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Author: Tony Biggs
— The necessary physical consistency to support seeds during germination and cuttings during rooting.
— Freedom from pathogens and other harmful organisms.
— The ability to retain and release sufficient moisture for germination, rooting and, possibly, subsequent growth.
— Good drainage to prevent waterlogging and allow the presence of sufficient air for optimum root growth.
— Ease and low cost of preparation.
— Absence of chemical reactions which are deleterious to plant growth, e.g. very low or high pH values, and high salinity values.
— Presence of nutrients if seedlings or rooted cuttings are to be retained in the medium.
— Consistency from batch to batch.
Many characteristics are inter-related. Air and water retention properties are closely related and greatly influenced by the physical composition of the medium. Ease and cost of preparation; consistency from batch to batch and freedom from pathogens will all
Author: Jon. T. Slykerman
Heat pasteurisation of the medium is performed in the revolving drum by a diesel oil burner. (Fig 1.) This is best described as a "conduction heater" or an "indirect flame heater."
A vented mild steel pipe, approximately 6 ft. long, is attached to the burner and carries the heat inside the drum. When mixing, the drum revolves in a counter-clockwise direction, pulling the soil to the right hand side of the drum. The heat is directed into the air space on the left hand side of the drum. The hot air then warms the steel drum. The medium is warmed by contact with the hot air and heated metal surface inside the steel drum. Hence the reason for the above names.
Author: R. Owen Blackwell III
Author: Bryson L. James
Author: Gerald E. Smith
The single most important practice in container production is water application. If the grower is sensitive to the effects of water on container plant growth, then he is in a position to refine other practices, including fertilization and pest control.
Here are some observations that I would like to share with you concerning water application:
There is often inadequate communication by nurserymen to their employees who actually make the day-to-day water management decisions. The ultimate quality of the crop depends, to a great extend, upon the quality of decisions made by the individual in charge of watering. Nurserymen often do not take the time to train their employees to
Author: Carl Whitcomb
TED RICHARDSON: Carl, I would like to know more about the pot you developed that has slits in the sides.
CARL WHITCOMB: The roots are air-pruned when they reach the slits, which leads to the branching. In fact, we believe this container may even encourage top branching in some plants. We have no explanation, but the container is the only different factor used in production of the plants that were better branched. They have been costly to manufacture, but we are now working with Lerio and believe they have a method that will make it possible to manufacture the pot economically.
JOSE GARCIA: Does anyone have a method for effective mole control?
BRYSON JAMES: If you eliminate grubs, the moles will likely disappear.
GERALD VERKADE: Can Acer grisseum be propagated from cuttings
MRS. BEN PERRY: I have propagated it using a peat:sand medium. I took the cuttings in May.
Author: Alfred J. Fordham
Members of the genus Stewartia are found only in eastern North America and eastern Asia. Those found in the Orient can
Author: Elwin R. Orton Jr
Author: Dennis P. Stimart
Schizocarps of A. griseum, A. maximowiczianum and A. triflorum have a ligneous pericarp which delays germination for several years (3,6). Two to 5 years can elapse between good fruiting, with most fruits producing few seeds exhibiting double dormancy (6,15). Trifoliate maples are not easily rooted by cuttings but can be grafted; however, they need a rootstock of a similar species. Thus, trifoliate maples are rarely seen in cultivation.
Dormant seeds of Acer have germinated following gibberellin or kinetin treatments (12,13). Radicle elongation of
Author: Robert W. Lovelace
Site selection. Northeast Missouri offers a favorable climate for a wide range of deciduous species. Although temperature extremes can range from a high of 115°F to a low of – 22°F, the climate is favorable for plant growth, flowering and fruiting. I selected a site that was elevated above surrounding terrain because it offered good air drainage. This is desirable to reduce the danger of late frost damage to flowers and fruits. A deep, well-drained soil is preferred to produce healthy, vigorous growth which favors heavier seed production. Rolling terrain with strips of native tree growth can offer protection from strong winds and also serve as a barrier to eliminate unwanted
Author: John C. Pair, Houchang Khatamian
Author: William N. Valavanis
Definition and origin. Since the bonsai market is highly significant and economically important in the Japanese field of ornamental horticulture, many of the cultivars originally were selected and introduced
Author: Mark A. Clements
Author: Ben Davis II
Therefore, we decided to try whip and tongue grafting just as we were doing on Malus cultivars. The first year we tried this we obtained a 73% yield of salable trees and the next year 75% yield. In addition, the grafted trees were straighter than budded ones.
During the last 2 years at Hill Country Nurseries we have grafted Pyrus calleryana cultivars but have not been as successful. In 1981, out of a total of 27,436 grafts, we obtained a summer live count of 62% on ‘Bradford’ and 43% on ‘Aristocrat’ P.P. #3192. In 1982, out of a total of 47,657 grafts, we obtained a summer live count of a total
Author: David Reath
The second type of tree peony and perhaps the one with the greatest future is the hybrids produced by crossing the Japanese cultivars onto the small yellow species, P. lutea, also native to China. This hybridizing was done in this country by Prof. Saunders of New York during the later part of
Author: Kathleen S. Freeland
Author: Richard A. Simon
Bluemount Nurseries is a wholesale nursery specializing in perennials, unusual ground covers, wildflowers, ferns, ornamental grasses, and bamboo. We supply plants to garden centers and landscape contractors in seven states. Our nursery was started by my father in 1926 who had his early training as a grower of perennials for the original Moon's Nurseries in Morrisville, Pa. In 1960 we bought to our nursery from Germany a young nursery worker who later became a friend of a German-born landscape architect in Baltimore. They both saw the potential of ornamental grasses in this country after having had experience with them in Europe. We began to import grasses in the early 1960's and have continued to expand our collection since then.
An ornamental grass can be a very dwarf plant like blue fescue, Festuca ovina var. glauca, or a 16 foot
Author: Edmund V. Mezitt
The circumstances that led to our production of top-grafted standards was the availability of greenhouse space during the first week in March when plants forced for various flower shows are removed for the spring exhibits. Our winter greenhouse grafting is completed by this time, and we have personnel and space available for several weeks before our spring season begins. We have been doing this for about 20 years, and we are finding a good market for some of these plants.
The cultivars we choose for top grafting are mostly dwarf, slow-
Author: Rick J. Lewandowski, F.R. Gouin
Author: Daniel K. Struve
Author: Robert H. Eastman
There is nothing new or special about growing bare root conifers for cold storage. Before following my procedures, however, you need to understand that the Northeast region, particularly the State of Maine, is different from most other regions in the United States or Canada. The timing for any particular region needs to be taken into careful consideration. It must be remembered that within a short radius there can be considerable differences in temperatures, moisture, and other variations which need to be taken into account.
