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Author: D.K. McIntyre, M. Richardson, S. Hughes, G. Lejsek
Many plants have seeds which are difficult or slow to germinate. When seeds are slow to germinate, and it has been determined that there is no physical barrier to the uptake of water — such as a hard seed coat — then various methods may be used to hasten germination. These methods include the use of gibberellic acid, ethylene, cold stratification, etc.
From the propagator's point view it is important to have as many seeds germinate as quickly and uniformly as possible.
The technique of hydrating and dehydrating (wetting and drying) offers a simple method which may be used to speed up germination and increase uniformity of germination.
Sen and Osbourne (5) showed that if the embryos of Secale cereale were hydrated for 3 to 6 hours, then dehydrated back to their original weight, their germination was more rapid than for untreated seeds when they were re-imbibed. Berrie and Drennan (1) using oats, and Vincent and Carvers (6) using Runnex crispus, obtained the same response. All these
Author: Nelson R. Wilson
- To propagate plants which are difficult to propagate by cuttings;
- To join plants, the roots or shoots of each being selected for special purposes such as disease resistance and/ or adaptability to special conditions such as soil or climate;
- To invigorate weak plants, or repair damage;
- To allow one root system to support more than one cultivar;
- To produce clonal material usually on more vigorous rootstocks than itself; and
- To eliminate problems of structure, growth, and disease.
Grafting is widely used for the commercial production of fruit trees and a variety of other ornamental nursery lines derived from clonal selection. These include flowering fruit trees, elms, ashes, liquidambar, etc.
Grafting is also widely used to create "special effect" plants that could not otherwise be grown to display their best features. These "special effect" plants include most
Author: Donald R. Hendricks
- Single specimens can be collected without the aid of expensive greenhouses or facilities.
- The original plant is not destroyed or altered where it is growing.
- The genetics of native material could be duplicated.
- Propagation could be done at the site where the plant grows.
In 1981, there appeared in the Journal of Arboriculture a reference to an article published on the air-layering of water oak cuttings by Dr. Robert C. Hare, Plant Physiologist of the Southern Forest Experimental Station, USDA Forest Service, in Gulfport, Mississippi (3). His technique involved the use of peat rooting cubes as aerial, in-situ chambers. Other species tried by Dr. Hare were slash and loblolly pine, southern red oak, sycamore, and sweetgum (1,2,5,6).
A program was initiated to try and duplicate this technique on woody plant species native to Indiana and Ohio.
Author: Alfred J. Fordham
Although the seeds of some woody plants are dispersed in late spring and throughout the summer, most do not ripen until autumn, rightly considered the time of fulfillment in nature — a season of natural abundance. As ripening occurs, changes come about in the appearance and character of fruits, and many plants become dispensers of food. Fleshy fruits containing seeds dependent for dispersal upon animals and birds become palatable and change to a wide variety of colors attractive to those responsible for their distribution. The pulp furnishes food to the bird or animal which, in turn, carries the
Author: T. Murray Alward
In December, 1980, I utilized the space past the heated benches to stick hardwood cuttings in flats, as listed in Table 1. The cuttings were approximately 4 to 5 in. and the media, our favourite, was a 6 sand, 4 peat, 3 perlite, mixture.
Author: Kathryn K. Merchant
Cuttings are taken from healthy plant in mid-to-late December after a good freeze, prepared, and stuck in greenhouse benches filled with perlite and heated with bottom heat. When taking the cuttings, we try to make them at a finished length of 8 to 10 in., to reduce handling. Cuttings should be taken when the temperature is above freezing. This may be important. I lost about 100 cuttings this past year due, perhaps, to the "wind chill" factor. That is the only variable that was different in all the groups of cuttings. The actual temperature was about 36°F, but with a wind chill of 10 to 15°F. Of 105 cuttings taken under these conditions, only two rooted.
The cuttings are stripped, wounded, and dipped in the appropriate hormone solution. We strip the leaves on the lower 3 in. of the cutting. The bottom ½ to ¾ in. of the cutting is then wounded on two sides
Author: Robert J. Gouveia
The beds are made of cement blocks, mortared together, and set into the ground 16 in., or the depth of 2 blocks. The medium is coarse sand filled to the top of the first block. In 1982, we insulated one bed with 1 in thick rigid foam (polyisocyanurate. R = 7.2 at 68°F). The bottom insulation was sloped toward the middle with a 3 in space for drainage. The sides have 16 in of insulation. Sand is used to grade the slope level. Lead cable is then laid down 5 in. apart on the sand and ¼ in. mesh hardware cloth is laid over the cable to help disperse the heat and protect the cable. The temperature controls for the medium give us 70° F at the root zone. In 1984, it took 676 kilowatt-hours to heat 225 sq ft of bad at a cost of $67.60. Collection of cuttings for narrow-leaved evergreens begins at mid-April and must be completed before
Author: Bernard Fourrier
- It is the second most economical method of propagation — after seedlings.
- Liners from hardwood cuttings are larger than those from softwood cuttings.
- The cuttings do not require special handling in storage.
- The cuttings are more easily transplanted.
A limiting factor is the many stock plants necessary to make large numbers of hardwood cuttings.
Our hardwood cuttings are prepared and stuck at two times of the year — fall and spring. We prefer fall cuttings as they perform better, and many of them callus before the soil freezes. Some species, however, suffer bark splitting when stuck in the fall, so cuttings of these species are stuck in spring.
Author: Nina Bassuk, Diane Miske, Brian Maynard
Author: Barry A. Eisenberg, Jack Gruber, Jo Ann Horhorysak
Production shifts have been noted because of either financial considerations or need to improve the cutting production environment. When plant material is produced in warmer climates, heating costs are reduced and elaborate growing structures are generally not necessary. In addition, labor in most instances is less expensive, especially overseas. A grower can also relocate to an area with limited rainfall which, in many cases, will reduce the severity of foliar diseases, when stock plants are grown outdoors.
With these changes, new problems have surfaced. The major problem is related to postharvest physiology.
Author: David J. Williams
All low-pressure sprayers have several basic components:
Author: Douglas J. Chapman, Charles W. Martin
One advantage of propagating trees by cuttage lies in the fact that ease of propagation would stimulate the introduction of regionally-oriented cultivars from superior trees. An important consideration in selecting regional cultivars is the provenance expression of these plants for characteristics such as winter hardiness. As one moves farther north, trees are more photoperiodic responsive. Photoperiod affects vegetative growth, carbohydrate storage, abscission, the onset of dormancy, and overall winter hardiness, to mention a few responses for northern temperate zone trees.
Other characteristics one is searching for when selecting cultivars include disease resistance, environmental tolerance (air pollutants, chlorides,
Author: Adrian Bowden
It should be pointed out that tissue-cultured plants differ physically from similar sized plants grown conventionally, e.g. under mist from cuttings. When first removed from sterile culture their leaves are thinner, they have less cuticle and are less waxy. They are less functional, as their stomates do not respond as efficiently to stressful conditions. Often instead of closing rapidly they remain open. These factors cause
Author: James E. Cross
If, as is usually the case, we are propagating a specific cultivar, the most important part of the successful effort is the selection of the specific wood for propagation so that we achieve exact reproduction. However, in our rush to get on with it, we may very well spend a lot less time and care on wood selection than would be called for by its relative importance.
