in the ground in display gardens at the nursery. Plants that show any new and interesting features, for example, reliability, free flowering, new and interesting


Author: R.A. Drew, P.W. Langdon, K.W. Pegg, W.C. Wong

PP: 44

The banana is one of the most important fruit crops in Queensland with a gross annual value of $45M in 1984. According to Simmonds (20) all current banana cultivars have been derived from two species. They are Musa acuminata, which is the source of the "A" genome, and Musa balbisiana, which is the source of the "B" genome. Commercial cultivars are usually seedless triploids and tetraploids comprising various combinations of these two genomes.

Panama disease, also known as fusarium wilt, is caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht ex Fr. f. sp. cubense (E.F. Smith) Snyd. & Hans. This disease has been known for a long time in Queensland where it is the major limiting factor in the production of the ‘Lady Finger’ (AAB group) banana.

The first world recording of fusarium wilt in bananas was made by Bancroft in Queensland in 1874 (1). He found the disease to be prevalent in the Brisbane district and noted that the ‘Sugar’ (ABB group) banana was most susceptible and the ‘Dwarf Cavendish’ was


Author: Wells A. Eden

PP: 132

In earlier years, Melbourne nurserymen usually propagated Hibiscus rosa-sinensis cultivars in late winter to early spring from hardwood cuttings taken from established garden plants. Results were quite often variable and unreliable, particularly with less hardy cultivars, due to frosty conditions affecting the parent plants.

When the struck cuttings were potted into 125 mm pots they generally did not attain saleable size until early summer, thus missing out on late spring sales.

With experimental batches of cuttings taken during summer and autumn, I found that success rates with soft tip and vigorous stem cuttings were much better and more predictable.

A strike rate of 90% to 95% was achieved consistently with soft tip cuttings approximately 100 to 125 mm long. An IBA in talc (0.5%) cutting powder was used over a range of both common and Hawaiian cultivars.


Author: John H. Colwell

PP: 134

The hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) is a member of the Liliaceae family and is a native of the Mediterranean and Asia Minor. It is called the Dutch hyacinth and is true bulb. Bulbs are highly modified underground structures which are made up of swollen leaf bases. These tissues hold food reserves which are used for the growth of the plant.

Except for the specialist bulb producers, few people have any knowledge of hyacinth propagation. Only a few books on propagation carry any reference to them, and their morphology is not well understood.

The main areas of bulb production in Australia are Victoria, New South Wales, and South Australia. Hyacinths are produced for use as pot plants and for the home garden.


Author: Fred Van Allmen

PP: 137

When horticulturists from the East Coast of Australia saw the brilliant red flowers of the Western Australia Eucalyptus ficifolia they had to take this tree back with them, only to find that Phytophthora cinnamomi attacked the roots. Because of the desirable flowers, horticulturists have patiently tried various methods of propagating this difficult plant.

The flowers on mature trees grown from seed vary widely in colour from white to deep red. Selections of good red flower colour variants have been made and grafted onto E. ficifolia rootstock, but these have proved unsuccessful as these low-rainfall trees die in the heavier soils and high rainfall of the East Coast.

Eucalypts do not allow easy scion to rootstock combinations, even though their botanical and physical characteristics are often close. There have been many cases of graft rejection after periods of up to 8 years of seemingly compatible growth.

This brings us to the selection of rootstocks, taking into consideration compatibility


Author: Barrie L. McKenzie

PP: 139

Horticulture in New Zealand is broadly spread across both the North and South Islands, which offers a diverse range of climate from subtropical in the Bay of Islands to a cold climate in Southland. The native flora is extensive as is the range of plant material being grown.

The New Zealand nursery industry is very fortunate to have a strong research base which is both Government and University funded. This gives support to the private nursery?man and to the industry as a whole.

Regardless of climate, soil, and the range of flora available the market demand in New Zealand is limited due to the small broadly spread population. Because of this, several New Zealand nurseries have sought markets overseas.

Traditionally New Zealand is a trading country recognized for its primary industry, and over the past 20 years considerable emphasis has been placed on horticulture. A great deal of this has been the result of the rapid growth of the kiwifruit industry and the international acceptance of this product as a


Author: Howard C. Brown

PP: 141

During the 1950's an extensive study of higher education in California was made, resulting in passage of the Donahoe Act which delineated responsibilities. The University of California, with 9 campuses, has the responsibility for research, extension, and teaching to the Ph.D. level; the California State University, with 19 campuses, has teaching responsibility at the bachelor's and master's level; and the 104 community colleges in California provide a two-year education geared primarily to local community needs.

Cal Poly is one of the four state universities with an agriculture program. Our teaching program has a practical orientation with lots of "hands on" experience and our graduates go mainly into agricultural production or supporting industries. We claim that we are preparing them for middle-management positions but we also are giving them the skills and experiences that will enable them to climb to the top.

Our long-time president, Julian A. McPhee, took charge of Cal Poly


Author: G.P. Lamont

PP: 144

Seed of the kentia palm (Howea forsterana) was subjected to presowing treatents before planting in peat:perlite (50:50) at incubation temperatures in the range 20 to 40°C. Four percent of freshly harvested seed was found to be non-viable. Air drying the seed at 20 to 25°C for two weeks prior to sowing hastened decomposition of the outer husk. After 12 months there was nil germination of dried seed incubated at 20°C compared with 1.3, 5.4, 7.9, and 11.0 percent at temperatures of 25°, 30°, 35°, and 40°C, respectively. None of the undried seed had germinated after 12 months irrespective of substrate temperature. Chipping of part of the outer husk resulted in 6% germination compared with nil for unchipped seed, while soaking chipped seed in gibberellic acid (250 to 1000 mg L-1) further improved germination. Gibberellic acid at greater than 250 mg L-1 produced no increase in germination and, at 750 mg L-1 germination was inexplicably decreased. A relationship between substrate temperature and seed decay appeared to exist for dried seed with maximum decay (ca.20%) occurring at 35°C. Fungi have been isolated from decayed seed and their pathogenicity and control are currently being investigated. Seed stored at 5°C for periods of up to 24 weeks had not germinated after 12 months.

Author: Ralph Shugert

PP: 149

The genus Taxus is probably one of the finest narrow leaved evergreens for use in the landscape. The literature tells us that Taxus fossils have been found between layers of sandstone and shale originating about 150,000 years ago. (1) The genus has long been associated with religion and most of the Christian churches were built in yew groves throughout England. In the United States, the genus appeared in horticulture in the mid-1800's and much of the early popularity was due to the work of T. D. Hatfield, who was the head gardener at the Hunnewell Estate at Wellesley, Massachusetts (2).

There has been quite a bit of controversy as to exactly how many species of Taxus truly do exist. There are at least 3 species relatively universally accepted - Taxus baccata (English yew), T. canandensis (Canadian yew), T. cuspidata (Japanese yew). In the United States the English yew is only hardy in certain areas of the country. This species is not hardy in my state of Michigan.

The Canadian yew is a native species ranging


Author: Russell Costin

PP: 154

The sub-tropical and tropical representatives of the important Proteaceae family contain some of Australia's most spectacular flowering and foliage ornamental trees and shrubs. There is considerable horticultural interest in their economic importance both in Australia and abroad as their attributes become better known.

This family has also given Australia and the world a popular and delicious nut crop. The macadamia, is now of considerable economic importance, especially in Hawaii. This is one of the few Australian plants used for food purposes on any scale. Several other lesser known rainforest species produce edible nuts which could have future potential.

Most of the tree species produce beautiful coloured and grained and very sought after cabinet timbers. These timbers, usually marketed as various forms of silky oak come from shrinking virgin stands of forests, and another 20 years will see the end of this resource. No replanting has been done using these trees despite the


Author: S.M. Hughes, P.B. Goodwin

PP: 160

The aim of this experiment was to study the response of the vegetative growth of two commercially important Anigozanthos species (Kangaroo paws) to varying temperature and light conditions under short-day glasshouse conditions.

Author: A. Bruce Macdonald

PP: 170

During the last few decades the ingenuity and innovation of both the nursery propagator and research worker has resulted in the improvement of the traditional facilities and the development of entirely new propagation concepts. The objective of this paper is to briefly review these developments in propagation facilities.