Our fertilization program commences about the middle of August and can run into September, depending on weather conditions. I utilize straight nitrogen fertilizer. We use Urea 45, and apply this at 50 to 85 lbs per acre depending on the species involved and the time of application. An example is digging and storing any species that continues to grow from spring until a good fall frost slows down the growth process. You do not want to induce growth in the plants
Author: N. Frederick Miller
Author: Elton M. Smith
Author: V.J. Hartney
Close cooperation between researchers and the horticultural and forestry industries will be needed to fully exploit the commercial potential of this technology. The clonal propagation of high value horticultural specimens, such as E. caesia and E. macrocarpa, offers obvious and immediate commercial benefit. Extension of this practice to plantation forestry will require lower production costs but the large demand for plants will stimulate the development of improved and cheaper techniques.
Author: William Flemer III
There are many advantages to cutting propagation over grafting, budding, and other methods of vegetative propagation. One very important factor is cost. In general it is much cheaper to make up and root a cutting than to buy or grow an understock, then pot it or plant it out in the open ground, and finally graft or bud it. After that there are the inevitable losses and the subsequent expenses of cutting out suckers and staking the
Author: John R. Havis
Author: John Walters
First of all, one must have a plan of action. One must write down what is to be done and how it is to be done. One must also set goals of production levels. Never rely on verbal communication. Never just guess at what you need. Never propagate more just because you happen to have a lot of propagation stock and it would be a shame for it to go to waste. Always analyze your market. Try to propagate what you think you can sell.
Setting down a plan of action gives you something to refer back to at any point in time. It also gives you the opportunity to assess your
Author: Ralph Shugert, Bruce Briggs
MODERATOR SHUGERT: Question for Bob Eastman. Please talk about storing plants ungraded over winter as opposed to graded prior to storage.
BOB EASTMAN: My philosophy has been to grade them shortly after digging because you do not have to rehandle them. It cuts down labor costs and provides a better quality plant.
MODERATOR SHUGERT: Question for Elton Smith. Please offer comments on the possible promotion of Phytophthora on capillary mats.
ELTON SMITH: Initially there was concern that capillary mat watering would promote root diseases. Experience has not proven this to be true. We have not done any work on that aspect.
DAVE DUGAN: Elton, were you using chlorinated water in your capillary mat study?
ELTON SMITH: Our experiences are with chlorinated city water. However, this is not the case for other countries where this research has been done. We have not
Author: Jack Alexander
KURT TRAMPOSCH: Lamium spp. are members of the mint family and are useful as shade-loving groundcovers because of their variegated foliage, rapid growth, and undemanding cultural requirements. An excellent review of Lamium spp. can be found in the 1981 summer edition of the American Rock Garden Society Bulletin. Because of their aggressive nature most Lamium spp. should be used with discretion.
A commonly cultivated taxon is L. maculatum which produces an invasive, dense low carpet in a short time and has purplish flowers throughout the summer.
An English introduction, named L. maculatum 'Beacon Silver', is more restrained and produces a mass of silver leaves in the shade.
The most widely cultivated species, L. galeobdolon, (now reclassified as Lamiastrum galeobdolon) is commonly known as yellow archangel. I have found this ground cover to be an attractive trouble-free species that is useful
Author: Ralph Shugert
Undoubtedly, some in the room tonight must wonder what is an Award of Merit? In one word it is appreciation. It is the method by which the Eastern Region recognizes the contribution of individual members within the Society. This is appreciation of excellent research shared with members, or for a commercial propagator who shared a technique to increase the rooting success with a particular plant. The appreciation is also acknowledgement of service. The timeless extra hours that few people are aware of, such as, committee assignments,
Author: Carl Orndorff
The use of fungicides on cuttings is rarely necessary if growers select designs, materials, and methods which prevent diseases from becoming established and provide conditions that both stimulate cuttings to root rapidly and support root growth. The
Author: Barry R. Yinger
The use of grafting to produce
Author: Ralph Shugert
Author: Thomas S. Pinney Jr
Author: Dennis A. Hearne
"We should not lose sight of the advantage of tissue culture plants and propagation. It is not just to clonally propagate a cultivar. It is to produce a far superior product, free of virus, fungi, and bacteria, from a highly desirable horticultural specimen and, where yield is important, from the upper 0.1% or better of the normal curve of distribution of the species."
Good and timely advice, indeed. Anyone can produce a plant in tissue culture. Often, a little careful juggling with media can produce better yield results than those published in the literature — but, to what end? Many of the plants grown in culture originate from seed or spores. Frequently, too, tissue-grown plants are just that, and no positive selection has actively taken place. Consequently, these plants are of little or no value in improving the standards of that cultivar. I feel it is an essential feature of any
Author: Leonard P. Stoltz
In Kentucky the budding is generally done from June 1 to July 20. The time is controlled primarily by the availability of buds in proper condition. When the bud is cut from a current year's shoot, the pith area should be solid and green in color. As growth of the new shoot proceeds the green color of the pith is gradually lost and dark pigmentation increases until the pith is nearly charcoal in color. The ideal shield bud for change-purse budding has green pith and a large plump bud. Shields with a yellow pith and slight pigmentation will also work but once pigmentation of the pith becomes dark the buds should not be use.
Author: Bernie J. Phillion
The purpose of this new program is to clone spruce seedlings for progeny testing. Seedlings of full-sib origin are grown and, as they develop, cuttings are taken from them and propagated. New cuttings are later taken from the original seedlings and also from the first rooted cuttings. This cycle is repeated until 140 ramets of the same age are produced from each clone. After rooting, these last cuttings are used for progeny outplanting tests in Northern Ontario.
Author: Bruce E. Haissig
Author: Paul E. Read, Athanasios S. Economou
Author: Adrian Salter
About six years ago we used two basic potting mixes. The first, a peat, sand, perlite mix, was used for all plants up to 6" pot size. The second, a mixture of soil, ash, cow manure and wood shavings, was bought premixed and delivered by the truckload and used for all plants in 8 in. or larger containers.
The decision to look for another potting mix was made when the price of German peat moss was rising almost every day and it seemed reasonable at the time to use one mix for all container sizes.
On the strength of a free sample which looked and felt good, a proprietary mix based on composted hardwood sawdust and coarse sand was tried. By the time we were using the third truckload the first batch of plants had stopped growing and developed severe yellowing of the upper leaves and tips. Although
Author: Gordon Lamb
At Grove Nursery we grow a variety of indoor shadehouse plants and we have an interest in growing Ficus benjamina and Ficus lyrata (Syn.: F. pandurata).
