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Author: Douglas E. Sabin
The hardwood cutting method is an excellent way to propagate fruit tree rootstocks such as those for plums, pears, and cherries. It is also an excellent way to propagate certain shade trees such as London planetree (Plantanus × acerifolia) and Prunus × cistena. There are two times in the year in our area when such hardwood cutting material can be gathered and rooted successfully — the months of November and December (late fall and early winter) and the last half of February and the first half of March (late winter and early spring).
Cutting material should be taken from stock trees that have been in place for at least two years. Material can be taken off
Author: C.J. Sally Johnson
Seed Sources. The principal timber species grown by the IFA is Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Other conifers of importance are noble fir (Abies procera), grand fir, (Abies grandis), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata). These species are grown in areas of the Pacific Northwest primarily west of the Cascade mountains from the Canadian to the California borders.
All contractors belonging to IFA supply their own
Author: J. Peter Vermeulen
Understocks are potted well in advance of grafting time to permit good establishment. The recommended practice is to use dormant, sturdy, straight-stemmed seedlings between 1/8 and ¼ in. in diameter. They should have good fibrous roots. In some species these requirements will be found in a one-year (1–0) seedling but, most generally, a two-year (2–0) seedling is used. Occasionally, a 3
Author: Leonard Savella
The grafted plant is then placed in a poly chamber or grafting bench and buried with moist peat to above the union. Healing should be complete in 4 to 6
Author: Thomas L. McCloud
The knife used for budding is rounded on the end of the blade, which facilitates making the cuts. In contrast a grafting knife is straight to the end and comes to a sharp point. Budding knives may have a folding or stationary blade and usually some form of an attachment to help "lift" the bark if necessary after the cuts are made. This attachment can be a thin piece of bone attached to handle or an extra "bump" on the top of the blade. Whatever knife is chosen, it should be of good quality, light-weight and "feel good" in the hand of the user. A budding knife should be kept razor sharp at all times. A budder must take time to learn how to sharpen his knife properly. This will help to
Author: Francis R. Gouin
Approximately 10 to 20% of Norway maples (Acer platanoides) die as they approach 8 to 10 in. (20 to 25 cm) caliper from self-inflicted girdling roots. What causes these girdling
Author: D.K. Struve, R.D. Kelly, B.C. Moser
It has been estimated that as little as 2% of the soil volume originally exploited by a plant's root system is retained in standard balling and burlapping operations (20). Root systems are further disturbed when a plant is dug bareroot. Without the protective soil ball the roots, especially the small feeder roots most responsible for water and nutrient absorption, are easily desiccated and broken. It is essential that a plant rapidly regenerate
Author: Larry J. Kuhns
Weed Control Program. When planning production schedules, growers should include a weed control program. In the past, weed control was often treated like firefighting — the problem was attacked after it was started. But you can have much safer and effective weed control by developing a weed control program. A program includes three basic steps:
Step 1. Eliminate all weeds prior to planting. It is especially important to kill all perennial weeds because they are not controlled by preemergence herbicides, which are generally the safest.
Step 2. Prevent weed growth. There are now several preemergence herbicides labelled for use in conifer
Author: Lori Graunke, F.R. Gouin
Author: Art Vanderkruk
As I mentioned, we are not against the manufacture or the use of herbicides, but we are against the reckless use of chemicals. Many farms in our land are suffering from a shortage of earthworms and beneficial bacteria, the "living phase" of the soil, so vital to produce superior crops.
God did not intend for us to abuse the soil, rather we are to be good stewards of it. Future generations will also need to make a living from the land. I believe that the fewer chemicals we use
Author: Ray Brush
With the passage of the 1972 amendments to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, nurserymen began experiencing difficulties in obtaining the pesticides they needed to: 1) produce healthy vigorous plants, and 2) to meet state or federal quarantine certification requirements. Keep in mind that under the first need, you, like other segments of agriculture, are only interested in efficient control of the common pests so that your nursery plants are healthy, vigorous, and of a good quality that will readily sell. In contrast, under the second need, you have to maintain your plants completely free of some hazardous pests. These are specific pests not widely distributed in the United States. Historically, the nursery industry has
Author: Jerome L. Frecon
Author: David G. Adams
Native habitat: The natural range of this tree (1) is from southern New Mexico and Arizona through the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, eastern Idaho, and possibly southwestern Montana. The trees are usually found in or near stream beds particularly in the more arid areas of its range. It grows at elevations of 6000 to 9000 ft. in the north and 7000 to 10,000 ft. in the southern parts. Soils are often of calcareous nature with a pH of 6.8 to 7.2. As might be expected, mean annual temperatures have an extremely broad range.
Symptoms: Bud abortion symptoms differ
Author: Harold Pellett
The primary goal in improvement of landscape plant materials is to combine desirable aesthetic and utilitarian qualities with ability to tolerate environmental stresses. The most limiting environmental factor for landscape plants in much of the United States is cold winter temperatures. To incorporate tolerance to such low temperature, an understanding of the physiology and genetics involved is essential. Research has shown that, in simplified terms, cold acclimation is a two-stage sequence, with photoperiod the initial stimulus triggering various metabolic events leading to cold
Author: Ruth Kvaalen
Once safely at home, you try to determine the identity of the mystery plant by using keys in books such as Rehder's Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs, but your specimens just do not fit the keys or descriptions. Having exhausted your own resources to identify the plant, you send it to a taxonomist at a local
Author: Jack Alexander, Gary Koller
DARREL APPS: The Pennsykvania Horticultural Society established the J. Franklin Styer Award in 1980. Its purpose is to promote the recognition and dissemination of woody ornamental plants of outstanding graden merit. However, award is made to the plant and not the introducer. Entries must be received December 1 for examination in February of the next year. Application forms are available from:J. Franklin Styer Award
Pennsylvania Horticultural Society
325 Walnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106
For further information call 215-625-8250
The award is given in two stages:
The first stage is the Certificate of Preliminary Commendation. A group of horticulturists and landscape architects reviews entries each February. The committee makes its selections on the basis of slides and written descriptions.
Author: John McGuire
He first entered the world of horticulture at the age of 13 as an apprentice in a market garden. He continued to work as an apprentice at estates and gardens for 5 years when he went to a large nursery. He was now near a large city (Copenhagen) where he had the opportunity to go to school at night while working during the day. This was the first time he was exposed to plant breeding which would eventually become his profession. It was also here where he met a young lady who would eventually be his wife.