During the early days of nursery production the open ground was normally the only facility available. Raising plants by seed, layering, grafting, and hardwood cuttings were the dominant methods used. Today, open-ground methods are still very important and they have been made much more efficient through mechanization, herbicides, and knowledge of correct timing for carrying out each operation. Examples which illustrate this include techniques to overcome seed dormancy, development of specialized machinery for mounding up stool beds of apple rootstocks, and the use of herbicides to reduce labour costs and improved crop quality of species raised from hardwood cuttings.


Author: F.D. Hockings

PP: 53

Any discussion about rainforest plants generally leads to some disagreement about which plants are truly rainforest species and which are not. The distinction is not as clear as one might imagine because some species, for instance Lophostemon confertus (better known as Tristania conferta), are prominent in some rainforests and can be equally prominent in some eucalypt forests.

The "Language of Botany" defines rainforest as "a closed community dominated by trees which form a two or more layered dense canopy in which lianes and epiphytes are usually conspicuous with a lower sparse assemblage of small trees, shrubs and herbs, including ferns".

Other definitions also include orchids, palms, wide-leaved forbs such as philodendron relatives, ginger relatives and bananas, special plant modifications such as trunk buttresses and leaf drip tips, and an absence of grasses, annual herbs, eucalypts, and acacias.

Rainforests are widespread in tropical and sub-tropical lands or parts of those lands which


Author: Roger Mackaness

PP: 176

In October, 1971, the Western Region, IPPS, held its 12th annual meeting in Santa Barbara, California. One of the presentations (1) that year made a lasting impression on me. Robert W. King of the California Propagation Co., Sepulveda, California, spoke on "The Balance of Light, Humidity, and Temperature As Related To Cutting Leaf Drop". The "bottom line" of his experiments was that rooting percentages of Pittosporum tobira and other cuttings could be increased by about 30% if bottom heat was reduced an average of 10°F. on cloudy days. He noted that rooting time was, however, increased by more than 10%. My question of Mr. King after his presentation was — "had he considered turning the bottom heat even lower to see if he could get increased benefits." He answered in no uncertain terms that he was in the business to make money and that time was money — since bench space was very costly. Both my question and his answer have continued to haunt me over

Author: James F. McConnell

PP: 178

At Bailey Nurseries, a significant quantity of softwood cuttings are rooted and successfully planted bareroot to the field within the same growing season. These plants normally remain in the field throughout the summer and through another full growing season producing what is referred to as a "year and a half" plant. The objective of this practice is to provide the nursery trade with a medium sized, highly vigorous bareroot plant in as short a time as possible. This plant is unattainable by other nursery practices. Certain environmental conditions must be created and maintained in order to produce healthy, vigorous rooted cuttings with good survivability.

Controlling the environment for propagation begins with healthy vigorous stock plants from which to take cuttings. The stock plants should have optimal water and nutrition, and be free of all diseases and pests. Without these essential factors, the propagator is at a distinct disadvantage. Actively growing field stock


Author: Ross Merker

PP: 182

Propagation techniques vary from complex micropropagation and grafting procedures to simple seed sowing and stem cutting systems. One system used by Briggs Nursery, Olympia, Washington, for the rooting of cuttings of easily propagated plants is "direct stick". The term "direct stick." is used to describe the rooting of cuttings directly in the container in which the plants are to be sold. Transplanting of cuttings is avoided by the direct stick process, and growing and labor time is reduced. This propagation technique lends itself to volume propagation of easily-rooted plants that can be marketed in a smaller container such as a one gallon. Several requirements are necessary for good success with this system.

A source of healthy stock plants is needed, as well as a plastic propagation structure. Briggs Nursery uses single 14 × 100 ft. quonset houses. Misting of the cuttings is done by a Phytotronics mist controller with individual house controls. Direct stick at


Author: Richard G. Van Well

PP: 185

Fruit tree production numbers are difficult to ascertain as most nurseries do not readily divulge the number of trees grown and sold.

We can figure out that fruit in the Pacific Northwest are a big business. Based on the 1% certification fee, there appears to be 2,500,000 fruit trees sold by nurseries in the State of Washington each year. Many people do not realize what it takes to grow a saleable tree. My plan is to give you a quick overview of this process.

Based on our production, apple trees are the most popular trees grown, followed by pears, cherries, peaches and the rest of the stone fruits. Apples are, by far, the species grown in the largest numbers. I would suspect that all nurseries in the Pacific Northwest would have somewhat the same ratios.

The rootstocks for all fruit trees are started from seed, or are produced by clonal propagation. Limited number of seedlings and clones are being reproduced through tissue culture.

We have planted some tissue cultured seedlings in


Author: Carl Perleberg

PP: 187

The budding height on the dwarfing Malling apple rootstocks are presently 6 in a above ground level, but budding height for apple seedlings are still at about 2 inches above the soil line. Let us describe the history of the Malling budding heights and how and why it changed.

In the 1950's when the dwarfing Malling rootstocks were first used in the United States many of the nurseries budded these new rootstocks at the same height as the seedlings — two inches. It was discovered soon in orchard plantings that these low-budded, high-planted Malling trees tended to lean badly. The budding height was increased in the 1960's to a maximum of 10 to 12 in. so that the plants could be planted at least 6 in. deeper at the orchard site thereby, hopefully, stabilizing the tree and always keeping the bud union out of the ground 4 to 6 in. to prevent scion rooting.

In the last 10 years the budding height has been lowered back down to 6 or 7 in. above the ground. This height of


Author: Fenton E. Larsen, Ricardo A. Menendez, Robert Fritts Jr

PP: 189

To identify apple, Malus pumila Mill. [syn. M. domestica Borkh], cultivars, electrophoretic separation of proteins and isozyme patterns from shoot bark extracts was investigated. Cross-examination of enzyme banding patterns allowed the identification of 33 clonal apple rootstocks. Virus-tested rootstocks were distinguishable from the original contaminated material, and selections of 2 rootstocks propagated by tissue culture expressed rather broad isozymic differences compared with their respective original stocks. Of 57 clonal apple scion cultivars and sports, all cultivars were identified. Sports within each cultivar, however, were indistinguishable, with the exception of ‘Wijcik’, a natural compact mutant of ‘McIntosh’. Isozymic patterns of scion cultivars showed no apparent effect of sample timing, rootstock, growing location, or age of the wood where the sample was taken.

Author: Carolyn Albrecht

PP: 196

When Murashige and Skoog developed their medium for plant tissue culture over 20 years ago, it was seen to be a great breakthrough in in vitro plant propagation. By varying the concentrations of various plant growth regulators, researchers found they could grow a wide range of herbaceous plant species, plus some woody species.

A breakthrough for those interested in the tissue culture of ericaceous plants arrived with Anderson's medium for rhododendron. Further improvements in the tissue culture of woody plants came with McCown and Lloyd's Woody Plant Medium.

The traditional approach to starting a new plant species or cultivar into tissue culture is to try one of the three media mentioned above with various levels of cytokinin and auxin. Some cultivars, especially of woody species, refuse to respond to this method, or even to other media, such as Boxus's or de Fossard's. Other cultivars, although they can be grown in tissue culture, give less than satisfactory results economically, or yield poor


Author: Jeanne Gunning, H.B. Lagerstedt

PP: 199

The United States Department of Agriculture has established a National system of Plant Germplasm Repositories whose goals are to collect, maintain, evaluate, and distribute plant material of economically important crops. These crops are stored as seeds or as living plants. The Corvallis Repository is a clonal repository responsible for the maintenance of pears, filberts, mint, hops, and all the small fruit crops. Plant material maintained includes genetically important foreign and domestic cultivars, and undeveloped species germplasm collected from around the world. At each clonal repository a tissue culture program aids in the maintenance, distribution, and health improvement of the germplasm collection.

The tissue culture lab's most important function is to maintain a back-up collection of all germplasm stored in the repository. This collection provides replacement plants for screenhouse and field collections. Eventually, the in vitro back-up collection could replace the labor-intensive


Author: Mimi L. Kurz

PP: 206

Three separate micropopagation system are described: i) the establishment of multiple shoot and single shoot cultures with axilliary and lateral bud development using mature Douglas fir tissue; ii) the development of mature white spruce cultures exhibiting single shoots and shoot elongation with lateral bud development; iiia) enhancement of shoot growth exhibiting juvenile characteristics from mature yellow cedar tissue; iiib) the tissue and subsequent subcultures of secondary shoots.