These are two main considerations in the selection of the wood to be propagated:
- Ease of rooting ? and the percentage of success
- Success in obtaining exact duplication
Let us first consider ease of rooting. If the particular
Author: Dixon P. Hoogendoorn
It has been reported that a definite flowering sequence problem exists with this particular tree which results in many sterile embryos. Therefore, most of the seed produced is nonviable. This is one reason that Acer griseum remains a relatively rare tree today. Grafting this species has been impractical, if not impossible.
Many years ago, my father, Case Hoogendoorn, became very interested in Acer griseum and purchased 500 two-year seedlings from Gulf Stream Nurseries, Inc., Wachapreague, Virginia. They were planted in a stock bed with the intent of using these plants for vegetative propagation purposes. We usually prune the
Author: Darrel A. Apps
In actuality only a very few of the plants registered become important commercially. There are several reasons for this: 1) many are not commercially superior to those previously introduced; 2) most breeder-introducers are not effective in marketing new plants over an extensive geographical area; 3) some hybridizers assign names for the convenience of breeders and friends, and do not consider their plants to have commercial value; and 4) slow plant increase has kept some cultivars off the market long enough so that they are rapidly superseded by newer and better cultivars.
With the advent of micropropagation, new cultivars can now be propagated
Author: Ben Swane
We are conducting experiments on Sid Cadwell's property 200 km west of Sydney. Mr. Cadwell's property is situated in a very dry area which receives approximately 300 to 350 mm of rain per year. Summer temperatures reach 40°C and winter temperatures are below 0°C.
Propagation material, such as grevilleas, has been collected with careful attention paid to selection of parent materials from all over Australia. Cutting material is harvested in very early morning or late evening during spring, summer, and fall (October to April). It is recorded and packed in plastic bags with very little water. In most cases cuttings are wrapped first in clean white paper, then packed in styrofoam boxes and air freighted
Author: Philip E. Parvin
Author: David Byers
Efficient production of these many small plants is our goal and adequate water is one of the elements of production that makes this scheme work. Normally, our area receives about 56 in. of rainfall, but this is not uniformly spread throughout our growing season. Therefore, we must have the ability to water our liners when needed.
Overhead irrigation with movable aluminum pipes was installed in 1954. This method served well until our production outgrew the covered area. In 1978 we began using trickle, or drip, systems to extend our water delivery capability. In 1981 a commitment was made to trickle
Author: John A. Wott
Because there was a rapidly escalating need for landscape plants, even shortages, all commercial enterprises involved with landscape plants expanded, sometimes seeming to appear overnight. For some years, it appeared that anything green could be sold to the consumer.
Recently, the slowing economy, the over-supply of many types of landscape plants, and the growing knowledge base of the consumer are causing landscape horticulture to mature. The time
Author: Edmund V. Mezitt
Every nurseryman constantly surveys his plants in the field and is occasionally rewarded by discovering a superior plant. These are generally variations within the species, but on rare occasions they can be the natural hybrids between even distantly-related species.
When growing plants from seed, the nurseryman has an opportunity to select better strains, and plants grown from seeds selected from these improved strains will generally retain more of the desirable characteristics. Occasionally, even greater variations will occur. Many rhododendrons, azaleas, and kalmias will quite regularly reproduce color shades and plant growth habits similar to those of their parents, if plants of the same characteristics are cross-pollinated or isolated from each
Author: Wayne Lovelace
The recent development and approval for use of two postemergence grass herbicides in ornamentals has presented new opportunities for the use of companion grasses in nursery production systems. These herbicides, Poast and Fusilade, provide excellent control of almost all grasses while showing no injury to a wide range
Author: Alfred J. Fordham
When plants are raised from seeds, seedlings grown from some plants duplicate one another with monotonous uniformity. Seedlings of other plants, however, may contain individuals which differ greatly from other members in the same lot. Such variation can lead to new and worthwhile selections with horticultural merit.
Both C. kousa and C. florida provide striking examples of the variation that can arise when plants are raised from seeds. They can show great variability in all respects —
Author: G.M. Moore
"an organic compound synthesised in one part of a plant and translocated to another part, where in low concentrations it has a controlling or regulatory effect — it causes a physiological response" (1).
Author: Jack Alexander, Rob Nicholson
RUTH KVAALEN: Landscape plants which lack showy flowers or colorful autumn foliage are often overlooked in favor of the brightly colored plants. But a plant with good foliage appearance during the whole growing season can be more valuable in the landscape than one with a week of vivid color but poor appearance the rest of the year.
Orixa japonica is a plant with excellent foliage. Orixa is a deciduous shrub with rounded growth habit, usable as a specimen, in groups, or naturalized. In the Indianapolis to Chicago region it reaches 6 to 8 ft with equal spread or slightly less. The lower branches sometimes layer where they touch moist soil, so the plants are able to spread and create larger clumps.
Its ornamental character lies in its glossy foliage. Leaves are about 4 in long, giving a medium-coarse texture. Typically leaves are a bright, deep green. Some plants, in some years, develop
Author: J. Peter Vermeulen
Our recipient was born in 1934 in Bowling Green, Ohio, into a farming and gardening family. Boyhood employment at Ilgenfritz Nursery, where his father also worked, gave him early life exposure to horticulture and, no doubt, influenced his preparation for college and later life. His father purchased land at Toledo, Ohio, to start a small nursery, primarily to generate funds for higher education. The nursery was successful and so was our recipients academic efforts in high school, where he earned a 4-year scholarship at Michigan State University. At Michigan State he received his bachelors degree in Horticulture in 1956 and his advisor was our good member, Dr. Fred B. Widmoyer.
Author: Charles Kempenaar
Leaves are removed the first week in October and any excess poor shoot growth on the bottom of the rootstock is removed. The rootstocks are then placed in a cool greenhouse with no heat so the buds do not break. In late December the pots are cleaned and the rootstocks are placed in flats for grafting in January.
Grafting procedures. Grafting is begun the first week of
Author: Ralph Shugert, Joerg Leiss
MODERATOR LEISS: What is the shelf life of a rooting compound, such as the various Hormex formulations, provided you keep them in a cool, dry place? Will they break down after a certain period of time?
DICK WOLFF: If it is kept cool and in the dark there should be no deterioration I have had some cans for 6 and 7 years but finally threw them out because I was concerned, even though I was successful.
PETER VERMEULEN: We were approached by the maker of Hormodin who was working on labeling. During the course of the conversation we were advised that Hormodin had an excellent shelf life if kept cool, sealed, and out of the light.
JOERG LEISS: Does it make any difference in relation to heat buildup when using two layers of plastic, whether the clear or the opaque layer is to the inside?