He began to think about coming to America and 1922 he got the opportunity. His lady friend was not as enthusiastic about moving as he was
Author: J.S. Coartney
Significant changes in plastics and their diverse uses have occurred in the past 10 years. The new greenhouse coverings, which include UV inhibitors, have greatly extended the life of greenhouse coverings. Milky opaque plastics have greatly simplified winter protection of container-grown stock and now show promise in providing an ideal environment for winter propagation. Plastics are now available that include reflective surfaces to control light intensity; others include mesh, structure for increased strength; some are
Author: Sidney Waxman
Author: Craig R. Adkins
Author: Ralph Shugert, Joerg Leiss
Author: William R. Studebaker
I would like, first of all, to share with you where our firm is today in relation to computers — where we are headed and why — as an example of another nursery to whom you can relate.
Studebaker Nurseries has had a Basic Four Model 600 for about 7 years. (We upgraded from a Model 400 and increased capacity during that period.) It has 48 KB of memory and 20 MB on-line disc storage and currently operates 4 terminals. It has served us well, but:
- Technology in computers has greatly improved over this period of time.
- The older hardware and dust in our environment causes too much downtime. We need to expand our capacity for on-line storage and for processing time
Author: D. Burke McNeill
Also, in the past, I believe that life was simpler, most nurseries were off by themselves, or they were on city water and most water supplies were naturally clean. Many often used cisterns to collect rainwater which was, in those days, considered to be as clean as you could get. However, today with urbanization, industrialization, extensive use of herbicides, shortages of water in some areas, and increased costs of city water, propagators need alternate sources such as ponds and wells for water supply. Therefore, concern for good quality water for use in propagation has become increasingly important.
Acid rain, herbicide runoff, algae control, mineral content, etc. are all factors that have to be considered when using natural, untreated
Author: Barbara M. Hupp
In the early days of Christmas tree farming, in the early 1960's, growers began to see a marked difference among trees with seed origin from different geographic areas.
This prompted provenance tests using the most popular Christmas tree species, namely Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Douglas-fir), Abies procera (noble fir), Abies grandis (grand fir), Abies magnifica var. shastensis (Shasta fir), Pinus contorta (shore pine), and Pinus nigra (Austrian pine).
These provenance tests were laid out, managed, and evaluated by member growers of the Northwest Christmas Tree Association, in conjunction with Oregon State University, United States Forest Service, Oregon State Department of Forestry, and Washington State Department of Natural Resources.
These provenance tests were established from northern Washington to southern Oregon to give a wide
Author: Claude Richer Leclerc, Calvin Chong
Author: Michael A. Dirr
This study compared the relative effectiveness of Dip 'N Grow, Wood's and Hormodin #2 against the pure chemicals using Photinia × fraseri is
Author: David Byers
Found originally in China, Lagerstroemia was named by Linnaeus in 1759 to honor his friend, Magnus von Lagerstroem, a naturalist who was a director of the Swedish East Indies Company. Late in the 18th century, crape myrtle was brought to this country, and George Washington was an early admirer and collector.
Many, many selections have been made throughout the years. The ones described herein are favorites that we have grown and seen flourish across the southern U.S. for years. This information is based on observations and is not the result of scholarly work or well-designed experimentation. Because crape myrtle is subject to problems of
Author: Gary Fraser
Weed control. After a block daylilies is planted, I use a rolling cultivator to plow up a 3– to 4-in. wedge on the drill. I then apply the herbicide Lasso 4 EC (alachlor) over the entire bed and middle at the rate of 2 gal./A Lasso 4 EC (8 lbs. a.i./A), using 85 gal./A of water. In Florida, Monsanto recommends post-emergence application of this chemical because of our sandy soil composition. We repeat this spraying every 65 days. This
Author: Gary Adams
Prunus laurocerasus is a medium-fast grower capable of attaining 10 ft. in 5 to 6 years under favorable conditions. It is hardy to Zone 6. This species and its cultivars are shade tolerant and withstand pruning quite well. They are relatively easy to transplant balled and
Author: Don Shadow
Grafting of Japanese maples begins in early January. The well-established understock is allowed to go
Author: James Whaley
Author: Keith R. Guthrie
In container production, the standard practice has been to add a certain quantity of lime to the mix, either for pH adjustment, or to supply calcium and magnesium, or for both reasons. There are a number of products available to growers that will fill the need when a lime source is desired (10).
It is my intention to focus on several sources of lime, the merits and disadvantages of each, and also to present some of the findings from an O.M. Scott and Sons research project this past spring.
It is important to know what calcium and magnesium are and what they do for the plant. The element calcium is required for active cell division, formation of cell walls, transport of carbohydrates and amino acids, and formation of roots.
A deficiency of calcium results in a stunted plant and restricted leaves. Some plants show
Author: Fred T. Davies Jr
Author: V.P. Bonaminio
Author: Dick Tuefel
This new medium is made from wheat straw that is resin-impregnated in a special treatment process. Treatment of the straw is necessary because straw normally decomposes rapidly, and requires large amounts of nitrogen when it does. It also shrinks rapidly and is full of seeds.
The treatment process is as follows:
- Bales of straw are placed in a tub grinder which rotates and feeds the straw to a hammer mill.
- The straw is then conveyed to a mixing auger where the first set of chemicals are injected.
- This mixture is then augured to the next machine where the second set of chemicals is sprayed on the straw. It is then augured to the cube dies where it is extruded into blocks. The extreme pressure of this extrusion process forces the chemicals into the
Author: Timothy F. Press
Author: Malcolm James
We operate with three full-time workers — Malcolm and Edward James, and Malcolm's son, Jonathan. Other family members work when needed. We hire six high school students for approximately 7 weeks in May and June, when time is of the utmost importance in order to have all our cuttings in by July 1, after which the rooting response is not as good.
We have been asked what is the most important part of liner production. The correct answer would be, "All of them." You must begin with a good stock plant, for you cannot produce a good liner from weak or diseased stock. On the other hand, if you have the best cuttings available but fail to furnish a good rooting medium or watering program, you will still have a failure.
Author: Brian A. Nelson
Propagation. Pieris japonica can be successfully propagated seed and by cuttings. Seed can be collected as soon as it is ripe. The seed is sown in flats of peat from late summer through early spring.
We propagate Pieris japonica from softwood and
Author: Shivu I. Patel
The opinion, comments, remarks, suggestions or criticisms offered or most encountered problems within this article should be useful to plant propagators and nurserymen throughout southeastern United States. It may bring or provide to the average nurserymen information and practical propagation knowledge of plants used in landscaping in our subtropical parts and provide a guideline in the choice of plants that do well in the warmer regions of the state of Florida.
- Acacia auriculiformis, Leguminosae. Earleaf acacia is native to Australia. Best adapted to cool, sub-tropical,
Author: Bill Reese
We get most of our cuttings from our landscape scheme as well as from our inventory of container material.