Essential factors beneficial to enhancement of multiple shoots in Douglas fir and mature yellow cedar are: origin of source material, time of year for collection of source material, proximity of source material in relation to bole and crown of tree.

Proliferation of shoots in juvenile yellow cedar tissue trial resulted from pulse treatments involving a hormone enriched nutrient medium to one devoid of hormones. Primary rooting trials have been successful in transplanting juvenile yellow cedar plantlets, pre-rooted in-vitro, into soil in a greenhouse environment.


Author: Gerald B. Straley

PP: 216

The University of British Columbia Botanical Garden operates a Plant Introduction Scheme of the Botanical Garden (P.I.S.B.G.) in an effort to introduce new cultivars and recommended plants to the public. The new plants are propagated by the Garden and released to particular nurseries in the province who agree to further propagate them and release them to the public at a later date. Thus far a number of woody materials and ground covers have been released through the P.I.S.B.G. or are now being tested or considered for inclusion. Only one perennial has been released to date, but with the comeback in popularity that perennials have enjoyed in recent years, we are considering other new and under-utilized perennials for inclusion in the P.I.S.B.G.

The first perennial in the P.I.S.B.G. is the blue pimpernel (Anagallis monelli). It has been grown to a limited extent in North American gardens, but most plants prove to be annuals or biennials at best. Our perennial plant which we have


Author: G.M. Lawson, P.B. Goodwin

PP: 57


There has been a rapid expansion of interest in the development and production of Australian native plants. One genus which has received a great deal of attention is Anigozanthos (kangaroo paws). Kangaroo paws blooms, originally all bush-picked, are currently available from commercial plantings. Now, the potential of kangaroo paws as "potted colour" is about to be realised.

Extensive work has already been done with Anigozanthos in areas such as taxonomy, ecology, evolution, hybridisation, plant selection, micropropagation, field cultivation, pathology, and flower production. However, much of the horticultural information has been published for the gardening fraternity or as a result of scientific investigations into the biology of the genus. With the introduction of kangaroo paws as cultivated cutflowers, information relevant to field production has been gathered by workers in Western Australia. Other information is less easily available as it originates from the


Author: Diane M. Erickson

PP: 219

Primula × polyantha and Primula vulgaris [syn. P. acaulis] are popular perennial bedding plants in the Pacific Northwest. The area's cool summers are ideal for seed germination and mild winters allow gardeners to plant primroses as early as February.

Other areas of the United States are showing increased interest in these species. Growers in California and the southern states produce them for November through February sales. Colder areas of the country grow them as winter potted plants and for bedding plant sales in April and May.

Perennial primroses grow and perform best in cool temperatures. Crop time from seed is six to eight months depending on the cultivar and growing temperature. Growers who specialize in finishing plants can cut crop time by three to five months by purchasing starts. In areas of particularly warm summers, this is the preferred method.


Author: Albert L. Franklin, Philip A. Barker

PP: 222

A mist system with line pressure boosted by a continuously running pump has advantages of design, operation, and cost over a system in which the pump runs intermittently. Between misting periods, the water is recycled at reduced pressure to a storage tank. Operation and safety features of the pump system are discussed schematically. The cost efficiency of the system makes it readily adaptable for large-scale expansion.

Author: Robert Weidner

PP: 228

The recipient of the 1984 Award of Merit received his B.S. degree in Nursery Management from Oregon State University in 1950, followed by an M.S. degree in Pomology from Michigan State University in 1951 and the Ph.D. degree in Pomology from the same institution in 1953.

He was immediately hired by the University of Massachusetts where he served as assistant professor from 1953 to 1957, then associate professor from 1957 to 1959. That year he returned to Oregon State University as associate professor, advancing to full professor in 1967.

Our recipient has been a member of the IPPS since 1955 and was a charter member in the founding of the Western Region in 1960. He was Western Region president in 1967–68. He has worked on Membership, Long Range Planning, and Convention Planning Committees.

He has also been very active in the American Rhododendron Society, serving on the National Board of Directors, and as the Society's Secretary-Treasurer, and as President.

Our recipient has received many award


Author: C.J. Weiser

PP: 229

Water Properties: The unique properties of water are of central importance in plant freezing processes. Pure water freezes at 0°C to 32°F. Impurities depress the freezing point of plant tissue water, by 1° to 2°C in most plants. Additionally the water in some plant tissues supercools substantially below its actual freezing temperature.

Small volumes of water supercool to a greater extent than large volumes. Very fine droplets ot thin sheets of pure water can supercool down to, but not below, -40°C which is the Spontaneous Nucleation Temperature of water. In plant tissues which deep supercool water can avoid freezing a few degrees below -40°C because of soluble impurities in cellular water (1).

Liquid water becomes denser as it cools, but at the moment water crystallizes into ice it increases 4 percent in volume — and releases a large amount of heat (540 calories per gram of water). The heat released when liquid water crystallizes into solid ice is called the Heat of Fusion. The practice


Author: C.J. Sally Johnson

PP: 237

Frost damage has long been a problem for the conifer nurseryman. Spring can bring red needles, buds that fail to flush, and often 20 percent or more of the crop is lost. What is needed is a method to assess frost hardiness so that crops judged not sufficiently hardy to withstand expected low temperatures can be protected. If frost protection is not possible, then losses can be calculated immediately rather than waiting for spring which may be months away.

There are a number of methods being used by the research community to test for frost hardiness. A good review of these methods has been provided by Timmis (6) and by Ritchey (5). Few of these methods, however, are being used on an operation basis. There are only two methods being used operationally by the forest nursery industry.

The first method is the electrolytic conductivity of water surrounding a tissue sample that has been frozen. This method is being used by the Ontario Ministry of Forests in Ontario, Canada (2). This technique is based upon the principle that freeze injured cells


Author: James H. Dooley, Douglas R. Woodward

PP: 239

Nurserymen across the Southeastern United States have suffered extensive losses from cold temperatures during the past two winters. The minimum temperatures have been considerably below what is expected for the climatic zones. The worst events were associated with fast moving fronts. The fronts brought high winds as the temperature dropped, then clear cold weather for several days.

Killing weather fronts reach our nurseries only a few times each winter even though they are predicted five to ten times. Much more frequent are freezes associated with clear, cold nights. These events have minimums in the mid-twenties (0 to -5°C). The following day is sufficient radiant heating to rewarm the plants well above freezing.

Two Weyerhaeuser Nursery Products Division nurseries, Wight Nurseries, Inc. and Hines Wholesale Nursery, are located in the heart of the problem areas. Although each had a well-managed freeze damage control program, they suffered large losses in 1984 and lesser, but significant, losses


Author: Charles H. Parkerson

PP: 246

For the past five years we have used a practical and inexpensive system for protecting container nursery stock during the most severe periods of winter, i.e. late December to late February. The procedure involves laying while 4 mil. plastic directly on top of the plants.

The Development. Our standard practice is to overwinter plants in unheated plastic houses; however, to overcome the high construction cost involved, we began to investigate structureless systems such as Gouin's Microfoam (1). This effective practice was discarded because Microfoam is available only in narrow widths and the material is costly. In addition, I could not see my way clear to lay several hundred thousand plants on their side and then have the monumental task of setting everything back up again the following spring.

I constantly asked myself, "What purpose does the poly-house provide that can't be done by poly alone"? I realize that there are many complex factors that are involved


Author: L.W. Moore

PP: 249


Reports have been published recently about the enhanced growth of plants achieved through inoculation of plant propagating propagules with specific kinds of bacteria, a process called "bacterization".

Now, these bacteria have been reported to increase the growth of plants, by as much as 500% over the non-inoculated control plants. The rhizobacteria have been subdivided into three value groups (beneficial, deleterious, and neutral) (30) based on how these bacteria affect the plant.

The purpose of this paper is to describe the bacterization process, provide examples of positive and negative results, list proposed mechanisms of action, evaluate the findings, and discuss some of the theoretical and practical considerations about use of PGPR in plant propagation.