JIM CROSS. Dick Bosley did a study years age. The best combination in cool areas was white on the inside
Author: Gary J. Kling
Woody plant establishment and growth are greatly affected by root loss which occurs during the transplanting process. The resulting stresses placed on the plant are a major source of problems in woody plant production and consumer usage of trees and shrubs. Root loss which occurs during digging, handling, storage and transplanting, results in reduced shoot growth for several years, branch dieback, or plant death. It also reduces the type and size of trees able to be moved and makes some species expensive to produce and unavailable in the landscape trade. The transplanting period and the first growing season following it are one of the most critical periods for survival and growth in the life of trees and shrubs
The greatest cause of death of transplanted seedlings is water stress (8), and is directly related to root loss. Transplants undergo massive physiological shock when removed from the soil. The most damaging injury is the loss of actively growing root tips and the
Author: John W. Einset, John H. Alexander III
Author: Gustav A.L Mehlquist, Edmond L. Marrotte
The original reason for undertaking this work many years ago was the appearance in some California nurseries of a red or pink-flowered delphinium hybrid from Europe, Delphinium ruysii ‘Pink Sensation’, introduced by Jackson and Perkins. It was almost sterile, the propagation by cuttings or division was slow, and it was generally not a good grower in the warmer sections of California. It seemed, therefore, desirable to try to utilize D. cardinale Hook., a red-flowered species native to California, to overcome these problems. Since this species is normally found in the warmer sections of California, it might conceivably produce hybrids better suited to at least
Author: Ian S Tolley
The thing i like about the book is that it deal with basics, as you can see from the table contents (Table 1).
Author: John B. Gaggini
- Fills the labour through during the winter period.
- Reduces the time span from the rootstock phase to obtaining a saleable tree (one year faster than budding),
- Allows the grafting operation to be done under cover without the need for working outside.
Author: Ian S. Tolley
Let me use two examples to illustrate the difference between areas of decision and happenstance in propagation.
Seedlings for citrus come from a wide range of seed sources, many of which were, and still are, chosen for their ease of growing by the propagator, but not necessarily the best material needed by the end user.
An example is the use of Rough lemon as a rootstock. It is a proven poor performer in the field, and has long since been supplemented by much improved rootstock, but it is still being used today. It is marvelous stock to propagate but should not the main aim to be reflect the needs of the end user?
If seed is the product then great care needs to be exercised to harvest it fresh from the tree to avoid soil contaminants. Heat treatment has to be done accurately and an
Author: V.J. Hartney, E.D. Kabay
Author: Kevin G. Stevens
Whilst in America we noticed that at some of the large nurseries a great amount of cutting propagation was being carried out in the open under mist. The material appeared to be in good condition with no sign of disease. Upon arriving home we decided to try this method.
The selection of the site was most important as we soon found out, as under our conditions the winds were quite severe. The hot Western Australia summer also caused some problems.
It was necessary to choose a site which was well protected from wind. We chose one which was occupied by an existing tunnel, which proved to be ideal. It was protected from the wind by a fence on one side and another tunnel on the other. The plastic and shade coverings were removed from the tunnel but the frame retained.
Bottom heat was provided by laying 25 mm poly-pipe along
Author: R.K. Ellyard, P.J. Ollerenshaw
Vegetative propagation of G. johnsonii is considered difficult (4,10) although grafting onto G. robusta has proved successful (2,4). Generally, the use of soft cutting material taken from hard-pruned stock plants maintained in active growth by the regular application of nitrogenous fertilizer is recommended for the propagation of grevilleas (1,2). Hellriegel (10), working with Grevillea ‘Ivanhoe’, obtained superior rooting with tip cuttings
Author: John W. Wrigley
Author: Pauline A. Cooper, Daniel Cohen
Author: Brian C. Hanger
Author: David H. Simons
There is conflicting evidence of the effects of ethylene in plant propagation and minor changes in conditions appear to alter the response from promoting rooting to inhibiting it. In some cases ethylene clearly promotes root initiation. or root elongation. Ethylene effects in propagation can be tested by adding it, most conveniently as ethephon, or by removing it with ventilation. Its action can be inhibited thiosulphate.
Author: Douglas M. McKenzie
The three grafting methods were:
- Grafting at the Cotyledon State. The method described by McKenzie (2) for grafting Clianthus spp. was used. When grafting Proteaceae spp. special care had to be taken to observe strict hygiene as these plants were very susceptible to fungal disease in the first few months.
Grafting at the cotyledon stage was possible with some Myrtaceae plants. Some species produce a hypocotyl (tissue below cotyledons above soil surface) which is sufficiently robust to graft if care is taken. Some Eucalyptus
Author: W.U.v. Hentig, M. Fischer, K. Kohler
Investigations into the reaction of fuchsias to daylength have been carried out by many workers including Roberts and Struckmeyer (6), Sachs and Bretz (7), Heide (4), Guttridge (3), Canham (2), Zimmer (9,10,11). In these investigations flowering was of primary interest. It was found that different fuchsia cultivars showed different reactions, and that different cultivar groups showed differences in flowering.
Most of the fuchsia cultivars offered for sale are long-day plants. In the literature these are named Fuchsia × hybrida or Fuchsia-hybrids, in spite of the fact that they mostly originate from Fuchsia magellanica and thus ought to be named Magellanica hybrids.
This large group should, however, be divided into two smaller groups, the larger being the obligate or qualitative long-day plants, and the smaller being the facultative or quantitative long-day plant. ‘Alice King’, ‘Beverly Hills’, ‘Dollar prinzessin’, ‘Hanna’, ‘Lord Byron’, ‘Marinka’ and ‘Swingtime’ belong to the obligate group, and
Author: Kenneth F. Baker
Major landmarks in the development of modern nursery techniques are outlined. The John Innes Horticultural Institute in England demonstrated in 1934–39 that, with slight modifications, a single roughly standardized soil mix could be used for a wide variety of plants. The first unified comprehensive approach to the special problems of plant growth in containers was evolved at the University of California in 1941–57. The U.C mixes were the first truly standardized, light weight, inert, well-aerated media that could be steamed without production of phytotoxicity. Many modifications have since appeared, based on the principles presented in Manual 23, in which the mixes were described. The U C System was uniquely evolved under stress of war conditions, with shortages of labor and materials; it was the result of the combined effort of many growers, research scientists, extension workers, and commercial laboratories, and was continually referred back to growers for modification. There was emphasis on using soil and plants free of pathogens, and practicing intensive sanitation Major advances in the System in the past 27 years are: aerated steam treatment of soil and propagules; addition of selected microorganisms (antagonists) to propagules or to treated soil for biological control of accidentally introduced pathogens and to increase plant growth through bacterization, use of minute meristems, cells, and protoplasts in propagation to improve pathogen control, prolonged mild heat therapy of plant propagules to decrease virus transmission; prevention of pathogen transmission in irrigation water, holding seed in polyethylene glycol following thermotherapy to permit metabolic damage to be repaired and the seed thus to recover from treatment
Author: Serge Zimberoff
It is necessary to define certain terms that are common among tissue culture propagators. The industry has a naming convention that refers to the theoretical stages that plants go through in culture.
Stage I: The establishment of the culture in the laboratory.