Our old mix prior to using pine bark was 40% German peat, 40% Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) sawdust, 20% blue metal. We had this mixed commercially by an outside contractor and it cost us $338 for 6m3. Substituting pine bark for all the German peat resulted in magnificent savings so we decided to experiment further.
In the first season we encountered chlorosis and phytotoxicity problems in Ficus benjamina and Ficus lyrata, something we had never encountered before when using German peat. The puzzling factor here being the chlorosis
Author: Ian S. Tolley
- Three weeks conducted travel through the main citrus growing areas to study orchards, nurseries and research centres.
- Attend the Citrus Nurserymen's Seventh Conference as principal speaker and cover these areas;
- How we produce citrus trees in one year at Renmark, South Australia, at our own nursery.
- Comment on impressions gained about South African nursery production and, where relevant, about the industry in general.
- Offer suggestions towards improving nursery technology, particularly the rapid production of clean, container-grown trees.
- Observations on citrus production in South Africa:
The visit was extremely well organized with adequate time allotted to get a balanced view of the industry. The citrus industry is extremely well organized, heavily dependent on
Author: Stephen Goodwin
Public demand for undamaged plants from the nursery industry has resulted in the reliance upon strict pesticide control programmes. This approach has raised certain potential problems for all nurserymen.
Resistance can develop in pests following continued exposure to some pesticides. In addition to the more obvious signs of phytotoxicity, some pesticides may also interfere with proper plant function. There is the ever-present consideration of environmental contamination, very relevant to this public service industry. Finally, in most situations problems are experienced in incorrectly applying pesticides. The subsequent ineffective control encourages unnecessary repeated sprayings. This is time-consuming,
Author: Ian Yarker
- To re-think the basic approach to the volume production nursery and to develop an integrated nursery system with stock control which economically enables increased production volume and efficiency.
- To design a system around the plant's growth requirements of moisture, light, temperature, humidity, and nutrition.
- To develop mechanical systems and aids on a universal or multi-purpose basis, especially in the early stages of propagation — by seed, cuttings, or tissue culture — from small parent stock to 100 mm and 125 mm pot production.
A basic design criterion was adopted with regard to the species most likely to be grown, (indoor and outdoor container foliage plants), available energy sources, local engineering
Author: John H. Colwell
I have so often been surprised that, within the nursery trade, many failures still occur. If we take a close look at some of the failures encountered most can be traced back to bad management or shoddy workmanship. As a consultant, I am constantly asked to look at problems occurring every day with seed germination, not only from inexperienced people but from people in all branches of horticulture, including seed testing laboratories.
Many of the problems that occur could be overcome very quickly
Author: Rosemary Lewis
We only have 4 hours in our curriculum allotted to this topic, and, because most of our students are not doing this type of work and laboratory techniques and hygiene are so important, I divide them into 2 hours each of theory and practical. Of course, there are students who do more practical work but this has to be apart from normal school hours.
The theory I tackle on a "what, when, why, who, and how basis."
The "WHAT," of course, covers not only a basic definition but also the fact that tissue culture is a term of convenience covering both techniques like, in vitro, micro-propagation, and mericloning, and also different parts of the plant —
Author: Graeme Catt
All understocks are grown in full sun in containers but are brought into the shadehouse to be budded and are left there for the remainder of the growing season.
In early summer scions for grafting are selected from vigorous new season's growth, preferably having three sets of nodes. Their length may be from 4 to 20 cm depending on the cultivar; leaves are trimmed back close to the bud. At the bottom of the scion a diagonal cut, approximately 3 cm long is made, I use a very sharp knife as it is very easy to bruise the very thin cambium layer.
A "T" cut is made on the side of the understock, the same as for a normal T-bud, the length of the cut to
Author: Richard H. Jones
Crop improvement through hybridisation of selected parent plants has been practised for many years. In its broadest sense hybridisation is simply a cross between two plants but in practical terms hybridisation is usually considered to be the crossing of individuals of unlike constitution such as species of the same genera or inbreds of species which have different genetical characteristics.
In the natural environment hybrid crosses between species of the same genus may occur indiscriminately but the number of natural hybrids which develop is limited. However in commercial species hybrid seed production utilises inbreds which are developed with certain desirable characteristics and hydridisation of these lines produces hybrids with specific advantages.
With certain vegetables, grains and flowers species different genetic systems are used to enforce controlled hybridisation in the production of commercial hybrid cultivars. In this paper I want to outline the advantages of hybrids,
Author: Fred Von Allmen
Australia's diverse climate produces conditions which have proved quite suitable for the culture of many tropical and sub-tropical fruits. For example, litchi will grow from Cairns to Sydney, but mangosteen, durian, and rambutan will grow only in northern rainforests.
Litchi chinensis (Syn.: Nephelium chinensis) (litchi) is already well known in Australia where it has been cultivated since the turn of the century. It is already proving its worth as an economic crop in Queensland and Northern New South Wales. The tree bears red, warty fruits which have translucent white pulp and an agreeable sweet acid flavour. A proven method of propagation is by air layering. A 5 cm girdle of bark is cleanly removed, then a mixture of
Author: Brian C. Hanger
Seeds of various sizes (e.g. petunia to sunflower) direct sown into Austrialian rockwool blocks germinated and emerged normally. The only problem encountered was a temporary iron deficiency in Gypsophila and Petunia, but this was easily rectified. In one study many gerbera seedlings failed to emerge from Australian and Danish rockwool blocks because of resistance imposed by the fibers to the cotyledons. This problem was overcome by shallower sowing. Early samples of Australian rockwool blocks collapsed badly but this problem was largely overcome in samples manufactured later.
Herbaceous and woody cuttings of exotic and Australian plants rooted readily in rockwool blocks and in about the
Author: R.J. Worrall
There are many advantages in growing plants in lightweight mixes compared to those containing a large proportion of soil. These are:— Easier management (e.g. better drainage, greater moisture holding capacity)
— Disease and weed problems are usually less, and
— Significant savings can be made in handling and transport costs
However, many landscapers and nurserymen believe that plants grown in "heavy mixes", i.e. those containing a large proportion of soil establish more quickly when transplanted into the field — especially into soils containing a large percentage of clay (otherwise known as the interface problem). There is also much argument as to whether tubes or advanced plants should be used.
A series of experiments were done to answer these questions, with particular attention being paid to the penetration of roots from the original potting mix into the surrounding soil and water usage by the plants in the field situation.