Author: Sharon K. Delong

PP: 259

I would first like to describe how we test and stratify conifer seed at Brown Seed Company and then discuss some of the different methods which can be used for handling the more difficult species.

The germination possible for a seed lot is determined by the basic soundness of the seed and the care given that seed during collection, processing, and storage. After the seed comes out of freezer storage we then attempt to design or "customize" our treatment procedures for each lot to obtain this maximum possible germination.


Author: Gary P. Hartnett

PP: 263

The development of the seedling plug is one of the major advances in the bedding plant industry in the last decade. As more growers have recognized the potential of plugs, demand has been created for improved seeding equipment, higher quality seed, and more advanced environmental controls, as well as more efficient methods of handling plug flats and plugs. This is a brief overview of those advances.

Skagit Gardens is a 155,000 square foot glass bedding plant range located in Northwestern Washington. Among other things, we produce over 80,000 flats of annuals and vegetables, 1,000,000 flowering perennials, 500,000 4 in. flowering annuals, and 300,000 primroses. Ninety-five percent of these plants are grown from plugs. As a little as four years ago, all this seed was hand broadcast on open flats and transplanted bareroot into the finished containers. In the winter of 1982, we purchased our first automatic seeder and quickly converted to a plug system.

There are a number of automatic seeders


Author: Brian J. Watson

PP: 65


Tropical fruit tree propagation as referred to in this paper is largely confined to those species of tropical of subtropical origin which are not major industries in northern Australia. However a few more established crops (e.g. mango and lychee) are included in the context of developments and problems associated with plant quarantine introduction and propagation.

There has been little innovative research in propagation of the "emerging" tropical tree fruits in terms of support from government institutions in Australia. This is perhaps justified in the order of research priorities. However, as varietal screening and market development proceed, the few fruits with sustained market prospects will be identified.

Developments in propagation techniques to date have largely arisen from the initiatives of individual nurserymen, and trial and error in quarantine facilities where problems in establishing importations have arisen.

For most species, relevant propagation techniques have been developed overseas (particularly in Asia).


Author: Bruce Briggs, Charles Parkerson

PP: 269

QUESTION: What time of year is best to take cuttings of Colorado blue spruce?

DICK BUSH: We take current season's growth - one year old growth - taken in February. If they still are not rooted by mid-summer, we put them in a coldframe and they root in the fall.

QUESTION: What is the advantage of a rooted conifer cutting over a grafted conifer?

VERL HOLDEN? A grafted conifer might break off in a strong wind. I would much rather have conifer on its own roots.

QUESTION: How do you get cutting-grown conifers to grow straight?

VERL HOLDEN: I believe they will naturally grow straight and they are very uniform. Terminal dominance starts earlier with the cuttings, but this can vary with the cultivar.

MICHAEL SMITH: With redwoods and podocarpus, by proper pruning and staking we can easily establish dominance of a leader

QUESTION: How do you determine the best time to begin budding in fruit trees?

DICK SNYDER: Whent the bark "slips" well - toward the end of July (in Wenatchee


Author: Dennis M. Connor

PP: 274

New plants are always coming onto the market. Sometimes they are not new at all, but just some old favorites that have gained popularity in our gardens again. The consumer today tends towards more dwarf and compact shrubs and trees because if limited space problems such as in the case of smaller lots, apartments, or condominiums. The consumer also looks for a more maintenance-free landscape. Nevertheless, we are a nation of people who love our gardens. Whether one has acres of land or only a small parcel to work with, one toils hard to keep greenery and flowers around our homes.

I have selected a few plants to discuss, ranging from the subtropical zone to the hardiest of zones, from large growers to compact, dwarf growers. Arranged alphabetically, they are as follows.


Author: George Pinyuh

PP: 277

We have been in the West long enough now and I hope that our need to prove that we are masters of the land, to prove we are in control by beating back its flora and fauna is coming finally to an end. We as horticulturists, plant propagators, educators, and landscapers and nursery people may actually be coming to the conclusion that among the best possible plants for our western gardens and landscapes are those that are native to our region. We are, perhaps, at last becoming more aware and appreciative of our superb native flora. A growing segment of the public certainly is.

Along with our colleagues on the East Coast, those in California have been much more involved in the use of native plants than we have here in the Pacific Northwest. Through the efforts of organizations like the Saratoga Horticultural Foundation, as well as a number of botanic gardens and arboreta involved in growing and exhibiting native plants, the industry and the public has been made much aware of the aesthetic


Author: Dennis M. Connor

PP: 279

When I am asked the question of which plants are the hardest to propagate, I recall to mind several, and the mahonias are always on that list. While seed propagation is generally easy for most cultivars, propagation from cuttings can be difficult. There are many species and cultivars of Mahonia, and I myself have worked with M. aquifolium, M. aquifolium ‘Compacta’, M. repens, M. bealei, and M. lomariifolia. M. bealei and M. lomariifolia are easy to grow from seed and do not require and special treatments. Germinating seed of M. aquifolium and M. repens require a more elaborate procedure. Mahonia aquifolium ‘Compacta’, which is grown from cuttings, is rather difficult to root. It seems that I have tried every propagation technique and combination thereof to root ‘Compacta’; 20% to 50% rooting is normal for myself, working with 300,000 to 500,000 cuttings a season.

This report will then be on the germination of Mahonia aquifolium seeds, with the same principle applied to Mahonia repens seeds,


Author: Dara E. Emery

PP: 281

Manzanitas, Arctostaphylos species, have been propagated at the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden for several decades. Over the years various treatments have been tried to improve seed germination. None has been very satisfactory. The two methods that have repeatedly given some or even good seed germination are the use of fire and acid.

The seeds of this genus have thick, impermeable nut-like seed coats and seeds of many species also exhibit internal dormancy.

For the fire treatment, after the seed is sown and covered, an additional layer of 3 to 4 in. of dry pine needles or excelsior is added and ignited. When the resulting hot flash fire is finished and the seed bed has cooled, it is watered thoroughly. This treatment should be done outside well away from any combustible material. It should also be done in the early fall, and the seeded containers left outdoors for germination so that if internal dormancy is a factor its rectification will occur naturally during the winter.

The ripe fruit


Author: Douglas M. Burdic

PP: 285

For centuries, carnivorous plants have fascinated and captured the interest of all those who have studied their many unique adaptations which have enabled them the ability to lure, entrap, and digest small animals. From the tropical jungles of New Guinea, where Nepenthes species grow as vines beneath the forest canopy, to the rocky slopes of the Pacific coastal range, where Darlingtonia flourish in the spring-fed serpentine bogs, carnivorous plants survive in extremely fragile habitats that are all too often being destroyed by either land reclamation operations, or massive wholesale collecting.

In the past, the predominant method of producing carnivorous plants for the market can only best be described as the "search and destroy technique." Some of the species in the eastern U.S., such as Sarracenia oreophila have already succumbed to this pressure and are now only grown as relics in a few scattered botanical sanctuaries. This same fate could very possibly befall the


Author: Charles E. Tubesing

PP: 293


Its common name, Oregon boxwood, accurately describes the foliage of this evergreen shrub, which is similar to that of box in size and color. This species is found on well-drained sites in full sun or open shade, from British Columbia to Oregon and east to Alberta and the Rocky Mountain states. It is variable in habit, sometimes prostrate, but more often upright and spreading, reaching a maximum height of three feet.

Paxistima myrsinites is readily propagated from cuttings, which may be taken at any time after the new growth has firmed in mid-summer until bud break in the spring. Cuttings will root in high percentages without hormone treatment, but the application of 0.8% IBA in talc will produce a larger, more branched root system in the same interval time. In one trial, 965 out of 1,000 cuttings were well-rooted. Percentages such as this make direct sticking of cuttings an economical alternative. Contact polyethylene film propagation maintains the


Author: Robert Bruce McTavish

PP: 297

Propagation of deciduous native plants can be accomplished by seed or, in many cases, softwood and/or hardwood cuttings. The choice of techniques is usually species specific though, in some cases, may be dependent on availability of the propagating material.