Stage II: The expansion block in the laboratory. (This can sometimes be used as the final step in the lab. It can also be used several times before going on to another stage).
Stage III: Root initiation stage (or final adjustment prior to
Author: Howard Asper Sr
It is the propagation of these plants that we will attempt to consider. As with most plants they are propagated by seed, by cuttings, and by grafting. With but one exception, seed can be obtained from plants already growing in the U.S. The exception is the large-flowered proteas which require hand pollination. In their native South Africa the sun bird (Anthobaphes violacea) does the pollinating. There are a number of seed merchants in both South Africa and Australia who will supply seed for very reasonable charge. The seed loses
Author: Paul T. Greever
Author: John Maurice
In the first growing stage, rootstock seedlings are air root-pruned in baskets of 6 cm. depth. Subsequently about eight are transplanted horizontally into narrow plastic mesh trays by pressing the root systems flat on the substrate surface and covering. The trays are then placed in a semi-upright position on rods approaching eye level. The slanting position prevents the substrate from sliding out. The technical advantages of the method are: ease and perfection of flat root transplanting; preventing trees grown in a small volume of substrate from being blown over; allowing for a continuous thick mulch to prevent drying out of the surface and supplying constant nutrition; optimum aeration and drainage prevention of overheating of substrate at edges by use of a white polyethylene curtain; ease of extracting trees by shaking. Special micro-grafting processes are used; length is substituted for width in the cuts, to permit precise work on the slender upper part of the rootstocks. Reasons for the generally high positioning of the grafts are : ease of forcing the scions into growth; less wastage of rootstock growth when cutting down to scion, high grafting success; the perfection of graft unions when effectively molded on relatively soft young rootstock growth. Thin scion material sometimes has to be grown on hedged mother trees.
Author: Gordon R. Letterman, Ellen F. Letterman
Author: Carolyn J. Sluis
Strategies used in the study of plant tissues and cells, the propagation of clonal plantlets, and the production of biosynthetics in vitro, are becoming increasingly sophisticated. In vitro techniques are being used in the production of novel germplasm for the development of new plant cultivars using a variety of technologies rapidly being developed by molecular and cell biologists. The core biotechnologies which can be applied to the improvement of a cultivar now include protoplast production, somatic cell genetics, and genetic engineering. In addition, plant propagation and cultivation techniques are being developed using the biotechnologies of monoclonal antibodies, plant growth promoting bacteria, and somatic seeds. In fact
Author: Kenneth F. Baker
Author: James F. Hutchinson
Author: Gene Blythe
Cuttings of three selected cultivars of Sequoia sempervirens were treated with a variety of rooting hormones and rooted in flats in a peat/perlite medium on oudoor rooting beds with full sun, bottom heat, and intermittent mist ‘Majestic Beauty’TM rooted best with a combination of 3000 ppm IBA + 3000 ppm NAA. ‘Santa Cruz’ exhibited optimal rooting with 16,000 ppm IBA powder. ‘Soquel’ responded best with a combination of 6000 ppm IBA + 6000 ppm NAA.
Author: Jack Ahlswede
There are two species of macadamias grown commercially. Macadamia integrifolia, the most popular species in Hawaii, and M. tetraphylla, the most widely grown in southern California.
My experience with macadamias dates back to the 1960's when I bought some seed from a tree on a ranch between Los Angeles and Santa Barbara because this tree
Author: Conrad A. Skimina
The best disinfectants were found to be Physan, isopropyl alcohol, and monochloramine. Of these, monochloramine was found to be equal in efficacy to the alcohol, least corrosive, least costly, and had excellent stability under high contamination.
Author: David W. Megeath
The advent of computerized control systems has made possible the means whereby environmental conditions are monitored, and automatically modified per the operator's preprogrammed instructions. The complexity of this function is best and most effectively performed by the computer — leaving time for the operator (nursery/greenhouse manager) to perform his/her appropriate management functions. Not only can the computer perform the monitor and control functions, it can also generate a data base for the manager to manage from.
Why a computer? The key concept in nursery and greenhouse control is the every function is inter-related, in cause and/or effect, to other functions. For example, bench misting of cuttings should be at a frequency such that the
Author: Kathleen Fairbank, Serge Zimberoff
There are four basic types of programs available to use on a microcomputer: word processing, spreadsheets, database management, and graphics. We use the first three types quite extensively.
Word processing programs allow the compute to act as a very sophisticated typewriter. A document written with a word processing program is extremely flexible. The user can type a document on the keyboard, get a permanent copy, easily revise it, and print it out again.
Spreadsheet programs allow the computer to act as an electronic. The user can
Author: John E. Rodebaugh
The modified concrete mixer is the most common soil mixing machine in use in the medium sized nurseries and greenhouses. With this piece of equipment a batch type system is developed and when the ingredients are added to each batch accurately, the results are quite uniform. Some growers even steam pasteurize or fumigate their soil in these mixers. One of the major disadvantages is the relatively long mixing and unloading time which results are quite uniform. Some growers even steam
Author: Bruce Briggs
After serving in the military in European combat during W.W. II he worked in the ornamental horticulture field at the California Nursery Co., Fremont, California. Following further work experiences he continued his educational activities at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, where he became Department Chairman in Ornamental Horticulture.
Some of the awards he received in recognition for his outstanding teaching abilities are: The California Association of Nurserymens' Leadership Award, Honorary Future Farmer (FFA), Outstanding Teacher Award by American Society of Horticultural Science, and the American Florist's Education Award. These are only some of his accomplishments in the field of education.
Author: A. Standardi, F. Catalano
Author: David W. Burger
Micrografting requires very few materials, but it does require precise manipulation of small tissues and plant organs. Seeds must be available that can be sown aseptically in vitro and thus serve as seedling rootstocks. Shoot-tips (0.1 to 0.2 mm in length) are taken from surface disinfested scions and placed on the decapitated seedling under aseptic conditions (Figure 1, a-d). If successful, the grafted plant develops and is then tested for the presence of viruses.
Author: Devon Zagory
What is genetic engineering? Genetic engineering is less a discipline than a group of techniques applicable within many disciplines. These techniques are based upon an increasingly detailed understanding of the way DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is made, structured, read, regulated, processed, and translated into the metabolic machinery of life. Many of the tools of genetic engineering are, in fact, the very tools that cells use to manipulate their hereditary material and reproduce themselves. These tools include such things as plasmids, viruses, transposable elements, and restriction enzymes, all naturally occurring molecules that have been isolated,
Author: Ralph Scott
The sheets of Rockwool were laid on a sand bed in a glasshouse, the bed being heated by an electrical cable and maintained at 21°C. Intermittent mist was used on a time clock system, misting occurring for 10 sec every 10 min during daylight hours. The Rockwool sheets were placed on the bed dry and then thoroughly watered 2 or 3 times to ensure that they were wet through. Gloves were used with the dry sheets as the fibre can affect sensitive skin.
Cutting preparation began the first week of January (mid-summer), 1983. The
Author: Christopher Fairweather
The first task was to establish a stock bed to supply the necessary cuttings. As very little local material was available in the plants we required, this operation had to begin with very small rooted cuttings.