The trays we use are approximately 12 in. × 18 in. and we use a 40-cell insert made by Growing Systems. We get approximately 5-yr. use from the tray and 3-yr use from the insert.
Our soil is mixed for us locally and consists of 4 parts native peat, 3 parts composted pine bark, 3 parts Soilite (expanded rock 1/8 in. max.) with 3 lbs dolomite per yd3 and ¾ lb Micromax/yd3.
We built a fumigation chamber approximately 8 × 16 × 4 ft and use methyl bromide at the rate of 4 1-lb cans per chamber per treatment. We apply Osmocote (18–6–12) 9-month formula as a top dressing prior to sticking cuttings.
The structures used at Greenbriar Nurseries
Author: Richard W. Henly, William H. Bodnaruk Jr, Robert Mellen Jr, Dewa
Author: Jerry L. Wetherington
Author: Ted Springer
Author: Bill Daughtry
Chlorine compounds have been used for the disinfection of water for 100 years, but how it works is still not fully understood. We chose the injection of Cl2 gas as our method of chlorination.
The element chlorine exists as a gas at room temperature. It has a characteristic pungent odor, which can be detected at extremely low concentrations. It is greenish-yellow in color, 2 ½ times as heavy as air, and will seek the lowest point in the
Author: D.L. Morgan, P.F. Colbaugh
Author: Hugo C. Wildschut
I am basically a nurseryman and I want to have a smooth, efficient controlled nursery operation. My major problem was finding a reliable system for watering and heating my nursery beds. Having a fair background in electronics, I turned to this field to solve my problem and I feel that it has been nicely accomplished.
Mention, the word COMPUTER and a lot of people seem to get nervous. "Computerphobia" it is called. Accompanied by comments such as — "too complex" — "too expensive" — "too everything" —. Nonsense. If you can tie your shoes or drive a tractor, you can operate a computer.
A computer and a shovel had one thing in common. Initially they both need you at one end to start working. However, unlike a shovel, you can walk away from a computer and it will keep on working until you tell it to stop. The computer itself has no intelligence, no mind of its own; it is simply an electronic tool, serving a real purpose by following your instructions to the letter, instructions you give it called PROGRAMMING.
Author: Eugene H. Moody Sr
A sound sanitation program must be an integral part of all production practices. This becomes apparent when requirements for plant disease development are understood, i.e. (1) the presence of a pathogen; (2) the presence of a particular, susceptible host; and (3) a proper environment. A pathogen is either a fungus, bacteria, virus, mycoplasma-like organism, or nematodes. Any one of these particular disease-causing entities causes a particular disease on a particular plant under certain conditions. The host plant, the one you grow to
Author: Jaime E. Lazarte
At P.R.I., Inc. our main emphasis is on quality and our present objectives are:
- To produce herbaceous and woody plants through tissue culture. At present all production work is pre-contracted.
- To research for procedures and better production systems to propagate plants via tissue culture. This research is either contracted or of our own interest.
- To offer consulting services in plant propagation and production, especially in the field of tissue culture.
A field of major concern to us is woody plant tissue
Author: John L. Griffis Jr, Gary Hennen, Raymond P. Oglesby
Because of our
Author: William M. Brailsford
Around 20 years ago we realized people deserved better than seedling-grown magnolias. We were also interested in broadening the usefulness of Magnolia grandiflora by selecting clones with different architectural shapes and textures. Consequently, through the years we have developed six Magnolia grandiflora selections with distinctly different architectural characteristics. The names of the selections are ‘Claudia Wannamaker’, ‘Margaret Davis’, ‘Hasse’, ‘Shade Grove #4’, ‘#5’, and ‘#6’. All of them have dark, glossy green
Author: Tim Gwaltney
- Nandina domestica ‘Purpurea’ (N. domestica ‘Nana Purea’)
- Nandina domestica ‘Harbour Dwarf’
We began producing ‘Nana Purpurea’ by cuttings in 1978 from our first batch of purchased plants. ‘Harbour Dwarf’ was started from purchased plants in 1980.
Dwarf nandina cultivars are high-value crops that are relatively easy to propagate if correct conditions can be met and if a large supply of stock plants is available. This latter factor accounts for the difficulty of getting large production numbers in a fairly short time. Generally, on a young plant only one or two cuttings are available at any one time, with the ‘Harbour Dwarf’ at this stage producing the fewest cuttings.
As the stock plants become older and cuttings are made repeatedly, the number of breaks
Author: Tom Couturier
FRED GARRETT: We have heard recommendations of from 8 to 15 lbs lime/yd for a 3:1 bark:sand mix. This is certainly a wide range. What crops are we growing?
BRYSON JAMES: Carol Whitcomb says pH is not important as long as we have the correct Ca and Mg levels. It is more important in the field as field soil contains aluminum that can be toxic in very acid soils. The 8 to 20-lb range is all right for all but the ericaceaous plants. Two other factors that affect the rate are the quality of the lime and the quality of the water supply. We often do not identify either. The only way to know is keep records of growth and growth responses, then monitor with soil and tissue analysis.
CARL WHITCOMB: Our water contains 40 ppm Ca. During the 6-month growing season we add 110 in. water per 6-in. container. This gives an excess of 10 times the amount of Ca that would be provided if we put in 8 lb of lime. It would be necessary
Author: Phil Parvin
Author: W.M. Proebsting
Author: Irene Burden
Our first jig was a backless box or rectangle made of 1×12 in. rough planks and stood on end. Cleats were nailed on the interior of the sides on which to set flats. The inside dimensions were the width of the flats, by about 5½ ft tall. The bottom board was 3½ ft long. One side had a clasp fastener at the top and was hinged at the bottom so that it could be opened and laid down. We would set the flats into this rectangle like so many shelves, with the heavy end boards exposed on the front and back sides. Then we would take four narrow boards and nail them two to each end of the shelved up flats. When this was completed the side of the frame was opened and the rack of flats was lifted out. There was then one diagonal strip nailed to one end of the flats and another diagonal strip to one side to hold the rack rigid. We had two of these frames, one with closely spaced cleats and the other
Author: Wilbur L. Bluhm, John Burt
Author: John, Geri Mitsch
In our main propagation greenhouse, the heated soil block is 14,000 sq. ft. with an unheated 15 to 20 ft. perimeter to reduce heat loss to the outside.
We use a low temperature (80° to 90°F) system. Water is circulated in the beds through ½ in. PVC pipe placed approximately 4 in. apart and buried 1 to 2 in. beneath the surface.
In order to distribute the heat evenly, we plumbed the system to force the water to travel the same distance for all the beds, whether it be the first bed or the farthest one at the end of the house.