This paper will deal with the following species: Alnus crispa, Amelanchier alnifolia, Rosa acicularis, Rosa woodsii, Shepherdia canadensis, and Vaccinium parvifolium. The paper will summarize approximately 7 years of experience with these species as well as results from controlled experiments.


Author: Michael Nevin Smith

PP: 301

Ceanothus, the wild lilacs, are horticulturally among the most interesting and popular of western North American native plants. At least half the 40-odd western species and many hybrids have been cultivated during the past century. Yet they are regarded to this day as cranky and unpredictable by nurseryman and gardener alike. I would like to consider this group from a propagator's viewpoint, perhaps separating some myth from fact while describing how several nursery friends and I deal with the problems we encounter1. We will briefly review three alternative methods of propagation, each with unique problems and applications.

Cuttings. The overwhelming majority of Ceanothus in commerce are propagated by cuttings. This is not only because most have shown themselves amenable to cutting techniques but they also exhibit enormous genetic diversity in the traits for which they are valued most — such ornamental features as plant size and shape, abundance and color of flowers, and disease


Author: Stephen Garton, Meena S. Moses

PP: 306

Tissue culture propagation methods were successfully applied to the production of these native woody plants; Mahonia repens, Alnus oregona [syn. A. rubra], and Populus tremuloides. Successful initiation of cultures was strongly dependent on the condition of the donor plant. Multiplication in all three species was achieved on low salt media supplemented with only a cytokinin. In vitro rooting treatments were applied to micro-shoots obtained from multiplying cultures; for M. repens shoots, the medium was unsupplemented; for P. tremuloides shoots, rooting occurred on a medium supplemented with IAA; and, In A. oregona, rooting occurred in the presence of either IAA or IBA. After in vitro rooting, plants were routinely established in a conventional nursery environment.

Author: Henry Hilton

PP: 72

The European (Spanish) chestnut is a relatively new tree fruit crop in Australia, especially for production in commercial orchards. The trees are grown for the shiny brown nuts which are produced in prickly seed cases or burrs. The starchy, edible nuts are very popular in parts of Europe and it is from these connections that a substantial market has developed in Australia. Chestnuts (Castanea), oak (Quercus) and beech (Fagus) are all genera in the family FAGACEAE — the cup-bearing trees. Chestnut burrs are vegetative structures with a similar function to the cups which carry oak acorns.

Thirteen species of chestnut are now listed and the most important one in Australia at the present time is the European or Spanish chestnut, C. sativa Mill. The name indicates that this species is a native of southern Europe and it is also widely distributed in the Asia Minor countries. The European or Spanish chestnut is similar to the American chestnut, C. dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. with both species having long leaves


Author: John M. Follett

PP: 318

Three trials were carried out to evaluate the potential of Stevia rebaudiana when propagated by cuttings. The effects of cutting collection date, rooting hormone, wounding, position of cutting on parent plant, length of cutting were compared using a rooting score. October was found to be the optimum time for collecting cuttings, with tip cuttings producing more rooted cuttings than basal cuttings. Wounding was found to improve rooting in tip cuttings but application of high levels of rooting hormone decreased the root score of tip cuttings. The length of cuttings had no effect on the root score.

Author: Jenny C. Smith, David J. Jordan, and Frank H. Wood

PP: 323

The recent upsurge of interest in persimmons (Diospyrus kaki), particularly the non-astringent or "sweet" persimmons, has resulted in an increased demand for plants. Persimmon plantings have increased from 3,000 trees (about 4 ha) in 1981 to 200,000 trees (350 to 400 ha) in 1984 (2). Size of commercial plantings range from small units of 0.5 ha to areas of 10 to 15 ha. In 1985 a further 60,000 trees were planted (2).

Demand for plants of preferred cultivars has far exceeded supply and this situation is likely to continue for at least the next 2 to 3 years. Consequently, plant prices will remain high — presently, grafted plants sell for $NZ10–15. Persimmon rootstocks sell for $NZ3–5.

At conventional plant spacing of 5 × 5 metres, 400 trees per hectare are required. Consequently, for orchard establishment plant cost alone is up to $NZ5,000. With inflated land values, high establishment costs, and high debt servicing costs there is increasing pressure for intending


Author: Malcolm McDonald

PP: 328

Bulb reproduction has mainly been carried out by offsets, seed, and by some vegetative means such as the scooping of hyacinths, the single scales of lilies, and the twin scaling of hippeastrums and daffodils.

Two South African bulbs worthy of a place in most gardens are the lachenalias and nerines.

Lachenalia is a genus comprising over sixty recorded species and is in the Family Liliaceae. It is multiplied by offsets, a means in which it is quite generous. Seed provides an opportunity for plant breeders, as the need for new clones does not appear to have been met in recent times. The current favourite New Zealand hybrid is L. 'Pearsonii,' raised in 1922 by Aldridge, curator of Parks and Reserves, Auckland, by crossing L. bulbiferum [syn. L. pendula] with L. aloides 'Nelsonii' as seed parent, which was the result of crossing L. aloides 'Luteola' and L. aloides 'Aurea' in 1882 by Rev. Nelson. It is difficult to find hybrids in


Author: M. Barghchi

PP: 331


The in vitro micropropagation of Pistacia species (1) and commercial Pistacia vera cultivars from nodal segments taken from seedlings up to 2 years of age (3) has been previously reported. This paper presents results of a study which examined the in vitro culture of Pistacia vera cultivars from mature tissue.


Author: M. Barghchi

PP: 334


Pistachio nuts have been planted in the Middle East for a very long time and are gaining more and more popularity in the world. Pistacia vera L. is the only species in this genus which produces commercially acceptable large edible nuts. Most of the other Pistacia species are used as rootstocks for P. vera. Among the important factors limiting the expansion of pistachio plantations based on superior selected lines, is the difficulty of propagation as they are only propagated by the relatively slow method of budding scions to rootstock. In vitro mass clonal micropropagation of Pistacia has been reported before (1), and this paper presents further work on Pistacia rootstocks.


Author: Walter P. Miller

PP: 338

There are several different methods used in the production of rhododendrons, but each propagator has his own particular method. Ted Van Veen in Oregon, U.S.A. is right when he says "rhododendron propagation conceals many mysteries — most successful one year and poor performance the next. The mysterious something has yet to be discovered in order to produce dependably successful rooting."

This genus is one of the most complex of plant life, with literally hundreds of different species and thousands of hybrids available today. The range of plant material is still increasing as hybridisers continue their work for superior quality in flower colour, leaf texture, and hardiness.

The rooting ability of the cultivar is of paramount importance to nursery management and many hard-to-root cultivars have been completely dropped from production lines in favour of those more easily rooted. This has resulted in many excellent ones being unavailable to the general public through


Author: Jocelyn M.A. Yates

PP: 342


Although the Plant Selectors' Rights (or PSR) scheme has been in operation in New Zealand for ten years now there are still people in the industry who are unaware of the implications of Plant Selectors' Rights, or have misunderstandings about its operation. This paper is designed to explain the facts.


Author: Ian Duncalf

PP: 347

The processing of open ground grown nursery plants in preparation for sale and despatch, is a very expensive and time consuming operation. This factor, coupled with the lack of customer appeal of the traditional "balled" plant, lead us to look at shrink wrap plastic as a means of speeding up this "processing" operation and to improve the plants' appearance and handleability.

Our programme was to shrink a plastic cover to the outside of our field-balled plants, just prior to despatch, which would improve the packaging and handling of the product, as well as carrying the company's logo and planting instructions. The shrink wrapping system was designed to allow the plants to be held for the normal length of time for balled products in garden centres and retail outlets, and to be easily and conveniently handled by the customer who would remove the film just like an ordinary polythene bag prior to planting.

We carried out this programme for one despatching


Author: C.B. Christie

PP: 351


The amaryllids comprise a family of interesting monocotyledonous plants that have long been prized for their very attractive inflorescences. A small number of the genera have become economically significant as cut flowers and potted flowering plants, e.g. Narcissus, Nerine, and Hippeastrum.

The propagation of the Amaryllidaceae may be achieved by use of the following four methods: seed, separation, bulb cutting, and tissue culture. The techniques employed in each of these methods will be briefly reviewed.