For the next three years we had to wait for the plants to develop. This was slower than expected and various hazards such as extreme hail storms occurred, which almost finished the whole project.
By 1982 the plants had developed from small 6 in. rooted
Author: Christopher Lane
The most distinctive feature is, of course, the colour of the young growth. This can vary from brilliant red to pink, as well as creamy yellow, bronze, or copper. The flowers which are usually white, but sometimes pink or red, are lily-of-the-valley shaped and born profusely on racemes or panicles. Various species and hybrids flower in the garden from February to June. The flower buds, which are formed in late summer are also attractive during the winter months, particularly those of a bronzy colour.
Most plants are very compact in growth habit, making dense, shapely bushes up to 2 × 2 metres. Pieris Formosa var. forrestii, however, will grow up to 4 metres. Dead heading of old flowers is beneficial.
Author: David Ridgway
The most important cultivar grown in Great Britain is the male cultivar Garrya elliptica ‘James Roof’, which produces catkins 300 mm long.
Author: Denis J. Bradshaw
Propagation Facilities. We have one 65 × 14 ft single skinned polytunnel, covered with white polythene. This has two 6 ft beds at ground level with a centre pathway. The beds are insulated with 2 in thick polystrene wrapped in polythene, with 3 to 4 in of pea grit underneath for drainage. This is covered with a 3 in layer of durite sand beneath which there are five electric heating cables, each controlled by Camplex probe thermostats, giving a bottom heath of 68–70°F. We used to have a hand operated mist line, but now find it more convenient to use a fine sprayer on the end of a hosepipe. As the light intensity increases we cover the tunnel with a 50%
Author: David Hill
- The production of a bushy plant.
- Ensuring plentiful flower buds.
These criteria are of utmost importance from the sales point of view. Rhododendrons which are of a "leggy" form or do not possess many flower buds and are not desirable in the market place. In the retail market, a well-budded or flowering plant sells itself. At Boningale Nurseries Limited, we are not a large scale producer of rhododendrons, nor can we claim to be specialists, but through our experience to date we are upgrading the quality of our production. The main objectives of this paper are: (1) to communicate some of our knowledge; and (2) stimulate interest amongst others to initiate research into production techniques for the benefit of the industry as a whole.
The key to the production of high quality
Author: Volker Behrens
Suitable storage conditions must be used to avoid a significant reduction of the rooting capacity. That is why:
- water losses of the cuttings have to be kept to a minimum (13).
- the spread of pathogenic fungi has to be avoided (10), and
- respiration has to be kept low, especially if a definite amount of food reserves is necessary for quick and sufficient rooting (13,19).
All this is possible with
Author: Alan Q.M. Blain
Author: J.M. Hedger
The soil is ploughed and then worked down to a fine tilth in late autumn in readiness for planting. After this, we do not have to use a heavy tractor on the land again during the wet winter weather. Planting commences as early in the autumn as possible. This is done by using a combination of a mini-tractor and single share slitter which is very light and permits planting throughout
Author: L.M. Gill
The Saint Piran strain which became available in 1978 contains 9 individual groups which are grown in isolation until the final mass seeding prior to the sale of the tubers.
Although there have been certain modifications, this basic system continues to be used by the commercial producers, Wyvern Growers in Somerset.
Seed production. Cultural requirements such as rotation manuring, soil preparation, depth and density of planting, weed and pest control are the same as for commercial flower production, a s detailed in the revised edition of the Anemone Advisory leaflet 353 of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food. However a rigorous programme of sprays and rouging
Author: W. James Houghton
In this world of daffodils the names of breeders that have given us the beauties that we enjoy today, to mention a few, are Reverend William Herbert, Edward Leeds, Peter Barr, Reverend George Engleneart, William Backhouse, The Brodie of Brodie, Guy Wilson, Lionel Richardson, P.D. Williams, and so many more very dedicated folk, including those hybridising today. At daffodil shows the results of their work can be seen in all its splendour. There are eleven distinct divisions of narcissi. Each year at shows a new cultivar more elegant than its predecessors will surprisingly come to light. It may be one of the large trumpets, a double, a small cup, tazetta, or a cheeky little rock daffodil.
Most of the new cultivars have been bred specifically for the show bench.
Author: Murray Richards
The second requirement is to provide an
Author: Bill Simpson
Training Groups. The nursery sector is well served by colleges, while the Board has encouraged the formation of Training Groups in major areas of production. Examples of such groups are the Hampshire Nursery Training Group, the
Author: Norman S. Standbrook
To this end the N.P.T.C. has evolved a whole series of tests as listed in their schedule of activities booklet, which enable people of all ages to become proficient in the crafts of their choosing. To become a craftsman in the nursery stock section a candidate must pass in at least five activities, including plant identification and the propagation of plants in either the glasshouse or the frame/case or field. On passing the five tests the candidate will be entitled to a Certificate of Craftsmanship in addition to an increase in wages. The aim of the N.P.T.C. is to ensure that the same standards of craftsmanship are maintained
Author: Douglas Weguelin
I can look back 55 years when George Tucker showed me how to graft Gypsophila paniculata ‘Bristol Fairy’ and how he taught me to tie a reef knot instead of a granny. It is good to see he is here in our Society today. I was apprenticed to his father to learn the nursery trade. I believe that time spent with staff is a good investment. They appreciate the fact that the boss or manager can spend time teaching and that you can do the job that you are asking them to do!
When I intended to retire at 65, I sold my nursery to Rochfords, the houseplant growers, my nursery being Barters
Author: Joanna S. Wood
The sun frame technique for propagating softwood cuttings is not new — cold frames covered by Dutch lights were in use from the 19th century. Modern materials such as polythene sheeting for tunnels automatic misting have brought it up to date. As the plant material from sun frames has been mostly destined for field planting and the landscape market, the range of species grown has been limited. If plant quality could be improved there would be and opportunity to extend the species range as a cheaper alternative propagation technique to heated glass
Author: Kenneth G. Ellard
The idea of starting a nursery was first discussed among various friends while still in the first year of our Ordinary National Diploma (OND) course at Pershore. At that time several people were interested in the project. However, by the end of the third year interest had waned and, on leaving college in the summer of 1972, only 3 people remained committed to the idea — these being Trevor Burns, who now deals with sales, Nick Cox, from whom we parted company after one year, and myself.
The initial impetus for the project which may well have been alcohol-induced, probably came from a romantic view of life and a naivety of business. We had very little experience in nursery work and none of business. None of the partners' us came from cities. So it was going to
Author: Paul A. Patience, Peter G. Alderson
Shoots grown in light and dark in controlled temperature environments developed at the same rate. Consequently differences in the striking date and also in the rooting environment between treatments were avoided. Cuttings which developed at 25°C rooted earlier than cuttings developed at 15°C High temperatures alone may account for rapid shoot extension whereas improved rooting was, in general, associated with the combination of high temperatures and low light levels. The value of studying etiolation in systems facilitating more precise control of the shoot environment during treatment is discussed.