Beds are plumbed in sets of two. The warm input line feeds each set through the manifold of this first bed, and the water is returned
Author: Lance Lyon
After much trial and some error we have developed a method of propagation which works well for us. We now use a McConkey pot which is 2¼ in. square by 5 in. deep. We can put 49 of these in a 17 in.
Author: Paul L. Monette
Author: Timothy F. Press
Description of Fog system. There are many methods of atomization, but very few are suitable for use in
Author: Craig W. Shinn
Rooting success of western hemlock cuttings has been reported from zero to near 100%. Sorenson and Campbell (5) reported 75% rooting using one-year old seedlings as donors. Rooting from juvenile donor plants (before onset of flowering) has been reported at 68% by Foster, et al. (3) and up to 95% by Boyd (1). Brix and Barker (2) found cuttings from mature (42 to 150 year old) donors to root at 43%. Foster, et al. (3) found cuttings from mature donors to root at
Author: Ellen Sutter, Philip Barker
When sweetgum is grown from seedlings, the trees exhibit great variability in form and color. It also has an invasive root system that necessitates extensive and costly sidewalk repairs. Finally, grafting clonal scions onto seedling rootstocks as a means of overcoming variability is an expensive procedure, and results in higher costs for the growers, and consequently for the consumer.
Considering the popularity of sweetgum, it would be desirable to obtain superior selections and propagate them clonally. However, sweetgum cuttings do not root easily (1) and thus must be produced by budding to maintain
Author: Barrie Coate
Since this species had proven to be comparatively resistant to Acacia psyllid, Psylla uncatoides Ferris & Klyver in these tests and the species has so many attractive characteristics, it was decided to attempt vegetative propagation of these especially attractive individuals.
Author: Roy L. Taylor
Author: Reggie Hunter
The medium, for one cu yd of mix, consists of 1/3; each of peat moss, pumice, and sawdust. To this is added 6 lb of Osmocote 18-6-12 and 1 lb of Micromax (do not use Micromax Plus). In order to keep the Osmocote inactive, we do not add water to the medium at this time. We use cell packs in 17 in. square flats rather than loose pots. The reason — time and space. The cell packs used are either 90 or 64 cells per flat. This same flat would hold only 49 2¼ in. pots. We purchase the cell pack sheets without perforations so that they do not fall apart with only one use. Two cell sizes are used to accommodate the material to be rooted. The
Author: Randall W. Burr
Lab Construction and Operation. Our physical building is of a modular construction and built within a large open warehouse of 3,500 sq ft. The present lab size is 1,400 sq ft but is now being expanded.
Author: Edward W. Schultz
Ask any propagator the proper time to take cuttings of a given species. He will say, "take your cuttings in November, April, or July and you can expect 100% rooting".
My personal experiences keep me from making any calendar predictions on timing. Weather patterns change from year to year. Erratic results arise from various cultural practices. Stock plants grown in a greenhouse, a shadehouse or outdoors, irrigated or non-irrigated, well-fertilized, or starved will lead to different responses.
Since each of these factors can change rooting from 0 to 100% and interact with the time taken, it is not a surprise to find some dogmatic conclusions that cannot be verified by repeated trials.
My first experience in timing in the taking of camellia cuttings occurred in 1951. The nursery owner would check the maturity of the wood by using the snap
Author: Wilbur C. Anderson
Author: Michael A. Anderson, Allan E. Elliott
The reasons for propagating apple understocks through this process are: 1) difficulty of other means of production (hardwood or softwood cuttings); 2) its adaptability to mechanization; 3) high quality of the liner produced; 4) relative low cost of production; and 5) ease of maintenance and inclusion into the work calendar.
Understocks currently in production at Carlton Nursery include Malling-Merton 106 and 111 (MM106 and MM111) and, East Malling 7A and 26 (EM 7A
Author: P.B. Scholefield
Author: S.C. Brown, B.G. Coombe, G.B. Gotley, C.L. Bennett, I.S. Tolley
Author: Vic Fines
We propagate from plants at least 12 months old, preferably grown in very deep pots or well managed soil so as to allow maximum development of the rhizome. An application of Nemacur is given as protection against nematodes at planting.
The plants are removed from their garden beds or containers and washed free of all soil. They are placed on a wooden block and with a sharp knife 90% of the rhizome is cut off.
The leafy portion of the plants, with a small portion of the rhizomes and a few roots left on, are deeply planted in a suitable soil mix and watered in with a 1.5 ml/litre of Previcur and water solution. Then they are kept in humid conditions for 3 weeks and set out
Author: Debora H. Law
Author: Peter B. Smith
Historical records indicate citrus culture began in China about 4,000 years ago and was widespread by the Qin and Han periods, (221 BC to 220 AD). Changsha, the capital of Hunan Province, is the site of an archaeological find of great importance to the citrus world. Seeds of a citrus species were unearthed in a 2,100 year old tomb.
Citrus research was accelerated after the establishment of the Peoples Republic of China in 1949. However the cultural revolution of the 1970's was responsible for the destruction of vast areas of citrus orchards as citrus was then regarded as a revisionist fruit.
The census figures of 1980 show that China had 180,000 hectares of citrus planted of which 67,000 hectares was bearing. Production reached 797,000 tonnes in 1981. The production per hectare figure of
Author: T. Trochoulias, G.W. Griffith, and N.G. Smith
Author: Adrian Hicks
My method is to peel off 8 to 12 leaves from the centre of the head, leaving 10 to 12 leaves below the bared stem section. This leaves a nice, bushy head with mature wide leaves. This is left alone for several weeks until the bark has hardened like the mature wood on the bottom.
The heads are then cut off with a small saw and 5 or 6 are placed in a bucket with a small layer of sphagnum moss for 24 hours until the sap has dried out. The leaves are watered a couple of times to stop dehydration.
The heads are then planted in double washed river sand in a 1 or 2-gal bucket. After 5 to 6 weeks in a bush-house
Author: Graham Parr
Golden robinia is grafted onto seedlings of Robinia pseudoacacia (black robinia). As most deciduous tree grafting is done during winter I, at first, did mine at this time. However, I noticed my understock was large enough to graft by mid-summer (December). I knew this was a good time for budding so why not grafting? I tried grafting some tress as an experiment and was amazed by the good results.
I do my grafting in pots which are 85 mm in diameter and 150 mm deep. This gives good soil volume and allows a large number of pots per square metre. Handling is kept to a minimum by using pallets that are 1.24 m by 1.33 m and hold 263 pots.