Author: Peter W. Spear

PP: 357

For many years I have advocated the propagation and growing on of plants using fog as opposed to mist. The advantages I saw as an engineer and operator of a tissue culture lab were many. Although the initial cost of the first unit is a little high, subsequent units are comparatively cheap.

Our experience in the lab and with growing on plants out of flask was such that they required a high humidity but no great water application.

What was it we required?:

  1. Control of transpiration and evaporation during propagation, and initial planting out of tissue-cultured plants.
  2. Application of chemicals to plants after establishment — foliar feeds, fungicides, insecticides, or any other crop enhancing water soluble chemicals.
  3. No over-wetting of growing media.
  4. Frost protection during winter.


Safety — we were conscious of the need to have no extreme high pressure lines for water. Many systems in use here and overseas use up to 500 psi water pressure and


Author: A.G. Sonter

PP: 76

Out nursery has been producing the tree fern, Sphaeropteris cooperi [syn. Cyathea cooperii], from spores for more than ten years.

Quite suddenly in 1984, although the spores germinated as usual, the prothalli degenerated and production dropped to almost zero. The same phenomenon occurred simultaneously in nurseries in Perth and Sydney.

About the same time, enquiries began to flood in from tree fern growers around Australia whose production from spores had failed. Within a period of two months growers had contacted us from Darwin, Cairns, Brisbane, Adelaide, Melbourne, and a host of other areas all around Australia, all with the same story — their spore production had failed. Buyers informed us there was an Australia-wide shortage of tree ferns.

Over the next four months we increased our spore sowing tenfold and for the next three months I spent my time trying to solve the production problems.

The following things were tried:

  1. Spores were collected from many remote areas around

Author: Terry C. Hatch

PP: 359

"And in the wood where you and I upon faint primrose beds were want to lie".

Did I say a short history? Mention of these plants goes back to the earliest herbals, and "Will" Shakespeare uses them in botanical ramblings throughout his works. I can only manage a scant 40 years love affair with them. Collecting flowers and plants as a small child, the wonder of finding clumps of softest yellow flowers nestling in the long grass beneath hazel coppices and that delicious fragrance: — still eagerly awaited every spring. "Will" mentions the cowslip and oxlip too.

Hands up, those of you who do not know where the bee sucks?

And of the oxlip — "I know a bank where the wild thyme blows, where oxlip and the nodding violet grows quite over canopied with luscious woodbine, with sweet musk rose and with eglantine".

     Primula vulgaris [syn. P. acaulis]       Primrose      Primula vulgaris ‘Rubra’                       Primrose (Asia Minor)      Primula veris                                            Cowslip

Author: R. Noel McMillan

PP: 361

I will restrict this paper to areas that will be most useful for people having a go at producing polyanthus (Primula × polyantha) from seed and, judging by last spring supplies, must number thousands.

Author: Graeme C. Platt

PP: 364

Traditionally, Cordyline propagation in New Zealand has been by seed germination. This technique has been most satisfactory for general Cordyline production, and will continue to be so for species production.

However, with the increasing number of New Zealand cordyline cultivars worthy of clonal propagation appearing — and with the added problem of hybrid pollution, causing frustration with some species, particularly Cordyline kaspar and Cordyline baueri (from Norfolk Island) — vegetative propagation is becoming increasingly more attractive.

In addition to seed, cordylines can also be propagated from large cuttings and chips of bark. Micropropagation is also used on some species. However, each of these techniques has its problems. Large cuttings have a high failure rate and are highly destructive to stock plants. Bark chips have exactly the same problem. Micropropagation has been a failure with variegated Cordyline australis "Albertii," and has not yet been successful


Author: Mark A. Dean

PP: 366

The concept of revegetation is a relatively recent one, having its basis in the environmental awareness which has developed over recent years. The advantages of retaining or re-establishing native revegetation around water shed areas, on very steep hillsides, or in unusable gullies are becoming increasingly appreciated. Environmental awareness has also led to the planting of native plants on a large scale for conservation purposes and aesthetic reasons.

In response to this trend, a range of native plants was grown to test the feasibility of producing plants for revegetation. The initial response was most encouraging and now plants grown specifically for revegetation are an important part of our nursery production.


Author: Brian J. Callaghan

PP: 370

The New Zealand's locality and consequently its climatic conditions make it idealy suited to grow a large range of plants. With the added advantage of having an out-of-season market in the Northern Hemisphere, the horticultural industry has grown rapidly in the last few years. Typical "Kiwi ingenuity" has prompted the successful production of many different vegetables, fruits, and more lately new cut flower crops.

With the fast growth in horticulture, plant tissue culture has emerged as an alternate way of propagating new plant material and the industry is well serviced by a number of competent commercial laboratories.

It has been my experience as one closely involved in commercial tissue culture, that many potential users of this technique neither appreciate the basic mechanisms involved nor understand the relative advantages or disadvantages. I welcome the opportunity to try to explain in practical terms what is involved in commercially producing plants by using tissue


Author: W. June Brennan

PP: 375

The Willamette Valley of Oregon is approximately 50 miles wide. Salem is located in the middle, some 60 air miles from the Pacific Ocean and 50 miles south of Portland. Walls of the valley are formed by the Coast Range on the west with a ridge crest of approximately 3000 feet above sea level; to the east the Cascades rise to approximately 5000 feet above sea level.

Rainfall in the valley ranges from 35 to 45 inches; 70% of our rain falls during the months of November through March with only 6% during the three summer months.

Only five times since weather records began in 1892 has 0°F or lower been observed; highs of 100°F or more seldom occur. There is a range of about 28°F between January, our coldest month, and July our warmest. The mild temperature, long growing season, approximately 6½ months, and plentiful moisture are ideally suited for a wide variety of nursery stock, particularly rhododendrons.

The variations in rhododendron propagation that will be discussed


Author: Dick J.W. Endt

PP: 380

The frost-free regions in the northern parts of the North Island of New Zealand have been a challenge to many horticulturist in the past century, as the climate in this zone has unique qualities, being without extremes in temperature. This allows plants of both a tropical and temperate type to be grown in close relationship.

In early times, pioneers introduced both food bearing ornamental plants into New Zealand, from the mother county — England. Most of these early introductions thrived, although some of the temperature fruits did not thrive in northern regions of the country, due to lack of winter chilling. In the last fifty years, many new plants have been introduced, mainly those that grow well in this sub-tropical region. The Kiwifruit, brought into New Zealand in the first decade of this century, has only become a commercial success in the last twenty years. Other lesser known fruits have also become commercial fruits in New Zealand, such as the feijoa, (Feijoa sellowiana)


Author: Michael I. Menzies

PP: 383

Systems used for vegetative propagation of Pinus radiata (radiata pine) in New Zealand are briefly described. Mature trees are propagated by cuttings or grafts for the establishment of archives and seed orchards. Several propagation techniques are being developed for multiplication of scarce seed of the best genetic material. Options include collection of cuttings from young plantation trees, manipulation of seedlings in nursery stool beds, and micropropagation.

Author: Mark Heath

PP: 392

The term "bedding plant" at one time applied only to half-hardy plants planted outside once the danger of frost has passed. In the 1980's this term has a far wider meaning and can be divided into three groups:

Group 1. summer bedding. Group 2. autumn and winter bedding. Group 3. spring bedding.

The majority of bedding plants grown today are raised from seed. Each genus of plants produces different types of seed which require different germination conditions to obtain the maximum seed emergence from each lot.

The basic requirements for successful seed germination are:

  1. Adequate moisture
  2. Adequate heat
  3. Adequate air
  4. Adequate hygiene
  5. Good seed

Adequate Moisture: Water the compost before sowing and allow time to drain and warm up. When sowing for our trials we use Fison's Levington compost and drench with the fungicides, Filex and Basilex, to give protection against damping-off diseases. Bedding plants fall into 4 categories for moisture requirements in the propagation stage.


Author: John Adlam

PP: 395

I look at the job of a grower as one eliminating the variables of the environment. I see these variables as follows:
  1. Moisture levels
  2. Nutrient levels
  3. Gaseous levels
  4. Temperature levels
  5. Pest and disease levels

Many of the so-called crop protection duties are a result of an imbalance of one or more of these variables, not just pest or disease factors. Crop protection is not, therefore, just the application of chemicals but the paying attention to all 5 items with equal credence. I firmly subscribe to the approach of prevention rather than cure and have proved that preventing an imbalance of these variables goes a long way toward protecting the crop. I am not an advocate of organic growing, but know that the best crops are grown by working with nature not propping it up.