Author: G.I. Moss, R. Dalgleish
Author: Robert Miller
The only "mechanical propagation" is knives and secateurs, the tools of the trade. We employ two girls full time on propagation, and we hope they will do 2000 cuttings per person per day, which includes insertion and putting out the trays on the benches. In twelve months we do 600,000 cuttings, on a 300 working day year. Secateurs are used more than knives as
Author: Robin B. Tacchi
Firstly, large amounts of money were not available;
Secondly, the lack of any existing conventional propagation systems, which allowed me to start from scratch with a fresh approach. People are reluctant to change what they already have!
Thirdly, the reluctant realisation by horticulturists that polythene did have applications other than wrapping sliced bread, and that it might even be used as a glass substitute.
Using this magical substance it became apparent that not only did it work, it enabled one to erect large areas of propagation covering, simply and with a low initial expense.
I say initial because, over a period of time, re-cladding labour and material costs mean that there must be a point where the cost of glass versus polythene evens out. But is it the low initial cost which
Author: Alan E. Down
One cannot fail to be impressed by the vast open-air mist units of the South and Southwestern states. The progressiveness of the growers in the Pacific Northwest with tissue culture of ornamentals is equally impressive.
However, the humbler propagation techniques used by some growers set me wondering whether we in Europe are employing over-complicated and unnecessarily sophisticated methods for the propagation of easy subjects.
For instance, in the Midwest, millions of Taxus and Juniper cuttings are produced annually employing a technique which is really no more than an adaption of the old coldframe. Instead of frames, walk-in polytunnels are used to enclose the cuttings stuck in raised ground beds.
Author: Lars Rudin
The difference between Sweden and other countries is that our standards were made compulsory some years ago. This means that today no single woody plant might be sold unless it complies with The New Official Standards for Nursery Stock. The official and the former trade standards are very close in their requirements. This means, in practice, that the new official rules are a revision and an elucidation of the former nursery standards and are furthermore made into law.
The purpose of this law is to create a consumer's protection. The background for this is that the trade with nursery stock changed drastically during the last 10 to 15 years. Briefly, the distance between the producer and the consumer has increased. Earlier nursery stock was produced and
Author: G.M. Moore, R.G. Hall, E.A. James
Methods of pasteurization suffer from disadvantages such as high cost, time consumption, and a limitation in the volume treated. Thus a new method of media treatment has been investigated — the exposure of the media to microwave radiation.
Although the method is restricted in the volume of material that can be treated, it is a very rapid technique and because the material is heated directly it is also energy efficient. The method can be used to either completely sterilise media, or to disinfest them so that at least some of the bacteria and saprophytic fungi survive.
It is envisaged that the technique could be used to treat a continuous supply of a medium moving along a conveyor, thereby eliminating a major bottle-neck in nursery production.
Author: Jeremy C. Beesley
The cuttings are covered with 150 gauge clear polythene which is removed once a week
Author: Ole Nymark Larsen
Sour cherry is now, after apple, the most grown tree fruit in Denmark. Sour cherries require relatively little regular care and are often grown by farmers. The rapid expansion is in part due to a high demand for juice by the processing industry and in part, to the development of machine harvesting.
Sour cherries belong to the species, Prunus cerasus L., and all cultivars which are grown in Denmark are self fertile. By far, the most planted cultivar is ‘Stevnsbaer’ which has been grown in Denmark for at least 200 years. It is preferred by the processing industry because the fruit is strongly coloured and has a high content of sugar and of acid.
The well-known Danish rose breeder, D.T. Poulsen, has bred two cultivars ‘Kelleriis 14’ and ‘Kelleriis 16’. These are little grown in Denmark but ‘Kelleriis 16’ is quite
Author: D.N. Whalley, K. Loach
Both rooting in the bin and survival at the end of the season we highly correlated with the degree-weeks of temperature which the cuttings had experienced in the bins.
The survival of Acer saccharinum cuttings markedly decreased with increase in the number of degree-weeks. This response was not as marked for Laburnum × vossii and Platanus × acerifolia, suggesting that Acer cuttings rapidly become depleted of their carbohydrate reserves.
Survival of A. saccharinum cuttings in containers was markedly increased by placing them under mist enclosed by polyethylene in a netting tunnel.
Difficult-to-root species such as Acer platanoides ‘Drummondii’ and Prunus ‘Shirofugen’ responded poorly even when mist used to assist cutting survival.
Author: Hilary Schonbeck
I questioned the three main reasons normally given for stripping cuttings, and my findings were as follows:
- "The lower leaves decay and this decays spreads to the stem."
- "Cuttings are difficult to insert."
Largely this was not true. Either there was no decay (examples Spiraea × bumalda ‘Goldflame’, Viburnum tinus and Hebe ‘Eversley Seedling’) or decay did not spread (examples, Pernettya mucronata, Erica herbacea (Syn.: carnea), and Elaeagnus pungens ‘Maculata’). An exception was autumn struck Ceanothus, where decay from decaying stems did not spread to the stem.
This statement is true of large, thick-leaved species such as
Author: Tracy L. Lunn
Author: Stuart St. John
Points against imported plants are the chances of dried out roots, and problems developing where the liners have been raised on peat soils and have developed fine roots which do not transplant well on heavier soils. The quality is unknown until the plants arrive. There may come a time when imports are banned because of disease such as fireblight. So perhaps it is useful to know how to grow this utility plant, and a "home-grown" label may help to sell it.
From a smaller nurseryman's point of view, I have always had excellent sales of this plant, and by producing it myself can offer it at reasonable prices. For the smaller grower it is not worth buying in small numbers, and there is a self satisfaction of home-grown
Author: John Turnbull
At the recent "Fruit Focus Exhibition" in Kent, the Ministry of Agriculture's Fruit Certification Schemes were featured in the Agriculture Development and Advisory Service (ADAS) Exhibit and whilst I was there two very well known fruit growers were discussing the subject with me. One of them who has been around long enough to have known the situation prior to certification said, "John, it was like the Irish Sweepstake when we used to buy stock before certification standards put reliability and confidence into fruit production."
I propose to outline my talk with an examination of why improved health standards in fruit tree
Author: R.J. Garner
In 1927, at the request of the Empire Marketing Board, Hatton of East Malling wrote a paper entitled, "Standardization of horticultural material with special reference to rootstocks." There were requests for material of known status, and some fruit tree raisers set out to meet this demand.
The primary concern of any standards scheme is with trueness-to-name, as in the rootstock certification scheme introduced in 1946, and in the health schemes for bush and soft fruits, which are so important to the U.K. fruit industry.