Author: Paul M. Underhill
There is a neglected argument of forethought with herbicides, as this should be the first rule of growing. Good weed control, like early propagation, comes down to timing. The criteria is to apply a herbicide seal to the compost as soon after potting as possible and follow it up at regular intervals, not allowing an infestation to take place. With labour costs high you cannot afford to delay and hand weeding is labour intensive and costly.
To my surprise I have found few species of problem weeds, but these few are not to be underestimated. They include, especially in the propagation stage Cardamine hirsuta, which if controlled
Author: Peter Stokes
Ferns have been around for 400 million years, so they say, but hardy ferns only became really popular with British gardeners in the last half of the 19th century. Then hundreds of types were grown by some nurseries but since 1914 interest has greatly declined.
There is certainly a place in the modern garden for hardy ferns. Many forms grow well in damp shady places and stand considerable neglect. There are attractive low growing ferns which grow well in the shaded parts of rockeries, their foliage giving a good contrast to dwarf evergreens. Some of the larger species such as the royal fern (Osmunda regalis) or the ostrich plume fern (Mateucia struthopteris) grow well in very wet conditions and make excellent marginal plants.
Propagation. Division is the simplest method of
Author: Philip C. Gaut, Jenifer N. Roberts
Author: Brian H. Dale
I have a minimal involvement in field propagation and this is limited to fruit trees and the easy evergreens, such as laurel and Vinca spp. The latter are propagated under low polythene tunnels on sheltered, well-drained section of the field.
The breakdown of the 800,000 cuttings which are rooted by my department each year, is as follows: 30% shrubs, 25% heathers, and 25% conifers, the balance being split among everything from Exbury azaleas, Pieris spp., Mahonia spp., with about 5% of this balance being climbers.
The second type of propagation under my control is the division of bareroot herbaceous plants, a crop which is increasingly being home nursery produced. The reason for this is customer demand which is creating a demand for almost limitless cultivars of
Author: W. Rodger Elliot
- Asian. Many species from the Kimberleys, Western Australia, Northern Territory, northern and eastern Queenland, coastal New South Wales and far eastern Victoria have links with the Pacific and Asian region, especially those found in rainforest areas.
- Antarctic. The relationship with New Zealand, sub-antarctic island, and South America is obvious and south-eastern Australia, especially Tazmania.
- Australian. The unique development of endemic plants has occurred since isolation, especially in Western Australia, sue to the dry barriers of central Australia and Nullar-bor Plain.
Author: D.A. Husband
(1) In what area of business should there be changes? Changes in the wrong area could precede disaster. One guideline is, "the area where we do worst." Here, change can only improve things — or so it may seem. Another guide is, "where we are doing very well" — change in this area could shift us from the mediocre nursery to the elite nursery.
Outlets. Selling wholesale, to garden centres, instead of retail to the visiting public, — or vice-versa.
Subjects involved, or type of plant produced. Perhaps growing standards of choice ornamental trees instead of maiden fruit trees. A bigger change could be in going from bare-root to container sales.
Sources of Stock. Beginning a stock-plant area, so that all the cutting material is completely under
Author: K.R.W. Hammett
A possible definition would be, "any plant that is cultivated primarily for its decorative value." Such a definition is very open-ended and really does not give a breeder much guidance. A breeder of food plants knows pretty much what is required of him. Namely, his plants should produce the largest possible yields in the shortest time with minimum cost and trouble. Once produced the product should have maximum shelf life, be easily transported and, of course, be edible. In contrast, the breeder of ornamental plants has as his raw material virtually the whole of the plant kingdom — subjects ranging in size from forest trees to ground-hugging alpines. Even more important, he or she is in an area of taste and fashion, where none of the criteria are
Author: Jan Velvin
The two systems initially installed to control the mist operation were:
- A pre-set "off-on" cycle, i.e. a timer with the capabilities to operate regardless of the environment.
- An "electronic leaf", which gives a variable "off-on" cycle dependent on the environment, i.e. 2 electrodes contained in a non-conductive substance which is placed under the mist at leaf level. At a certain level of dryness the "leaf" activates a solenoid valve.
Also used was a combination of these two systems, i.e. time-regulated mist application for certain hours, e.g. before 10 a.m. and
Author: B. Tjia
Other gerbera sources outside continental U.S.A. are in the Netherlands, France, Italy, Japan, India, Australia, and New Zealand. Most of the commercial lines are grown and sold from seed, although some are propagated vegetatively through tissue culture means. The clonal lines are usually disease and insect free,
Author: T.E. Welsh
A need for increased productivity is shared amongst bedding plant growers worldwide. Over the past decade, some new approaches to production techniques have arisen.
Direct seeding mechanically into the final container is one such approach. This eliminates the necessity for hand sowing and alleviates the need for pricking out. Interest in this system has seen the development of
Author: Michael B. Thomas and Alfred G.B. Leong
Author: Ross A. Bicknell
Although the genius Gentiana contains many hundred species, the cultivated cut flower cultivars have arisen principally from only three: G. makinoi, G. triflora, and G. scabra, all of which are native to Japan. Gentiana is a very popular flower in Japan where it blooms mainly between the months of July and October. In 1979 it was estimated that approximately 278 ha of Gentiana was cultivated in Japan. In 1982 this had increased to 449 ha.
Until recently most propagation has been by seed. Cutting propagation is used in some districts for white cultivars, which tend to have a poorer seed germination rate than the blue and purple ones. The tissue-cultured material which is now becoming available provides the advantages of clonal multiplication but is more expensive than seedlings. Seed, available from several Japanese seed companies, is best purchased during November and December as this is when fresh stock is available from the previous season's crop. Although some seed lines
Author: Ian Fankhauser
In the late 1950's, Duncan & Davies were producing named cultivars feijoa by layering. Trials have been done since then with grafting, bench grafting, budding, and cutting production. While cutting production produced results varying from 40% to 60%, depending on cultivar, the most successful to date has been bench grafting. This is the method I will deal with.
The main cultivars we graft are ‘Mammoth’ and ‘Triumph’, with lesser numbers of ‘Coolegei’, ‘Robert’, ‘David’, and ‘Variegata’. We do not grow ‘Apollo’ and ‘Gemini’, as these are restricted to six nurseries granted propagating rights.
Seed of Feijoa sellowiana is sown in trays progressively in winter, from July through August, then pricked out in September/October (spring) into 7cm Maclons in a 1
Author: John F. Seelye
The genus Telopea, in the Proteaceae family, comprises four species all indigenous to Australia. T. speciosissima, the New South Wales waratah, is woody shrub which produces large red blooms in the spring.
Its cultivation in New Zealand is increasing to meet cut flower market demands. However, its potential has been limited by the variable flower quality in plants raised from seed. A few clonal selections have been made in the past and vegetatively propagated by cuttings. Others are currently being evaluated at this Research Centre for their cut flower qualities. Rapid propagation from the limited base stock is necessary if the local cut flower industry is to quickly realise the potential of these selection.