Preparation of Understock. From 3 to 8 seeds are sown directly in each pot in a polyhouse in
Author: K. Holmes
The soil should be a light loam in texture, rich in the essential nutrients, and worked to a fine state by rotary hoeing. It should be sterilized with methyl bromide or some other method, be raked as evenly as possible and should be in a moist state.
The wooden drill-making implement (Figure 1) is pressed into the loose soil surface firmly and when removed will leave seven (7) drills approximately 10mm deep. The bed is now ready to plant.
Author: C. Ritchie Bell
With literally millions of species of plants and animals now known to science, one might think that all biological diversity would have been accounted for and that taxonomist would have long ago closed up shop. Quite the contrary. With new analytical tools, new advances in genetic correlation, and new pressures on the few undeveloped portions of the world that still contain many undescribed species, taxonomists still have work to do.
The title of my paper suggests the question I wish to address: "What role
Author: Gayle R.L. Suttle
Our facility consists of a 1600 sq. ft. building divided into 4 separate areas: an outer office and storage area; a media preparation room complete with an autoclave, water purification system, pH meter, weighing machines and dishwasher; a transfer room with three laminar flow hoods, where all sterile sub-culturing takes place; and a culture room with
Author: R.J. Worrall
When properly adjusted and maintained all the units provided a constant moisture film over the test plants. There was no significant difference in rooting among plants on beds controlled by the various units. The most obvious difference among the units was the level of maintenance and the re-adjusting of required settings. Once installed and calibrated the light sensor and the relative humidity controllers required no further attention for the duration of the trial (6 weeks).
Author: Ian Gordon
Much of the routine work of plant propagation is repetitive and predictable and can be carried out by relatively unskilled nursery personnel. Many of the routine operations involved in plant propagation can be performed easily by mechanical aids. The role of the plant propagator is becoming increasingly advisory and supervisory in the selection of propagation techniques, appropriate materials, facilities and equipment.
The objective of mechanisation is to increase the efficiency of the operation by improving the efficiency of staff and by making their job easier (3). Rarely does the introduction of machinery eliminate manpower; the integration of man and
Author: Andrew J. Walker
Author: Penelope A. Rose
The propagator needs records not just to prove a technique does or does not work but to compare techniques. In a time when making a profit is essential for survival it is enormously important to know exactly which plants are being produced economically, which techniques give the best results, and which operators are the most efficient.
What records are needed. The records needed are determined by the type of information required. Before collecting information, it is essential to ensure that it will be used.
Consider some of the questions which may be asked of the propagator and for which he may
Author: Tim Trochoulias, Andrew J. Burton
Author: Patricia D. Raward
This showy creeper has been largely unavailable to the home gardener because its poor strike rate by conventional cutting propagation makes it non-viable as a commercial crop. With hydroculture as an alternative propagation method, the nurseryman can grow this beautiful plant economically and reap the benefits from a most desirable and rewarding crop.
The methods described in this paper are the results of trials carried out over a three year period. Many of the methods were duplicated in various standard propagation media; however, because of the extremely poor results in these media, the last year's work has been devoted entirely to
Author: Adrian Bowden
- Read any available literature on the herbicide, noting such things as frequency of application.
- Pay particular attention to the climatic factors in the data.
- Pay particular attention to the soil mix being used in obtaining the data.
- Frequency of irrigation needs to be noted also.
- Having done all that, see if the literature deals with any of the plants you are growing.
- Before embarking on large scale treatments do small trials with all plants and sizes then assess the results.
Weed control in a wide range of tube stock can be accomplished if raised benches are used, with windbreaks around holding areas, and with the headland and underbench areas sprayed with Tryquat or Roundup.
Tryquat is non-residual, very toxic to the operator, but very effective on any germinated weed seedlings, causing death within 48 hours except to such weeds as couch, paspalum, and Cyperus which will regrow.
Author: Ben Swane
Each palm tree forms an orchard square, approximately 8 metres by 8 metres, a small mound surrounds each square and holds the water for both palms and green crops. This water is drained off to the next square and the process of irrigation continues.
Over the last 10 to 15 years a great demand has developed for propagation resources which do not exist as we know them.
Seed production of eucalyptus, casuarina, and other Australian native plants is now well established. Other trees and shrubs are also produced from seed under these
Author: Elizabeth Metcalfe
Environmental and climatic conditions are important factors to note and control when deflasking tissue cultures. The jars come from the air conditioned laboratory with a constant temperature of 26°C and a high humidity.
To prevent desiccation during deflasking the plants are handled quickly and are placed in a humid tent as soon as possible. A fungicide, such as Zineb, is used as a soil drench and also as a plant wash. This is a preventive procedure that guards against fungal attack. The use of University of California mixes also helps prevent soil-borne fungi attacking the tender growth. The most commonly used U.C. mix is of 75% peat, 25% sand and a small amount of slow-release micronutrient.
Author: Roger Peate
Quickstick International self-adhesive labels peeled off a backing sheet were used successfully. These are available from most news agents in a range of sizes. The most suitable size was 50 × 13 mm and these were available in sheets of 20 for about $3.20 per thousand. While we needed them to last for a week or two, by which time the plants would be self-supporting, the labels retained their effectiveness for many months.
There were no savings in either material or labour costs as compared to other staking methods. This was because staff had difficulty detaching labels from the backing sheet. This required two hands at a most inconvenient stage of the staking operation. If growers got together to order
Author: Richard Bush
In the next step, we use a small ½ in. wide camel hair brush to apply an auxin over the entire cut areas. We use Wood's Rooting Compound 1/10 strength, which is 5,000 ppm IBA and 2,500 ppm IAA. Now a "Twistem" is securely tied just below the base of the cut (this will girdle the rootstock as it grows). "Twistems" are small steel wires covered with paper.
Next, we transplant the rootstock into a pot 3 in. taller but with the dimensions as the above described pot.
Author: Ian Tolley
- Get your test mix to average field capacity. If necessary add water to do this.
- Use two 200 mm (8 in) pots. Put them together but separated by a thin plastic (0.002 in) film.
- Fill the inner pot to normal height and density with the trial mix.
- Add water by measure to the point where free water just shows above the mix (i.e. saturation point). A small depression in the mix will make it easier to determine when this point is reached.
- Separate the two pots carefully and collect the drainage water in a bucket — this should take only 2 to 3 minutes until the pot is dripping slowly. The medium is then at field capacity.
- Express the water added to the water drained as a percentage — e.g. 2 litres (applied) = 100% of air space
1 litre (drained) = ×
i.e. there would be 50% air space.