In 1960 the Horticultural Trades Association, jointly with the National Farmers Union, published descriptive standards for nursery products. At the same time the Institute of Park Administration issued specifications for trees for roads and gardens, as did the Road Beautifying
Author: Stephen J. Haines
Author: Don Hatch
The most important procedure before any grafting can be undertaken is the establishment of stock beds of true-to-name cultivars. Stock plants need to be planted with plenty of space for full development. Even the dwarfs can soon fill out to take more space than allocated. Good cultivation is important, as is a regular spraying programme, for the control of conifer spinning mite on spruce and adelges on Pinus sylvestris forms. It must be appreciated that, with the dwarf cultivars especially, some years must elapse before commercial quantities of scions become available, dependent upon the number of each cultivar planted.
Author: Ruth E. Auld, Arthur Carrall
It is worthwhile to note that although clematis can be difficult to grow and provides few problems, lucrative markets for this beautiful flowered climber are available in the Mountain and Tablelands areas of New South Wales as well as for interstate shipments.
To be successful in growing clematis hybrids a programme of sanitation must be employed to eliminate disease rather than trying to arrest it after the cutting material or plants have been affected. Such a programme must start before the cuttings are taken from the mother plants. Common
Author: C.G. Lane
Author: Paul Bradley
Established potted stocks are used for Acer, Fagus, and Betula cultivars.
Bare-root stocks are used for all the fruits, i.e. apples, pears, plums, damsons, cherries, and peach. Of the ornamentals, Syringa, cherries, Malus, Prunus cerasifera ‘Atropurpurea’ (Syn.: ‘Pissardii’), Crataegus, Laburnum, Pyrus salicifolia, Sorbus, and Robinia are also grafted bare-root.
We do not find it convenient to grow our own stocks, so these are bought from a reliable source during the autumn. The potted stocks are put straight into a tunnel or glasshouse.
It is vital that the bare-root stocks are the best quality, freshly lifted, transplants available — preferably 7 to 12 mm. Undercut seedlings and one-year layers are not good enough.
When the bare root stocks are delivered they are
Author: Ronald Thurlow
We have four grafting benches, each 45 ft long and 6 ft wide and having 9 in high wooden sides. These benches are supported by small 2 ft 9 in high walls, made of concrete blocks. The floor of the benches consists of corrugated zinc sheets covered by a layer of polystyrene for insulation. On top of the polystyrene there is a layer of sand in which we have soil warming cables embedded. Only three benches have bottom heat.
Each bench is covered by a 3 ft high polythene tent with lift up sides. These benches are housed in a double span greenhouse, two benches each side.
Across the roof and partly down the sides of the greenhouse we have a movable Netlon type shading. This shading was stitched by a sheet maker and is made to measure fit. It is held in place by wire and can be easily slid to the sides when not in use.
Also three tunnel houses are available, measuring 50 ft by 14 ft. These are used by the propagators in summer and have soil warming cables in them if we need them.
Author: David Hutchinson
The diseases Phytophthora cinnamomi, Pestalotiopsis spp., Pythium spp., and Cylindrocarpon spp. can cause significant crop losses in Erica and Calluna production and, in recent years, the disease Rhizoctonia solani has caused appreciable losses to specialist growers especially in wet growing seasons.
Having specifically identified Rhizoctonia as a problem with a specialist producer, nursery trials were carried out using the fungicide Iprodine (Rovral) to contain the disease. (Rovral had the necessary clearance and recommendations for the control of Rhizoctonia in lettuce and bedding plants).
The nursery practice is to grow 1 year Ericas and Callunas in ½ litre containers under high polyethylene tunnels (the polyethylene being removed in May/June and replaced in September/October). Overhead irrigation is used with a fibre capillary mat on a black polyethylene sheet base.
Author: Bill Mathews
I am committed to grafting as a way of propagating plants because:
I worked in Boskoop for 2½ years and, during this time, I went to Sweden doing contract grafting roses for the glasshouse industry. The money I received for this work purchased the liners and stock plants which helped to start my business ten years ago.
It is ideal for the small nurseryman.
There is a need for a quick turnaround of plants.
I consider that grafted plants produce a better end product if handled properly in containers, i.e. grafted viburnums are superior to viburnums produced from cuttings.
Author: David Hill
My first 3 years in the states were spent at Jim Wells Nursery as a student and then manager. The Wells Nursery was located 30 miles south of New York on the East Coast with temperatures ranging from 100°F (38°C) in July to –15°F (–26°C) in January and February. Wells specialized in growing rhododendrons and azaleas, which were subject to damage by the extreme cold if unprotected, therefore every precaution had to be taken to minimize the risk of damage.
The first thing Jim Wells did was to select a hardy range of rhododendrons and azaleas able to survive harsh East Coast winters. Rhododendrons he selected for their hardiness were the ‘Iron Clad’
Author: Ted Lewis
The aim of my trip was to look at some micropropagation being practiced commercially, and to make practical recommendations to British nurserymen interested in the technique. I also wanted to find out about any new knowledge in mycorrhizal relationship that could benefit the nursery trade in the U.K. While focusing on these two areas, I took the opportunity to visit some nurseries of more general interest, a chance not to be missed.
Undoubtedly rhododendrons are the most successful subject for micropropagation developed so far in the American northwest. Dr. Wilbur C. Anderson of the Northwestern Washington Research Unit at Mount Vernon estimates that at least 10% of rhododendron production in Washington State now is done by micropropagation. He has done a lot of research and development of rhododendron microculture and explained some of the practical problems to me. The majority of micropropagation work requires
Author: John Edmunds
In the U.S.A. they have reached a stage of very considerable over-production. I could tell you about the American nursery stock industry in deep trouble, partly because of economics but partly because of over-production. In some cases the latter is due to micropropagation. An example is of ferns in 4 litre pots transported 7000 miles from Oregon to sell at 40p. There are twenty-one micropropagation units in Florida, many doing ferns.
I could tell of dumping of nursery stock. A large nursery is dumping daily. Well-trained pyracantha plants are being dumped to make way for younger stock, but the frames and
Author: John Giggini
Tom joined I.P.P.S. in 1974 and has always been a very active member, becoming Vice-President in 1978 and organizing an excellent conference at Bristol University. During his Presidency in 1979 the Region's varied range of activities were consolidated and our links with the International organization were further strengthened during his term as International Director in 1980–81. Tom took over the Secretariat on Bruce MacDonald's departure for Vancouver, British Columbia in 1980.