The procedure described here is based on studies with two T. speciosissima selections, clone 8 and 38. Previous micropropagation successes with Proteaceae, a family of 60 genera have been mainly confined to the genus Grevillea (1,2). Shoot multiplication in Telopea using 6-benzyl-
Author: Stephen M. Butcher and Sheila M.N. Wood
The genus Sophora is in the family Papilionaceae, and consists of about 30 species of temperate and subtropical trees and shrubs (1) of wide distribution. Three species are found in New Zealand, S. tetraptera, S. prostrata, and S. microphylla.
S. tetraptera, J.F. Mill is a small to medium-sized tree up to 10 m tall growing from sea level to 450 m. The leaflets are large (3 cm long) and the flowers, which appear in the spring — October and November, are large and pale yellow with wings longer than the standard. This species does not have a juvenile form and usually flowers in four to five years from seed.
S. prostrata J. Buchan is a low-land bush of approximately 0.5 to 0.2 m tall. It forms a low hummock with densely inter-tangled divaricated orange-brown rigid branches and bears small (25 mm) orange/yellow flowers.
S. microphylla Ait. Is a small tree up to 10 m tall found from sea level to 700 m. It is the most variable and hardy of the three species. S. microphylla usually exhibits a
Author: Tony Biggs
Author: Gary M. Hutt
There are five options for winter plant protection available to us today:
- Do nothing at all.
- Place plants pot-to-pot.
- Place plants pot-to-pot and cover them with white poly or white poly plus shade cloth — then tack down.
- Put plants in overwintering structures.
- Lay plants down and cover with a microfoam insulation blanket first; follow with white poly, then seal air tight.
Author: David A. Smith
Our application technique is simple, since we irrigate from ponds, A hole is drilled and threaded into the suction pipe close to the centrifugal pump. A ?-in short pipe nipple and valve are installed, being careful to avoid any air leakage through the valve or pipe fittings, which can cause a loss of pump prime. A pipe may connect the valve permanently to a holding tank, or a hose may be attached and simply submerged into a bucket of fungicide solution, as shown in figure 1.
Author: Charles H. Gilliam, Glenn R, Wehtje, Cecil Pounders, Gary S. Cob
The first symptom of Fusilade and Poast activity is growth cessation, followed by death of the terminal growth points and
Author: Ken Schulz
Author: Karl A. Kolb
Also there have been many successful grower trials conducted throughout the country during the past three years, These trials have provided substantial evidence that dibble application offers certain advantages over conventional top dressing and incorporation methods.
Before we go much further
Author: Hubert Nicholson
Before we could undertake drip irrigation we had to develop a water supply which we did by digging wells. In the mountains of Tennessee you're lucky to hit any water in a well, much less enough for irrigation, but we were fortunate to end up with a total of approximately a 200 gpm supply from 5 wells. These wells pump into a common underground system of 4-inch lines totaling about25,000 ft in length, making water available to a 200 acre area. With this limited amount of water the use of drip irrigation made good sense because of this method's efficient water use.
Author: Michael A. Richard
First we will separated and define the two classes of bamboo currently being propagated on a commercial scale.
Clump-forming bamboo typically produce late summer and autumnal growth, each successive cane developing adjacent to the preceding one. They are generally tropical or subtropical and grow constantly if moisture and temperature are right
Running bamboo produce sprouts very early in the spring followed by underground development until late fall. Generally this type is from temperate climates. By understanding these simplified characteristics, it becomes apparent that many techniques used for one group will be unsuccessful if used on the other
Author: Gary P. Taylor
My job as greenhouse manager is to produce heavy transplants and liners that are ready as soon as possible to go in the field and grow well.
Author: Joseph G. King
We force azaleas from September to Mother's Day. The plants for September flowering are put into the cooler the latter part of June.
We produce several sizes including 5- to 6-in head in 6-in containers, 7-in head in 10-in containers, 8- to 12-in head in tubs. Production requires 12 to 18 months depending on plant size. We ship in our own trucks.
Author: John L. Machen Sr
- New Plant Inventory
- All seedlings and cuttings we produce.
- All liners or plants we buy to grow on to larger sizes.
- Production Inventory
- All plants planted in the fields.
- All plants planted in the container in which they will be old
Author: Nancye Heighway
Five years ago, in 1978, we decided to reorganise our plantings using the "Tatura Trellis" (an intensive planting method) and trickle irrigation, for the following reasons:
- To increase production without increasing the size of our holding.
- New cultivars of stone fruits were becoming available.
- Cost efficiency was necessary for picking and pruning and in the use of tractors for spraying and cultivation.
- Earlier yields were available from intensive planting systems.
- Water and land costs were rising at an alarming rate.
By using the "Tatura Trellis" we were able to plant 1600 trees per hectare instead of 300 using the old method. Thus production could be increased threefold
Author: Richard J. Stadtherr
The Netherlands is noted for their bulbs, and many new hybrids are seen among amaryllis, daffodils, tulips and lilies. There is variegated foliage with stripes of white, maroon, or purple in species hybrid tulips as well as multiflowered stalks with up to 6 flowers on each. The best new daffodil seen was a dark yellow, large-cupped cultivar named ‘Cyclops’. Crocosmia masoniorum, a bright orange-red montbrietia, blooms from June into September at Inverewe.
Author: Jack Siebenthaler
A manager is a person charged with the control or direction of a business. He controls resources and expenditures. He directs the general activity of the business. He plans a lot for the future.
A coach is a person who trains others, either individually or as a team. He's a private tutor who gives instruction. He worries about individual effort and about making the most of individual abilities.
While there is some similarity in the duties of the two, it is readily apparent that there are marked differences also. In fact, it's hard to equate the two in view of their general responsibilities.
The Tampa Bay Buccaneers began their professional life with an initial record of 0–26. That is no wins and 26 defeats!
Author: Richard W. Henley
Author: Fred Morrison
During the past 24 months our nursery has doubled in size. This accelerated expansion demanded a rapid method to propagate plants in large numbers. The method chosen to accomplish this necessary production of plant liners was the rooting bench procedure. This type method allows a large number of cuttings to be placed in a small area while the rooting process is taking place.
The benches chosen for our needs contain 648 ft2 each. Each bed is 6 ft wide and 108 ft long. These benches are laid out using concrete blocks for the lower portion of the bench. Each bench requires 170 concrete blocks laid
Author: Carl E. Whitcomb
Author: Lin Taber
LARRY EDWARDS: I would like more information on crop oil and surfactants. Do these materials have an effect on the chemical with which they are being used?
BRYSON JAMES: They are similar to dormant spray oils and, in general, are nonphytotoxic. They will mix with water. Vegetable oils have been tried, but crop oils are preferred. Ordinary household detergents usually do not interfere with chemical activity if they are nontoxic. Those with high phosphate content should not be used; pH of the solution makes a difference. A spreader-sticker should also be used with most tank mixes. These materials actually have a sticking effect as well as just making water wetter.
TED RICHARDSON: I have found that, in contrast to earlier comments, a surfactant works just as well with Poast as a crop oil.
GARY TAYLOR: Is there a danger that herbicides will affect rooting of the cuttings?