- Parameters. For most plants, except ferns or water plants, the average mix should have not less
Author: Tom Wood
Certain members have always known of the great potential and resources of the botanic gardens; however, thoughts were crystallized, appetites whetted and action motivated by the Southeast G.B.&I. Area on a one-day visit to Kew Gardens near London last summer. For many, much of the in-depth work being undertaken was seen at first hand for the first time. The role of the micropropagation unit and its potential as an aid to plant conservation on the one hand, and the rapid bulking of new introductions was just one aspect illustrating the potential of an informed botanical garden (one must admit that here avarice crept into the discussion and could have rapidly taken over). However, I contend that IPPS
Author: A. Bruce Macdonald
Author: A.D. Schilling
It would be tempting also to give wide attention to the many other national collections which our islands hold, such as the many National Trust properties, the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, plus its three annex gardens and the various arboreta managed by the Forestry Commission (Westonbirt, Bedgebury, etc.)
The mother station, Kew Gardens, by the banks of the Thames at Richmond near London is world renowned, covers 300 acres and has a long and fascinating history. Much of that history is related directly to the subject of commercial exploitation of plants.
Kew's annex garden (Wakehurst Place, Ardingly, Sussex) is almost 500 acres in extent, and within its 14 mile boundary it nurses a very rich and varied collection of temperate plants with accent
Author: Don Gilbert
While we might agree that disorders such as Black Spot of roses (Diplocarpon rosae), Leaf Blotch of chestnut (Guignardia aesculi), and Leaf Spot of willow (Marssonina spp.) should be easily recognised by horticulturists, I feel that this generalisation is incorrect and misleading. Advisory experience has taught me that the services of a mycologist is required to obtain a correct identification of leaf spot disorders.
Leaf spot of willow, for example, may be caused not only by Marssonina spp. but also by Ascochyta, Cercospora, Cylindrosporium, Phyllosticta, Ramularia, Septoria, and other fungi. There are more than 100 species of Cercospora. Regular control measures should not be considered until identification of the disorder is certain.
Author: Margaret A. Scott
Camellias form a specialist line of work in the experimental programme at Efford, particularly in relation to developing an accelerated production schedule for well branched, budded plants in 2 to 2½ years. However, all camellia trials came to an abrupt halt in 1977 due to the loss of a large proportion of the young plants which developed a progressively worsening leaf drop and subsequently died. The problem was not initially associated with disease as the early symptoms of leaf scorch on the young foliage was similar to that observed when levels of nutrition were excessive, or sun scorch from water splashes, and no fungal bodies could be found on the damaged tissue. The problem persisted and intensive work by pathologists eventually identified the cause as fungal. The organism was originally thought to be Pestalotiopsis guepini, but more recently has been identified as a closely related species, Monochaetia karstenii, which was considered only weakly pathogenic, capable of
Author: John A. Wott
Traditional horticulture, being a part of agriculture, has developed systems whereby we can study and/or produce uniform plants of a single cultivar in large numbers within defined and controlled environments. These systems provide the consumer with plants of similar size, flowers, and harvest time. They are ideal for the massive uses intended.
However, each urban garden is different. An urban garden contains plants grown
Author: Elton M. Smith
Author: Christine Maunder
The systems used were:Japanese Paper Pot — paper containers in an expandable honeycomb form.
Vaca 40 — plastic tray insert with 40 sections.
A.P. 40 — polystyrene tray with 40 sections.
Speedling — polystyrene tray with wedge shaped cells.
Jiffy 7's — compressed peat blocks.
Rockwool — preformed into a seed tray with 45 rockwool blocks.
Control — standard seed tray.
Comparative costings of the systems were carried out in relation to the following points:
- The initial cost of the system.
- The number of cuttings per square metre.
- Efficiency of handling.
- Speed and percentage of rooting.
- The growth pattern and response of plant material when subsequently potted off.
Propagation material selected included difficult, moderate, and easy-to-root subjects.
Author: Bruce A. Briggs, Steven M. McCulloch
As pointed out by others (14), the microculture of woody plants is not a new development. In fact, in 1940, Gautheret (5,6) and Nobecourt independently of each other, using the newly discovered auxins, cultured cambial tissue of trees. Later, Jacquiot (7) conducted additional research on bud differentiation from cambial explants of several trees. In California, Ernest Ball (2), working with Sequoia, studied the differentiation of
Author: Verl L. Holden
The most primitive method of propagating a desirable cultivar is simple division. Corylus avellana is prone to produce shoots from the base of the tree or root crown. These shoots, commonly called suckers, sometimes arise from below ground level and root naturally. The naturally rooted sucker is then simply cut from the mother tree and planted in the desired location.
Author: David Pennell
Since the early 1960's the range of plants which can be successfully micropropagated has increased enormously. While much of the initial activity was centred upon flower and pot plant crops, over the last 10 years there has been more effort directed towards woody plants. Commercial enterprises have been established throughout the world to propagate plants by this technique either in specialist laboratories or on existing nurseries.
Author: David Miller
H.J. Welch in his book, "Mist Propagation and Automatic Watering," discusses the weaning problem thus, "I must confess to being skeptical about there being, in fact, any such thing. Even the term "weaning" seems to be singularly inappropriate, the allusion to an infant being gradually taught to accept solid food instead of milk bearing no real connection with what is happening to the rooted cutting.
To a certain extent I think Welch's skepticism justifiable where more traditional propagation is concerned. But I do see some relevance in the case of tissue propagation. "Plants" in culture are incubated in a growth room, where temperature and light levels are closely controlled. Nutrients are provided in the culture medium and a high level of hygiene minimises the risks from injurious
Author: Graham Shillabeer
Plants received from the laboratory must be in first class condition, free from infection, all clean with a good root system of even size and ideally be kept in a cool room for two days prior to potting into soil.
Compost should be nice and open — a fairly coarse peat containing sand and grit, or alternatively, 40% perlite. I have been very pleased with roses grown in a compost containing Enmag.
It is essential that compost be well soaked prior to pricking off plants. Two days prior to planting we drench the compost with Cryptonol at 12 fl. oz in 25 gal. water.
Author: Barry Lockwood
Subsequently, in May, 1982 our Vice-President, Michael Dunnett, devised and sent out a questionnaire to selected members of the Society on the subject of "Propagation of Soft and Semi-ripe Cuttings". The instructions were, "to select any one week between 1st June and 30th October 1982, and record the number of cuttings which you take and insert during this period".
A recording sheet was provided for the relevant information, together with the questionnaire to be completed. Eighteen nurseries responded.
Author: Douglas Anderson
To complete the I.P.P.S. questionnaire we recorded cuttings prepared and inserted during the third week in June, as shown in Table 1. These were all softwood cuttings of deciduous shrubs such as Buddleia, Chaenomeles, Fuchsia, etc. Twenty percent were inserted in paper pots, the remainder directly in trays.