He trained at Kew Gardens and, on his return from Uganda in 1965, joined Oakover Nurseries in Kent, specializing in seedling production, a subject on which he is a recognized authority. He is a Governor of Hadlow College, which has a
Author: William L. Theobald
- to establish, develop, operate, and maintain for the benefit of the people of the United States an educational and scientific center in the form of a tropical botanical garden or gardens, together with such facilities as libraries, herbaria, laboratories, and museums which are appropriate and necessary for encouraging and conducting research in basic and applied tropical botany;
- to foster and encourage fundamental research with respect to tropical plant life and to encourage research and study of the uses of tropical flora in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, medicine, and other
Author: Rudolf R. Willing
In Australia the early settlers introduced several species, growing them mainly as ornamental trees. Only very few clones were known: two clones of Populus alba; the Lombardy poplar, or P. nigra ‘Italica.’ (the best known poplar of them all); the Yunnan poplar, P. yunnanensis; and the American cottonwood, P. deltoides. There are no native poplars in Australia nor in the Southern Hemisphere. All poplars growing in southern Africa, South America, and New Zealand are introduced or manipulated clones. In the 1940s some of the so-called "Schreiner hybrids" were introduced. They are known as Androscoggin poplar, Geneva poplar, Oxford poplar, and Rochester poplar. They are hybrids between
Author: Ralph B. Shugert
Several people showed a tremendous amount of foresight in those early years of the 1950's. For example, the committee which was appointed to draw up the Constitution and By-Laws, consisted of
Author: John A. Wott
First, we have witnessed a return to home fruit and vegetable production. This interest has helped to spawn such organizations as "Gardens for All" and the new "American Community Gardening Association". Then too, land for parks and "green areas" for everyday enjoyment is now a commonly accepted part of community and residential planning.
Those of us who work with the public have witnessed the almost overwhelming demand for information, on the selection, use, and maintenance of plants in our everyday lives. Plant societies, many with specific plant identities, have appeared in large numbers.
Author: Richard A. Criley
The teaching component is complex. Whole curricula are based on the development of teachers. There are many aspects which must be studied, and the application of education theory to educating students is a practical result.
In agriculture, and specifically horticulture, we do not teach in formats designed by professional educators. Our methods follow a basic lecture and laboratory format and only occasionally do we reach out for different ways of doing things. Our clients in industry (= employers), on the other hand, are bombarded with new concepts: zero based budgets, we
Author: Tok Furuta
Author: Jeanne Barnhill Jones
Propagating systems continue to evolve from the introduction of Jiffy-Pots in 1954 (1). These and other peat pots are made in round and square shapes, in a range of sizes for the propagation and growing on of individual units. Propagators familiar with peat properties find few difficulties in growing plants in these biodegradable units and buyers like the concept of planting pot and all. While others less familiar with peat technology, encounter difficulties in watering procedures and observe restricted root development. We see the "wicking action" problem when plants are set a bit high in the final container. Individual peat pots tend to fall over on the propagation bench. They are difficult to efficiently handle during packing and shipping processes.
The buyer of plants rooted in these pots must also deal with single units which can be difficult for him to manage. From the individual peat pot or plastic pot we see the development of Jiffy-Strips and a whole array of
Author: Margaret A. Scott
- Efficient heat control.
- Efficient heat transfer to rooting medium.
- Reduction of heat loss.
- Plant requirements.
Author: F. Loreti, S. Morini
Author: F. Loreti, S. Morini, C. Barbieri
Author: Steven M. McCulloch, Bruce A. Briggs
Whenever possible, the stock plant used for multiplication should be healthy, vigorous, and preferably virus-indexed. If the plant is indexed for certain viruses, care should be taken to prevent reinoculation of that plant. Screening methods have been developed to detect systemic contaminants (2,14).
As in conventional propagation, timing is very important. The physiological state of the plant part will partially determine whether or not the plant will grow, stay dormant, or die.
The environment in which the stock plant is grown is an important
Author: Maureen Murphy
In most places, creating a garden involves getting plants from a nursery. Somewhere along the line those plants were carefully propagated by someone, and chances are, they made use of such supplies and equipment as rooting hormones, disinfectants, pots and rooting media, special timers, bottom heaters, mist beds, and temperature controlled greenhouses. Then after the new plants developed, they needed to be transplanted and acclimatized (in perhaps another greenhouse) before they could be put in the landscape. A fair amount of time, labor, and expenses goes into this process.
Author: Frederick C. Hellriegel
Regenerating cells from wounded tissues emanate primarily from the cambium region of the plant and they grow over the wound both radially and laterally. The overwalling of these cells is called callus and the nature of callus and its part in the rooting and unification process is explained in this paper.
With some species excess callus forms, inhibiting root primordia from emerging and preventing the formation of a viable root system on cuttings. This problem is examined with reference to the pH and nature of the propagating medium, the time of year of selection of cuttings, auxin application, wounding, trimming of callus, environment, and the type and condition of stock material. Certain recommendations are given for problems encountered with the propagation of some Australian native plants.
Author: Barrie L. McKenzie
The decision to move into this field was brought about after having attended one of the first tissue culture workshops held in New Zealand. Since this occasion, considerable interest has been shown in this field. A lot of plant breeding and research currently being undertaken in New Zealand has been a result of a horticultural boom. The establishment of a Laboratory Company within the nursery confines appeared most attractive.
The interest of a staff member, Lynsay Averill, who had been with the Company for 5 years, with a good horticultural background and basic plant propagation knowledge, also aided the decision to proceed with this
Author: Kalfred K. Yee
In sharing my experiences with you I will cover:
- Planning and building the laboratory
- Culture and management
- Production and marketing
As I have just returned from a visit to various tissue culture laboratories in the Philippines, Thailand, and Singapore, I will also touch upon the facilities and problems I saw in the Southeast Asian laboratories.
First of all, about planning and building the laboratory. When we started in 1977, we had very little information on hand to guide us. If we had had ample funds, we could have hired a professional consultant, engaged a private contractor, and thus perhaps lessened our problems. But we accepted the challenge of starting something new and did most of the work ourselves. To begin with, we
Author: Jeanne Barnhill Jones
Commercial propagators using plant tissue culture techniques produce plants through adventitious shoots and/or enhanced axillary branching pathways. The in vitro propagation steps are as follows:Step I. Establishment of an aseptic tissue culture of a plant.
Step II. Rapid numerical increase of organs or other structures.
Step III. Preparation of propagule for successful
Author: Dennis M. Connor
Author: Dennis M. Connor
Kiwifruit is about the size of an egg and gets its name from the kiwi bird of New Zealand whose body resembles the shape of the fruit. The fruit weighs about four ounces and has been a high vitamin C content. It is best eaten raw, and its use with other foods is becoming more popular.
Actinidia chinesis is a deciduous vine that is dioecious (that is, a plant produces either all male or all female flowers). To obtain fruit development, male vines are needed to pollinate the female vines.