CARL WHITCOMB: In general, those
Author: Bryson L. James
We do not have time nor the knowledge to give specific programs to fit all nurseries or all potential pest problems. However, we will offer some generalized examples based on experience gained in custom application and in consultation with many of the best nurseries in the South.
Many nurseries do not have effective spray programs because they do not have proper equipment or do not maintain equipment properly. We will discuss types of sprayers later but should mention here that protective clothing should be considered as necessary spray equipment.
Author: Mona-Marie Kelety
Hibiscus may be propagated by seed (hybridizing), cuttings, grafting, or by tissue culture. Hybridizing is best done by collectors or research labs as cross-breeding hibiscus is an unprofitable method for commercial
Author: James B. Berry
Flowerwood Nursery practices specific use of combinations of IBA, NAA, potassium-IBA, alcohol, water, talc mixtures and solutions, as root-promoting treatments, We find species and cultivar variations by treatment demonstrated by Raphiolepis indica, Rhododendron, Camellia sasanqua and almost all species that we produce. Our auxin formulation program offers opportunities for great progress for plant propagators in time, quality, and quantity of rooting.
Hormone-induced rooting of cuttings is a common practice among nurseries of all sizes. Many purchase commercially
Author: Joe Cialone
This paper will focus mainly on the production of this plant in the cane form and will introduce some new techniques which could have a significant effect on how cane is produced and grown.
Until the 1960's most cane was collected in Central and South America and shipped to the United States for growing. During the past 25 years extensive acreage of cultivated cane has greatly increased both the total volume and diversity of sizes, and made cane available 12 months of the year. Cane is normally harvested
Author: Peter B. May
A number of naturally occurring and synthetic auxins have been used to induce the rooting of cuttings but only two are in common use. These are indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Rooting hormones are generally applied to cuttings as either powders, using talc as a carrier, or in solution. Hartmann and Kester (4) offer some arguments in favour of the use of hormone solutions.
Early experiments with hormone solutions used relatively dilute solutions (0 to 200 mg/litre), in which the cuttings were soaked for periods up to 24 hours. This technique has
Author: James Douglas Ryan
- Under Cypress Creek Nursery management structure, the department functioned virtually alone. It was headed by a foreman who was a working member of the 10-member group. Its productivity could be objectively measured and was not dependent upon the performance of any other group within the nursery.
- The cost of production in the department was at an unacceptable high level, and long-term production schedules for finished liner had never been met. Conventional management techniques were not improving performance. It was the opinion of the management team that the situation in the department could not get any worse. The Quality Circle concept was to be implemented as a
Author: William G. Adams
In the late 19th century grafting and budding techniques began to be used by some growers to reproduce quantities of desirable fruit types. Other advantages soon became apparent as growers now had the abilities to improve cold hardiness, adapt trees to poorer soil types, and also produce larger quantities of better quality fruit without several years' wait for scion maturity.
Satisfied with these developments, growers and researchers spent the next several decades improving fruit quality by developing new cultivars and rootstocks, using cross pollination techniques.
With the invention of the orange concentrate process the Florida citrus industry rapidly grew in size and so did the demand for citrus trees. Nurserymen, in an
Author: Carl E. Whitcomb, Jerry D. Williams
Author: Hudson T. Hartmann
One of the problems we face is the ever-rising cost of publishing books. In any college bookstore it is common to find textbooks at prices ranging from $30 to $100 each. To avoid increases in our annual dues, we keep trying to hold our publishing costs down, principally of the Proceedings.
The primary controlling factor we have in avoiding cost increases is to hold down the book size. With material from our six Regions, it would be easy to allow the size of the book to greatly proliferate, becoming more and more expensive. So we have set a limit of 10-double-spaced typed pages including tables and figures, for manuscripts submitted for the Proceedings, which translates to about 5 printed pages. The length of the average article in the Proceedings has been less than this. We are trying to avoid
Author: Peter Orum
Some people would say that propagation is merely "putting roots on cuttings"; but more correctly, it entails the entire process from start to the finished liner. For example, a juniper cutting is really not finished in propagation until it is potted in a pint container. Similarly, the direct stuck pachysandra, or any other groundcover in flats, is not finished in propagation until the cuttings are rooted and are sufficiently established to sell.
We talk about being a propagator, and about all propagators doing the same thing. However, we are not the same, and we are doing the same thing only to a point, and within very different parameters. Propagators can be divided into three groups:
- Commercial propagators
Author: Anna J. Knuttel, Charles Addison
There are other cultivars, however, such as ‘Royal Lodge’ and ‘Visco Sepala’. ‘Sunset Boulevard’, ‘Satan’, ‘Crimson Tide’, and ‘Pink Jolly’, that are not affected by powdery mildew and have attractive fall foliage. These plants would be a welcome addition to any garden and be saleable in both spring and fall. Clearly this type of cultivar should be selected for production by the commercial propagator.
To propagate deciduous azaleas by stem cuttings, we made use of a program at Knuttel Nursery that was described by H.C. Nienhuys of Roadview Farm
Author: Carl Orndorff
The principles of repropagation for herbaceous perennials have been in use for over a half century in the nursery industry. An early application was when many plants were shipped to the U.S. by ocean freight from Europe and other countries. In addition to the long trans-ocean crossings there were always delays during the inspection at port of entries and delays with domestic transportation. Therefore, the amount of time plants and plant parts had problems because of poor shipping conditions and delays. By the time shipments arrived at their destination, the plants and plant parts were often covered with mildew, or parts of them were rotting. To salvage those
Author: Kathleen S. Freeland
Recently there has been a tremendous interest in not only preserving the remaining remnants of original prairies but reconstructing them, too. The Chicago Botanic Garden Prairie is a reestablished prairie of approximately 11 acres. Two acres, containing 155,000 plants, will be a mesic or tall grass prairie, the dominant type in Illinois where corn and soybeans are now planted.
All the seeds for this reconstruction were collected within a 200 mile radius of the Chicago Botanic Garden during the summer and autumn of the previous year. The seeds were
Author: Everett Van Hof
Pieris japonica seed capsules are gathered the first part of November. After the capsules open, the seeds are screened from the capsules. The seedling medium is prepared by mixing one 6-cu ft bale of peat moss with two 4-cu ft bags of coarse peat moss. Flats (20×14×3 in) are filled with this mixture and lightly pressed down to ½ in below the top of the flat. The flat is then filled with screened peat moss and leveled.
The flats are now ready for sowing. One level tablespoon of pieris seed is used per flat. After sowing, flats are watered well and a polyethylene cover is placed over the flat to retain moisture during the germination period.
After about 3 weeks the
Author: Joerg Leiss
After returning from the 1983 meeting, I found that we did not have enough Quercus robur rootstock suitable for clay rosepots. Seeing all those well-branched root pieces, that had to be trimmed-off for the understocks to fit the pots, caused me to think that those root pieces might be the answer to my shortage problem.
Having just heard Moser (4) speak on root regeneration of oaks and also recalling papers by Lumis (1,2,3), and other articles and talks on hard-to-transplant tree species, led me to experiment with some of the same principles on Q. robur root pieces. While both authors mainly used auxins to stimulate root