Light on our toes. When it comes to doing the job, our motto is "light on our toes". Large organisations are notorious for being lumbering animals, but our approach is to be quick in response to a crop's need or the weather.


Author: Paul E. Read, Cynthia D. Fellman, Elizabeth Zimmerman

PP: 78


For centuries propagators have sought ways to enhance the rooting of cuttings that rooted with difficulty, to cause non-rooting cuttings to root, to hasten healing of grafts and, in general, to cause ease and speed of propagability to be improved. In the early 1930's a marvelous breakthrough occurred for cutting propagation when Thimann and Went (19) and their coworkers (18) discovered that a root-promoting substance, indoleacetic acid (IAA) was found in many higher plants. This substance, dubbed "auxin" or IAA, when applied to the base of cuttings could be used to hasten the rooting of cuttings of many species and cause rooting in others previously difficult or impossible to root. Even better rooting results were found for analogs of IAA, such as indolebutyric acid (IBA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Today, these latter compounds are the active principles in numerous commercially available rooting compounds. Because IAA breaks down in light


Author: John Evans

PP: 400

The temperatures and humidities maintained during propagation are favourable for the development of a wide range of pathogenic fungi. These can reduce very substantially the number of cuttings which produce vigorous, healthy root systems. This paper reviews the fungal diseases most important during propagation. It also describes measures for their control.

The origin, age, and location of mother plants and various cultural factors such as nutrition, pruning, and irrigation regimes used, all influence the microflora of cuttings and their susceptibility to disease. Fungi most commonly isolated from decaying cuttings submitted to the ADAS Plant clinic at Reading are listed below:

Common causes of fungal decay in cuttings of Azalea, Calluna, Camellia, Chamaecyparis, Erica, and Juniperus:

     Botrytis                     Glomerella          Phomopsis            Rhizoctonia*      Colletotrichum;      Glomerella          Phytophthora*    Thielaviopsis*      Cylindrocarpon*    Pestalotiopsis    Pythium*

Some of these fungi are soil-borne (* above) and


Author: J.G. Farthing

PP: 406

Herbaceous and alpine subjects can be produced in fully ventilated low cost film plastic structures and will fit into the schedule of the traditional bedding plant procedure. The material can be satisfactorily grown in these structures without heat although hardening off and control of growth by growth regulants may be necessary. The production of herbaceous and alpine subjects from seed has been part of the quot;Bedding Plant Programme" at Lee Valley EHS for the last four years. The objective set was to establish sowing schedules which would fit in with the traditional bedding plant season. Also to establish new subjects which may have not been grown by the traditional bedding plant procedure.

Structures. The experiments were carried out in prototype 5 m side and end ventilated film plastic structures, all single clad with 150 micron UV inhibited EVA polyethylene. These structures are more fully described in the Station Leaflet "Low Cost Plastic Structures for Vegetables,


Author: A. Bruce Macdonald

PP: 411

During 1981 the Plant Introduction Scheme of the University of British Columbia Botanical Garden (P.I.S.B.G.) was initiated by an executive committee consisting of representation from the British Columbia Nursery Trades Association (B.C.N.T.A.) and the British Columbia Society of Landscape Architects (B.C.S.L.A.) (1). The structure and objectives of the P.I.S.B.G. program was documented by Roy L. Taylor, former Director of the Garden (2).

The aim of this paper is firstly to relate some of the important criteria the Botanical Garden has subsequently experienced for the program to be successful and, secondly, describe the plant releases made available to the 15 participator nursery within the P.I.S.B.G. program.

Evaluation Panel - Final Plant Selection Procedure. The 30-member evaluation panel, representing the wholesale and retail nursery industry, landscape architects and contractors, and parks boards have met annually to evaluate selected plants. The panel is asked to review some


Author: Andy Hewson

PP: 417

The object of my paper is to relate my observations concerning the materials handling and work organisation aspects of plant propagation.

We may naturally think of materials handling and mechanisation in connection with field and container production of hardy nursery stock. In the context of plant propagation these aspects are often considered less important than subjects such as propagation environments, improving the rootability of our cuttings, fogging or mist systems, treatment of cuttings, rooting media, or direct sticking. Perhaps I could suggest that materials handling and work organisation are equally important if we are to make maximum use of our expensive propagation facilities and our labour resources. At the moment labour costs represent in the region of 25 to 30 pence in every pound worth of stock leaving the nursery gate.

Adequate forward planning together with careful attention to work organisation and handling aspects will result in smoother work flow reducing delays due


Author: Janette E. Inglis

PP: 421

The tropical pines, Pinus caribaea Morelet and Pinus oocarpa Schiede are important tropical forest plantation trees. They are particularly fast growing and will tolerate poor soil. The timber can be used for poles, sawn, pulped, or used for resin production. These species seed profusely and in natural conditions reproduction is entirely from seed. Clonal propagation in forest tree species is becoming more widely practised as techniques for rooting cuttings improve; research is in progress with micropropagation. A spectacular increase in productivity has already been achieved through exploitation of the potential available in tree to tree genetic variation.

The work discussed here aims to increase the yield of propagative material from selected clones of these species by treatments with cytokinin and other growth regulators, followed by improved techniques of micropropagation, stem cuttings, and grafting.

Bud induction on ortet (parent plant). The main problem with vegetative propagation


Author: Ivan Dickings

PP: 427

Half-hardy perennials are a much neglected range of plants which I think should be more widely grown. The variation in habit, flower colour, and foliage is quite considerable. They always create a lot of interest in my garden and visitors are continually asking where they can obtain them. At the moment, these are only a few specialist nurseries who grow them in a reasonable range. It was the difficulty in obtaining these plants which originally prompted me to collect them in the hope that the company which I work for would make them available through their garden centres, and I am pleased to say that this is now happening. We now sell some kinds as spring and summer bedding plants in 9 cm pots.

There are people who, when told that these plants are only half hardy and will probably die during the winter, dismiss them outright, but the same people are quite happy to spend considerable amounts of money each spring on annuals and geraniums. All of these plants are very useful for planting


Author: Michael L. Dunnett

PP: 429

In September, 1984, I was invited to Poland to give a paper at a symposium on hardy nursery stock organised by the Warsaw Branch of the Society of the Horticultural Engineers and Technicians. Whilst in the country I was lucky enough to be able to visit several research stations, botanic gardens, and commercial nurseries both privately and state owned. This short but comprehensive visit gave me an opportunity to have a look at several aspects of ornamental horticultural in Poland.

The conference turned out to be a truly international gathering of both nurserymen and research workers involved in nursery stock production. Delegates attended not only from England but also Holland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and of course many from Poland. Unfortunately due to lack of simultaneous translation it was impossible to assimilate accurately the contents of the many conference papers.

My first experience of practical horticulture was when we visited what our Polish host called his garden. In England


Author: J.L. Garcia Valdecantos

PP: 432

The relationship between seed weight, time of maturation, and early growth of Quercus suber seedlings have been studied in order to establish their relative importance. The lengths attained by seedlings obtained from seeds harvested in September, November, and January were recorded during their first year of life. The results show that the main factor is harvest time and not seed weight. Therefore, further integrated research must be done, including as great a number of factors as possible.

Author: Daniel P. Elliott

PP: 436

I travelled in North America for a two-month period from June to August, 1985, on a Nuffield Farming Scholarship study of nursery management. I visited nurseries in the Virginia, Maryland, Delaware area, Lake County Ohio, and the West Coast from Los Angeles to Vancouver, B.C., Canada.

Propagation, per se, comprised a relatively minor part of my study, but I did have an opportunity to view a wide range of propagation practices.

Climate is an important consideration in choosing a propagation system and almost, without exception, summer temperatures were higher than in the U.K. Spring frosts finished earlier and autumn frosts were later. Mist, both outside and under protection, was the most widely used system and seemed ideally suited to the climatic conditions.