Author: Michael J. Tanabe
Author: Philip E. Parvin
At first, plants from seed were considered to be the appropriate material to use. As the protea industry expands on an international level, it has become increasingly evident that farms planted with vegetatively propagated selections of cultivars with superior colors, shipping qualities, and resistance to disease will have significant competitive advantage over farms with seedlings of variable quality.
In anticipation of the release of 3 clones of the sunburst protea,
Author: Mike A. Nagao, William S. Sakai, Darrell Ito, Jerome Sasaki
Author: Fred D. Rauch, Laurie Schmidt, Paul K. Murakami
With this increased production has come a great awareness of some of the production problems with this crop. During the past year we have initiated a research project to study the culture and nutrition of palms. One of the objectives of the project is to determine the factors that influence the rate of palm seed germination and establishment. Two preliminary trials are reported here.
Author: R.A. Hamilton, R.A. Criley, C.L. Chia
Author: R. Boden, J.H. Fryer, G. King
The pin oak (Quercus palustris) is a tree of considerable amenity value in the cooler areas of southeast Australia. It is vigorous and hardy on most soils, it is quite drought tolerant and gives heavy summer shade and brilliant autumn colours. To date it has shown only a low susceptibility to the oak leaf miner.
However pin oak has one obviously unattractive habit. In mature trees the upper crown loses its leaves in late autumn but most of the dead leaves on the lower crown persist and are shed gradually during winter and spring, giving the tree a rather tattered appearance for much of this period. This gradual loss of leaves necessitates a number of winter clean-ups by residents or park authorities, rather than one concerted effort in autumn.
The habit of winter leaf persistence was investigated by Scaffalitzky de Muckadell (1) in the European beech (Fagus sylvatica). He showed that growth from scions taken from the upper part of the tree of this species, when grafted onto seedling
Author: Stan Sorensen
He was a charter member of the Western Region of the International Plant Propagators' Society which held its first meeting in Asilomar, California, in 1960. He was elected to the Executive Committee of the Western Region in 1972. He became president of the Region in 1976–1977 and President of the International Board in 1981–1982.
In 1962 he was elected to the City Council of Fremont, California. He served as mayor for 5 of the 16 years he was on the City Council. During that time the new city grew from 25,000 to over 110,000 in population. He was a driving force in establishing a beautiful 400-acre park in the center of the community, complete with lake and swim lagoon. He worked to save three homes and gardens of historical consequence; namely, the Vallejo Adobe at the old California
Author: Hugh B. Redgrove
Author: Lynne Scott
Author: Pauline A. Cooper, Daniel Cohen
Seeds are used for propagation of some species (e.g. Monstera deliciosa, Anthurium spp.), but the progeny are variable. Other species are normally propagated by stem cuttings (e.g. Philodendron scandens, Dieffenbachia maculata (Syn.: D. picta), Epipermnum aureum (Syn.: Scindapsis aureus) and Syngonium podophyllus), but multiplication rates are not very high and large numbers of stock plants must be maintained. Propagation by crown, rhizome, or tuber division is also used with other species (e.g. Anthurium spp., Caladium × hortulanum and Zantedeschia spp.), but propagation by these means is even slower.
Faster rates of multiplication have been achieved by micropropagation than can be achieved by the traditional methods listed above. At the 1981 meeting, Cohen (1) reported that the proliferation rate for Zantedeschia in culture is approximately 5-fold/month (i.e. potentially 100,000 in
Author: Peter B. Cave
- Seedlings of birches are well-known for their variability. This is a result of the ease with which the various species hybridise once they are removed from the geographical barriers which separate them in the wild. Thus, the only reliable seed sources are collections from the wild state and, unfortunately, these are rare.
- While propagation of birches by cuttings has been successful to a limited extent with some cultivars, it is very unreliable. Moreover, propagation material has been difficult to obtain — our first material came in small quantities from arboretums and from overseas. Grafting has proved to be the only means of bulking up and producing trees quickly.
Author: J.J. Hosking
This paper looks at problems associated with packing, transport, storage, shelf life and ultimate survival. The species involved are used primarily for forestry, orchard and shelter establishment, or for some large scale amenity planting schemes.
Objectives. The primary aim must be the high survival of wind firm trees of good genetic quality. Problems in meeting this objective are:
- In sufficient seed supply from recognised sources, with no genetic selection in the field of shelter. Seed is, therefore, obtained where available. Many
Author: J.B. Gillespie, Michael B. Thomas
Author: Colin D. Henderson
Although I am intensely interested and involved in ornamental plant production generally, I came into nursery work from a background in business management, economics, and accountancy. I use my previous experience to make my small nursery successful and my work enjoyable. The total labour force is equivalent to two full time labour units. We produce
Author: John B. Gillespie, Michael B. Thomas
Author: Stuart N. Dawes
High Altitude Tropics. We tend to consider that plants from areas near the equator are going to be unsuitable for New Zealand conditions. Sometimes we are aware of exceptions and wonder at the adaptability of such plants. Mostly we do not realise the effect that altitude has on climate, or even that all areas within the tropics are not low lying and tropical in nature. If, however, we look at even a world scale relief map we see that there are large
Author: R. Harris
Seed. Golden Queen peach seed is our main stock. We used to purchase these dried, direct from the cannery, and had only 50% germination. We found out that they were dried on a concrete slab in direct sunlight in temperatures of up to 40°C, up to 4 inches (100mm) deep and raked over when manpower was available. We now cart the seed home in bulk direct from the hoppers and dry on a slatted floor in a shed, resulting in 80% + germination. This seed is purchased at late summer and, after drying, is bagged. In late fall the bags of seed are immersed in water for 24 hours to swell the kernel. (Failure to do this will result in a very
Author: D.J. Boyes-Barnes
The central event that is required, is the ability to graft in summer or winter as well as in the more traditional spring and autumn periods. And the key to successful grafting is the ability to keep the scion alive and well until callusing has taken place and the rootstock can take over the job of supporting the graftlet.
Many methods are employed in New Zealand, Hawaii, Australia, California, and South Africa.
Some of these methods are: scion painted with a bitumen emulsion or wax, scion wrapped in tape, whole plant bagged in a clear polythene bag, scion enclosed in a clear polythene bag, and the whole plant kept under mist.
All these methods work with varying degrees of success. However, in summer the
Author: Karen M. Cooper
Author: Richard Vanlandingham
Production forecasting can cover a wide range of areas. Some of these areas are scheduling supplies, labor needs, and equipment availability, but the most important area is in forecasts of product saleability. The forecasting of product maturity is important because if plants do not sell when predicted, warehousing becomes necessary and is very expensive.