Author: Thomas J. Campbell
To ensure that we all have the same understanding, my definition of "work rates" and "standard rates" are:
Work rate — is an assessment of the effective speed over a short time period and takes no account of rest time or other factors,
Standard rate — is the average rate at which qualified workers will naturally work at a job, provided they know and adhere to the specified method, and provided they are motivated to apply themselves to their work.
In the context of our work in the Agricultural Training Board, I prefer to speak of achievable standards of performance and would ask you to bear in mind that such achievable and consistent standards can only be attained by effective work planning and skills training.
Author: Andre Briant
The cutting material is collected from the stock plants each morning while it is still cool. Then it is kept in cold storage until the cuttings are made (never more than 2 days). All the cuttings are made with secateurs. The speed depends on the worker, of course, but mainly on the species, and it can vary from 200 to 500 per hour. Cuttings are dipped in hormones; we use IBA at concentrations between 1 and 5 parts per 1000.
Polythene tunnels are used for propagation. These are 8 metres wide and 30 metres long, double skinned with windows for ventilation. They are whitened for protection against the sun; we do not use any other shading system. The cuttings are stuck either in frames or in multipots. In both cases the compost used is a 50/50 mixture of peat and sand.
During the first three weeks humidity is kept as high as possible (around 97%) either with mist, with "Humid
Author: Nigel John Timpson
We specialise in liner production and are, therefore, able to give the attention to detail that is required to enable us to successfully propagate difficult plants. Our policy has always been to concentrate on propagating plants which other people find difficult, or which are in demand for some other reasons — perhaps there is a shortage of suitable stock material for propagation. Growing difficult plants has stood us in good stead in years when orders have been difficult to come by.
Author: Charles H. Parkerson
The basic system of direct rooting and procedures for handling cuttings is explained in detail by Sidney B Meadows (1) in a paper presented to the IPPS Southern Region in 1981.
Usually cuttings are made during the summer months using multiple cuttings per pot. Nicely-rooted liners are ready in September and on occasion we get a fall flush of growth. Liners are overwintered in unheated poly-houses until March, at which time unit heaters are installed to protect the new spring flush of growth. Planting into #2 or #3 cans starts after the first full moon in April, which is traditionally the last frost date in our area. Plants are grown can-tight for one year, then spaced and marketed beginning in June until they are all sold.
We observed on many occasions that plants
Author: Derek C. Attenburrow
Author: John Russell Strametz
In August 1981 the first large scale hot callusing pipe was constructed with 1,200 feet of 2 in. PVC pipe and 9,600 ½ in. and 5/8 in. slots cut perpendicular to the pipe. Three slots were cut at one time by clamping three pipes together, and with the use of a radial arm saw containing a variable width dato blade, the slots were uniformly notched.
The heat source for this system is circulating hot water through a ½ in. PVC pipe inside the 2 in. slotted pipe. This is accomplished by using a closed system consisting of
Author: Anton Thomsen
In 1967 we built two aluminum greenhouses 20 × 61 m to rationalise production of liners. Half of one house was equipped with mist propagation, the remainder of the glass-house area was used for winter potting of rooted cuttings. This was to produce better liners and make good use of labour in the winter. Today we have four greenhouses of this size, using one for propagation and the others for potted liners.
Our present production of liners is outlined. From July to October Juniperus, Chamaecyparis, some Thuja and Berberis, Euonymus fortunei, Skimmia, and Ilex cuttings are stuck in flats, using a medium of
Author: Nicholas D. Dunn
To enable us to stick to such a tight schedule we, firstly, needed machinery and the capacity to store trees
Author: Andrew Eames
Good results have been obtained using Rosa rugosa, R. multiflora ‘Dornloos’, R. m. ‘De La Grifferaie’, and R. ‘G278’, an unnamed John Innes seedling, which has produced the best stems so far. R. canina selections have been rather disappointing. ‘G278’ is a very vigorous, upright shrub, and the stems are straight and almost thornless although cuttings do not root readily. The stem continues to thicken as the plant gets older.
Ordinary bush rootstocks are
Author: W.-U.v. Hentig
For some years efforts of both Societies to intensify contacts by means of mutual information and cooperation have increased. For instance, there were discussions on this in November, 1981, between Mr. Raymond Evison, then International President of the IPPS and the author, who was at that time Chairman of the Section "Ornamental Plants" of the ISHS. Leaders of both Societies met at the 21st International Horticultural Congress of the ISHS in Hamburg at the end of August, 1982. Friendly and constructive talks concluded in agreements, which include future regular exchange of information, and the possibility of
Author: Keith Loach
Author: T. O'Flaherty, J.C. Kelly
The design data, on which this matching is based, is confidential to the manufacturers. The important practical feature of the system's operations is that the desired heat output can be delivered to the hawser while keeping it at so low a voltage that no electrical insulation of the hawser is necessary. Even when laid in a damp medium such as moist sand any leakage currents which occur in
Author: Hannah Lilien-Kipnis
The Mishna, which was written in the 2nd century, sets out very definite do's and don'ts as far as grafting is concerned, indicating that our forefathers were very imaginative propagators. I quote from Order Zeraim — (Seeds), Tractate Kilaim Chapter 1,
Author: D.N. Clark
We must first consider what is the market potential of our industry. I firmly believe that this can be described as good, as so many factors point to an increased size of market. A number of factors will increase the size of the market:
- Increased leisure time.
- Increased awareness of the environment and the role of plants in that environment.
- The introduction of fashion to gardening, which will make the public want to change their gardens to keep up with the Jones's.
- Introduce new dimensions to the garden, such as night lighting and tub gardening. The recent introduction of peat growing modules for the growing of tomatoes and other vegetable plants is a very good example, where a total market has been expanded.
- Our continued desire to have something new and, therefore, the continued for new plants.
Author: Bojin Bogdanov
It is impossible to discuss all these aspects thoroughly. The third will be covered here, with reference to the others where applicable.
The studies carried out confirm that the life and regenerative potential of trees produced from rooted cuttings are closely related to the age of the mother tree as well as the position in the crown (upper portion) of the tree from which they are collected. Cuttings taken
Author: S. Pocock
These were transferred, but not very successfully, mainly due to the fact that we did not have the right conditions. We had set up plastic humidity tents in an existing tunnel house. As this house was being used as a seed house with variable temperatures, it was obvious that a separate and permanent transfer house was needed.