Mist units were controlled by time clocks with a few exceptions, where solar controls were used. The majority of nozzle types were large and applied high volumes of water by comparison with conventional U.K. types. Rooting


Author: Ole Nymark Larsen

PP: 438

Cuttings of Fagus sylvatica were harvested from 85 one-year-old seed-propagated stock plants and rooted. An important difference in rooting ability of different clones was found. Cuttings harvested in a glasshouse could have about 25 cm of new growth in the first season. In contrast cuttings harvested from clonal mother stock hedges in the field failed to grow new shoots the first season, overwintered poorly, and had very little new shoot growth after being overwintered.

Author: P.E. Read, C.D. Fellman, A.S. Economou, Yang Qiguang

PP: 84

Our research has demonstrated that the stock plant (mother or source plant) has profound influence on subsequent success of explants cultured in vitro. Extremely different in vitro performance results from different levels of mineral nutrition, plant growth regulator applications, light quality, and photoperiod treatments of the stock plant. Cultivar differences have been demonstrated also, even for species which are easy to culture. Further, preculture treatments of the explant with cytokinins can increase microshoot yield equivalent to that produced by incorporating the same cytokinin into the medium. When established cultures are treated as stock material (microstocks), light intensity and light quality can be manipulated to improve number of microshoots produced and the subsequent rootability of such microshoots. Forcing solutions have also shown promise as a delivery system for incorporating plant growth regulators into softwood growth of forced deciduous woody species. Pertinent literature is reviewed and possible relationships to endogenous hormone levels are discussed.

Author: Christopher G. Thomas

PP: 443

Recent progress and changes made to the "Clonal Selection Scheme" for Hardy Ornamental Nursery Stock are outlined. Since the project commenced in 1975 eleven subjects have been selected and released to the trade. Over 115 different species or cultivars are currently undergoing assessment and it is planned to increase the rate of release to approximately eight selections per year.

Author: B. Bogdanov, P. Alexandrov

PP: 449

The vegetative propagation of the evergreen shrub Euonymus japonica Thunb., plays an important role in the production of decorative material. In Bulgaria this species is grown mainly along this Black Sea coast but it may also be grown in other regions of the country where there is a warmer climate. We are looking for other ways for successful propagation of the subject through rooting cuttings. These are usually taken from one-year-old shoots.

The main task of our study is to analyse the anatomical structure of the current (one-year-old) shoot of E. japonica since it has a definite importance for the emergence and forming of the root system of the cuttings with respect to rooting during different times of the year.


Author: Norman Stewart

PP: 454

Bark appears on trees from the seedlings stage, protecting the plant, storing and conducting absorbed salts from the soil to the all-important leaves. Epidermal cells, the precursor to bark, carry out photosynthesis in the immediate post-seedling state, helping the plant to make headway against the many difficulties of its surroundings. In a short space of time the chlorophyll fades to be replaced more and more by the characteristic colour and markings of the firmer and increasingly tough layers of cells we now describe as bark. This layer which can, in mature trees, be quite thick, has been described as "bark, the protector". The latter is the main function against the many enemies from outside which include pests, diseases, and predators of many kinds as well as the natural hazards of tempest and fire. But protection is not complete and defences can be and are breached by endemic problems which, as far as the United Kingdom is concerned, restrict international trade in bark

Author: Margaret A. Scott

PP: 458

Rooting cuttings directly into small containers is not a new technique but with major improvements in propagation techniques in recent years, particularly developments in using fertilized rooting media, it was felt that greater benefits from direct sticking were possible and that the subject needed looking at in greater depth. The work is still in its early stages and the scope of this paper is to preview the background of the improved rooting media, as well as the progress with direct sticking at Efford Experimental Horticulture Station.

Good quality cuttings are an essential start to any production schedule but all too often cuttings, once rooted, become neglected and starved before potting. This results in delayed establishment, slower growth initially, and poorer overall uniformity within a batch of plants which can be reflected in the final grade-out at sale. A series of trials and observations at Efford between 1980 and 1984 investigated methods of maintaining (and improving) cutting quality prior to potting. Results were impressive and showed that significant improvements could be achieved.


Author: Brian E. Humphrey

PP: 464

"Direct sticking" is defined as the insertion of a cutting(s) into an individual receptacle. Direct sticking into a liner, intermediate, or final pot may be appropriate. By blending pine bark with blends of different grades of peat to which controlled release fertilizers (C.R.F.) are added, a medium with an air filled porosity (A.F.P.) of 20% or more can be obtained and good nutritional status achieved. This is able to serve as a combined rooting/growing medium. The choice of receptacle (container) size is dependent upon the final objective of producing rooted material. Advantages of this system include quicker and higher quality production. Disadvantages involve the higher input required at the propagation phrase.

Author: John Cooley

PP: 468

My objective as a plant raiser, is to enable my customer, the intensive vegetable farmer, to reduce his unit cost of end product; for example, a crate of cauliflowers. In order to do this, the system I use has to be economical but, above all, has to give a high percentage yield of uniform, marketable produce which brings the unit cost down.

Traditionally, vegetable growers have direct-seeded into their fields, or thickly sown in one field or greenhouse then pulled the plants and transplanted them into their final position in the field.

When I became involved in plant raising, growers were starting to use the first form of module — the peat block — which was having some success, especially with lettuce. This technology has come from Holland where system was well developed, albeit mainly for glasshouse growers. Production of peat blocks in Holland was highly mechanized and was a large industry. However there were disadvantages in this system when used by outdoor vegetable


Author: Keith Loach

PP: 472

Results relating the rooting of cuttings to the physical structure of the propagation medium are often inconsistent. Experiments reported here suggest that gaseous diffusion proceeds relatively freely through the bulk of conventional propagation media and also, that diffusion of oxygen down through the aerial portion of the cutting to its base could supply most of its needs. However, water films both within and around the base of the cutting can obstruct the free passage of oxygen to developing root initials. The subtlety of this influence precludes any obvious and consistent relationship between rooting and the volumetric air and water contents of the media. Practical guidelines for using media, based on consideration of the type of cutting, season, and propagation system are suggested.

Author: Brian Maynard, Nina Bassuk

PP: 488

The stockplant pretreatment techniques of etiolation and banding were used with success in the cutting propagation of 13 woody ornamental species. Each pretreatment alone was noted to have a significant effect on rooting while the combination of the two resulted in optimal rooting in most trials. An alternative banding method has been developed, using reusable adhesive bands of Velcro, which allows for the addition of root promoting chemicals as a part of the banding procedure. Substantial improvements in rooting response were obtained in a number of species previously considered difficult to root.

Author: Joerg Leiss

PP: 495

Seedlings are an important source of planting stock for nursery production and, in our case, over 200 species of both coniferous and deciduous plants are seeded. Most kinds of seeds will germinate readily, especially when fall-seeded, and I will not concern myself with them. Instead, I will address the problems seeds, those that have given us poor or no germination in the past, and describe the treatments that we use to produce seedlings of consistent quality and size required for field and understocks production. A number of reasons can be advanced for poor germination, such as, embryoless seed, dried out seed, impermeable seed coats, seeds that have not fully ripened, seeds exhibiting various internal dormancy problems, and last but not least, a reliable seed supplier who supplies fresh seeds in good condition. It is still a good idea to pick as much seed yourself as possible to avoid some of the above problems.

Before any treatment is attempted — as a matter of fact before


Author: Martin M. Meyer Jr

PP: 499

Woody perennial plants which have developed in temperate regions have evolved intricate mechanisms to allow survival competition, and reproduction. This has led to complicated, sophisticated mechanisms for starting and stopping growth at the appropriate times for best survival and growth. One of these mechanisms is the ability to sense the gradual seasonal changing of daylength or photoperiod that occurs because of the tilt of the earth's axis and its orbit around the sun. The higher the latitude the greater daylength changes between winter and summer. These photoperiod changes and their effects on flowering of greenhouse crops are reviewed in Post (35).

There are several early reports and reviews of woody plants responding markedly to daylength or photoperiod (12,25,36,43). One of the first of these in our Society was by Waxman (42). Nitsch (31), in his classic review, modified Chouard's (8) criteria and separated plants into response groups to photoperiod (see Table1).