Production forecasting is interrelated with and dependent upon accurate market and sales forecasts. Sales forecasts consist of sales by product line, territories, by month, week, or other time period, and by accounts. When making a sales forecast certain intangible factors must be estimated before measurable data is completed for the sales forecasts. These include long range trends of prosperity or depression, seasonal
Author: W.L. Corley
Author: Ted Bilderback
Author: D.C. Coston, G.W. Krewer
Author: Donald Mylin
Preparation of Stock Plants: Good healthy stock plants are essential for good cuttings. The majority of our cuttings come from our containerized stock that will be marketed at a future date. These plants are forced into growth in our standard overwintering houses. This commences sometime between February 15 and March 30. Proper maintenance of plants with regard to fertilizer levels and insect control is essential during this time.
Preparation of the Propagating Area: Preparation for a new crop begins by removing all old medium from the house and washing down the benches. All repairs needed are made at this time. Since our benches are wooden, we treat them yearly with a copper naphthenate solution. The entire area is then sprayed with a
Author: Robert B. McCartney
Woodlanders, Inc. is perhaps unique in that we almost totally disregard the kinds of plants other nurseries grow. Instead we concentrate on a very broad range of native and exotic material, which is otherwise unavailable or difficult to find. Our plants are sold throughout the United States and abroad via mail order. Many of the plants we grow are hardy in cold areas, but we specialize in plants for milder climates. This affords a wider range of options horticulturally and serves a part of the
Author: Willard T. Witte, P. Anthony Cope, G. Shannon Smith
- Long days promote continuous growth while short days induce dormancy, as in Weigela florida.
- Long days stimulate repeated periodic growth while short days will induce dormancy, as in Quercus rubra.
- Long days promote continuous growth, but short days will not cause dormancy, as in Juniperus horizontalis.
- Long days prolong the growing period, but plants eventually go dormant regardless of daylength, as in Syringa vulgaris.
It appears that the
Author: Frank F. Willingham Jr
Computer basics. A microcomputer is considered to be a desk top machine, as opposed to mini and main-frame computers, which require much more space and are many times more costly. The so-called "personal" computers are microcomputers. All computers, micros included, have certain features in common: a CPU, an I/O, a clock, and a memory. The CPU (central processing unit) does the work or calculations of the computer. The I/O (input/output) gets data to and from CPU. The clock times the various operations and makes sure the computer doesn't try to do two things at once. The memory
Author: W.R. Scowcroft, P.J. Larkin
Plant improvement and varietal selection originated with the dawn of human society. Under the pressure of deliberate selection many of our domesticated species are distinctly different from their wild relatives. For example, the cabbage, the cauliflower, and brussel sprouts are all derived from the same species, Brassica oleracea, as a consequence of deliberate selection for the specialised development of the leaf, flower, and axillary buds, respectively.
Any varietal improvement program has a set of defined objectives. From an agricultural viewpoint, improvement focuses on those variables which maximise yield and economic return, such as disease resistance, earliness and maturity characteristics, drought tolerance, and features which enhance mechanisation and reduced energy dependent inputs. At the other end of the spectrum, the floriculture and nursery industry may see the maintenance of uniformity on the one hand, and spectacle and uniqueness of new cultivars on the other, as the
Author: Richard A. Jaynes
Author: Charles R. Johnson
Mycorrhizae are categorized into three major groupings: ectomycorrhizae, endomycorrhizae, and ectendomycorrhizae. Ectomycorrhizae are predominantly found in association with coniferous trees, and the fungi that form them have above-ground mushroom fruiting bodies. These disseminate small air-borne spores. They form a thick covering on roots called a mantle, which is essentially an accumulation of mycelium. The most common forms of endomycorrhizae are vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizae, which form
Author: Fred Davies
Some of the problems confronting the nursery industry are increased production costs and greater governmental regulations, which may curtail water usage of water runoff containing undesirable levels of salt fertilizers, fungicides, pesticides, etc. We also need to produce and market more stress-efficient native ornamental plants that utilize lower levels of water and fertilization. The California industry is currently facing strict water runoff regulations and water salinity problems. The Texas nursery industry stands to benefit from more efficient production systems utilizing mycorrhizal fungi that enable production of nursery crops under reduced watering and fertility regimes. Nurseries
Author: James O. Pelton
Author: Robert F. Bock
Sealed or closed propagating structures are not new to IPPS members. The Nearing frame has been mentioned a number of times in the Proceedings. It was noted for use in rooting difficult-to-root material. It emphasized the use of cool north light and a good moisture reserve built in. The air space around the cutting was small and sealed. I felt that the conditions were similar to what the Dutch were doing. I made up my mind then that when I got home I would try their system. The simplicity of the idea seemed so appealing that I ordered a capillary mat and installed it on the floor of a heated house. The floor has porous concrete with hot water pipes below the surface, which produce good steady
Author: Butch Gaddy
Since commencing our operations, we have employed a wide variety of propagation techniques. Initially we experimented with small propagation tents, but those turned out to be inefficient. We next set up a greenhouse using intermittent mist. But we soon discovered that our water source — a nearby pond — contained trash particles that clogged up the mist nozzles even when a filter was used. We then tried brass spinners, but found that method unsatisfactory because of low water pressure and uneven soil saturation.
In 1980, on the advice of Dr. Daniel Milbocker of the
Author: Carroll G. Hall
We have one greenhouse for mist propagation and two greenhouses for hardening-off the rooted cuttings. When necessary the greenhouse can be cleared of some humidity by an exhaust fan. The temperature control is set on 95°F during the summer and 85°F during the fall. Cuttings are placed on raised benches made of treated lumber and expanded metal. This helps
Author: Carl E. Whitcomb
Author: Austin F. Kenyon
The Oklahoma operation which receives low temperatures each year of at least 0°F., primarily grows junipers, deciduous trees, and deciduous shrubs. The Texas operation, with the more gentle Gulf Coast climate, specializes in broad-leaved evergreen plant material, such as, azaleas, hollies, euonymus, pyracantha, pittosporum, etc.
Author: Carl Fletcher Flemer III
How we organize on a daily basis may be completely different from your operations since organization is determined by goals, business philosophy, size, location, product mix, and personnel.
How is our nursery organized? My father started our nursery operation in 1948 and since then our business philosophy has been the same. Ingleside Plantation Nurseries, Inc. is a general line nursery. We produce and grow vines, broadleaved evergreens, conifers, and shade trees in containers, B&B, or bare-rooted for sale to garden centers, landscape contractors, and governmental agencies.
In Oak Grove, Virginia, we have 4 distinct seasons of the year — spring, summer, fall,