At the end of 1982, a transfer house was built the size of our standard tunnel house — 1,000 sq. ft., covered and lined with a double skin of Fabricon polythene, with a concrete floor and the roof covered with 50% shade cloth. Inside there is a pull-over shade cloth which we use in the summer. A form of humidifier was used to maintain maximum humidity. We adapted an electrical chemical applicator by connecting a water supply to the vat and using a ball-cock; this ensured the vat would not run dry. The humidifier was on a time switch, which we
Author: Lance Lyon
Production of the grafted conifers begins with the harvesting of the seedling understock. The roots are trimmed and they are potted into 4 in. pots. This is done a year before the grafting is to take place. The understock is left outside until late October and then it is brought into the greenhouse and prepared for grafting.
By December the understock is producing new roots and the scionwood is dormant and is ready to be taken for grafting. We use a side veneer graft for both the cedar and the spruce. First the cuts are made and one edge of the scion is matched to the understock. Then the graft is wrapped with a budding rubber to hold the scion in place and the sides are painted with Tree Heal. The grafts are then placed back on the bench and covered with poly to keep the humidity high until the graft union has time to heal. After about two weeks the poly is removed and the grafted plants are
Author: Graeme C. Platt
Prior to using pine bark, we had been using sawdust for a number of years and had established that wood waste was a satisfactory medium in which to grow plants. Our prime motive for using sawdust had been economics. Our local timber mill was delivering 12-metre loads to our nursery free of charge, with the exception of a minor freight charge. Our respect for wood waste soon increased far beyond economic considerations. Besides costing nothing, it was weed-free. Plants developed far superior roots, with little or no pathogenic damage — generally described as water-borne fungi — such as Phytophthora. However, the longer we used sawdust, the more problems we were having with non-pathogenic fungi, which rapidly decomposed the sawdust. The final blow was a fungi which only
Author: John M. Follett
Author: A.J. McCully, A.F. Rainbow, Gillian Laundon, J.J. Soteros
In June, 1982, United Kingdom (UK) plant health authorities reported to New Zealand that many camellia plants imported from New Zealand over the previous few weeks were suffering from leaf blotch, leaf drop, stem dieback, and in extreme cases, death.
The causal organism was identified as Glomerella cingulata (Stone.) Spauld. and v. Schrenk (con. stat. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.). U.K. authorities contended that a new "camellia strain" of G. cingulata had been introduced from New Zealand with camellia plants and that this strain was capable of causing similar effects to that described by Ngo Huy Can, et al. (4) in USA.
Glomerella cingulata had not previously been recorded as causing disease of camellias in New Zealand, where it is generally regarded as a ubiquitous secondary pathogen commonly associated with tip dieback of plants (e.g. Citrus spp.) especially following winter injury, but important as a fruit rot organism (e.g. causing bitter rot
Author: S.A. Parkinson
Author: Ben Swane
Australian native plants, like all other flora, have characteristics which enable us to distinguish them from their neighbours. Each species have variations in growth habit, flowering, soil tolerance and climatic range. In an endeavour to gauge these differences we are carrying out experiments with a true-blue Australian plant lover on Sid Cadwell's property 200 km west of Sydney, situated in a very dry area having approximately 300 to 350 mm rain per year. Summer temperatures reach 40°F and winter temperatures are below 0°C.
Australian plants, such as grevilleas, have been collected from all over Australian. This collection has been done with field trips to all parts where careful selection of parent material
Author: M. Richards
Author: Terry Hatch
Raising hybrids of these types of plant takes many years as each generation may require 4 to 12 years to flower from seeds. Many of the bulb breeders I have met are in the older age bracket, 70 years or more, and many of them are amateurs; much of their work never gets into circulation and disappears when they pass on.
As this is such a vast subject, I shall discuss just two plants that have been studied and are now at the point of commercial production with the advent of micropropagation.
Author: Hugh Steavenson
AAN, in addition, has broad concerns with business, management, government relations, nursery stock standards, marketing, public relations and educational services. AAN administers such allied groups as the Garden Centers of America, Horticultural Research Institute (HRI), National Association of Plant Patent Owners, the National Landscape Association, and the Wholesale Growers of America.
AAN, while obviously vitally dependent upon research and progress in plant propagation and culture, is structured to stimulate and encourage such progress rather than to directly engage in such study and research. For example, the
Author: Robert H. Osborne
Author: Norman E. Pellett, Daphne Dippre, Ann Hazelrigg
Author: Clark G. Brown
There are many ways that a commercial cone collector/seed processor can go about collection of seed cones, processing those cones to a finished seed, and placement of the finished seed into freezer storage. Imagine that you are a seed within a cone. The choices that a collector/processor has can make your trip to the freezer, as an inventoried seed, a very short trip with few stops, or a very long trip with numerous stops. As an example, one could determine that a cone and the seed therein is now ripe and collection procedures should begin. The cone picker or pickers could be recruited to go to the field to pick these cones at maturity. Immediately after picking these cones could be transported to the processing plant, at which time they could be trayed up on drying tunnel trays and put into kiln dry at the dryer facility at a high temperature to open the cones. Conceivably, within 24 to 36 hours after a cone is picked, either by tree climbing, or by picking a squirrel's cut cone
Author: John J. McGuire, Charles G. McKiel, Stephen Macdonald
Author: D.C. Milbocker
Author: Thomas R. Mee, Timothy F. Press
Author: Dale M. Maronek, Daniel Studebaker, Thomas Mccloud, Vern Black,
Author: R.J. Griesbach
In most instances wide-hybrids are sterile because of a lack of chromosome pairing during meiosis. This sterility can sometimes be corrected through chromosome doubling to create a type of polyploid called an amphidiploid. Amphidiploids, even though polyploid, behave like diploids in that only two of the potential four chromosomes in a set pair during meiosis (1).
Not all amphidiploids, however, are
Author: Martin M. Meyer Jr
Author: Charles W. Heuser
Author: Stephen C. Weller, Philip L. Carpenter
Author: David H. Bakker
The rooting medium used is a sand-peat mixture with the fine washed sand (plaster type) put on a level bottom of top soil of a sandy nature, then the peatmoss is applied over the top of the 6 in. fine sand layer. The peat moss (2 in.) is watered and thoroughly mixed with the fine sand. The top of the medium mixture, after leveling, should be about 4 to 6 in. from the sash.
Cutting maturity at harvest is very important. A good
Author: Mike J. Young
Grafting refers to the process of joining parts of two or more plants in such a way that they will unite and grow as one. The stock is the part of the new combination which will produce the root system and, occasionally with trees, the trunk as well. The scion is the part joined to the stock which will produce the top of the plant.
There are many reasons for propagating plants by grafting. From the standpoint of the nurseryman and ultimately his customers, three are of particular importance:
- Perpetuation of clones which cannot be easily or economically increased by cuttings or other vegetative methods.
- To obtain the benefits of