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Author: Tok Furuta
John and Jane have been through a lot together. Now they have built a lifestyle that is comfortable, exciting and pleasing — they are not about to give it up easily. They have built some wealth, and they do not want their wealth in paper to be eroded by inflation. How can they maintain their lifestyle, maintain their financial position and
Author: N.P. Matheny, R.W. Harris, J.L. Paul
Moisture Relations in Transplanted Rootballs. After planting, water supply to the top is limited not only by a relatively small amount of water in the rootball but water may be further limited by water loss from the rootball to the soil surrounding the rootball (Figure 1)
Author: Peter B. Smith
As with all differing techniques, there are inevitably disadvantages and advantages when comparisons are made. In the transition from field-produced graftlings, to container-grown graftlings, we believe the advantages far outweigh the disadvantages.
Disadvantages:Higher production costs due to controlled environmental structures, our current capital costs being:
- propagation (controlled environment) house, $150.00/sqm bed space.
- seedling production polyhouse @ $9.00/sqm bed space.
- grafting and training shadehouse @ $7.65/sqm bed space.
- "Hardening Off" open modules @ $1.35/sqm bed space
Author: Rob Van Der Staay
Site. Choice of a level site for the construction of a propagation house of any size is important. The major reasons for this are ease of construction and level installation of mist lines, reducing possible drip. General house construction may be of light-weight bubble or igloo design, or a more substantial glass-house which has been adequately protected from corrosion.
Water Quality. A major concern of any mist system is an adequate quantity
Author: G.K. Meldrum
This is particularly true with camellia in which root formation is so slow that the cutting may expend its store of energy, or for some other reason, die before developing a root system of its own. Such an eventually is less likely in kinds of cuttings that root quickly. Unlike some plant species which
Author: Bruce Tibballs
Mr. Stan Clark, who is composting and marketing the material, believes a period of 20 to 24 months is essential to completely break down the solid particles of bark. He has found that after 18 months considerable heat returns to the stockpile if it is turned over. This pile should consist of at least 75 m3 to get 55 to 60°C temperatures for pathogen control. This is achieved without the addition of any form of nitrogen. However, small trials in compost bins with chemicals added only gave 43°C for a period of eight days, but this then dropped back to 15.5°C.
Partly composted materials also create a problem with earthworms. They chew it up and almost completely empty tube stock, not leaving enough medium for the plant to
Author: Gordon Lamb
Group I. 4 pounds U.F.38 lime, trace elements, 5 pounds 280-day Osmocote. (Control)
Group 2. 4 pounds U.F. 38 lime, 5 pounds Sierra Blend
Group 3. 4 pounds U.F. 38 lime, 4 pounds Sierra Blend, 1 pound 100-day Osmocote
Group 4. 4 pounds U.F. 38 lime, 3 pounds Sierra Blend, 2 pounds 100-day Osmocote
Group 5. 4 pounds U.F. 38 lime, 4 pounds Sierra Blend, 2 pounds 100-day Osmocote
Group 6. 4 pounds U.F. 38 lime, 2 pounds Sierra Blend, 2 pounds 100-day Osmocote
Group 7. 4 pounds U.F. 38 lime, 2½ pounds Sierra Blend, 2 pounds 100-day Osmocote
Group 8. 4 pounds U.F. 38 lime, 1 pound Sierra Blend, 2 pounds 100-day Osmocote
The plants selected for experimentation were Grevilea biternata, G. robusta, G.
Author: Alan M. Gray
I have selected some species which I believe have considerable merit and the potential to become desirable ornamentals. Not only is it desirable to introduce and produce these plants on account of their unquestionable aesthetic value but, surely, as our natural forests and bushlands are being decimated at an increasing rate it is vital that we make the effort to preserve some of these plants for posterity.
It has been my frustrating experience that many commercial nurseries are reluctant to undertake the propagation and production of
Author: Ron Richards
All the essential chemical elements needed for plant growth are contained in the flowing film of nutrients. Following uptake of nutrients, the acidity varies, and adjustments are made with phosphoric or nitric acids. The depletion of nutrients may be measured electrically and adjustments made using specifically formulated "top-up" solutions.
In Tasmania six commercial enterprises are currently using N.F.T. to produce crops of tomatoes, and experiments are in progress with cucumbers, carnations and chrysanthemums.
Author: Rob Van Der Staay
There are many forms of pH meters available today. These range from pH soil testing kits for less than $10 in garden shops to very expensive and elaborate units found in research laboratories costing in excess of $600. Meters available for soil testing can be reasonably priced at about $200 and give very reliable and accurate results. The only reliable measurement of pH is via what is called a glass bulb pH electrode. When purchasing such a pH unit or electrode, get what is called a combination electrode, as it has its reference and pH electrode built in one; pH electrodes require what they call a reference electrode, but purchase of a combination electrode will not necessarily mean a purchase of another electrode.
Measuring pH is relatively simple in soil. A simple procedure is to take a sample of soil in a clean cup or beaker and add sufficient water to make up a paste rather like a sloppy mud-pie mix. Mix well and allow to stand for approximately 15 to 20 minutes. Mix again and
Author: Penelope Rose, Lynne Twentyman
While the various operating areas of a nursery are intimately related, each one can be considered as a separate entity from the point of view of a systems design (Figure 1).
Author: Arnold Teese
Although many maples can be budded or even grown from cuttings — and some are better
Author: Lydiane Kyte, Bruce Briggs
Growers looking for information on how to get started can find help through many sources (5). Among these are agricultural extension agents, colleges, experiment stations, libraries, tissue culture and horticultural organizations, companies that sell tissue culture supplies, and from nurseries engaged in plant tissue culture. Courses in plant
Author: Robert Kasteel
African violets are not a difficult crop to grow if you understand them and their conditions. The important environmental considerations are as follows:
Light. The emphasis is on light intensity rather than day-length. The optimum solar radiant flux density is 1100 ft. candles. Extensive yellowing occurs in the foliage of African violets which are exposed to radiant energy levels above 1200 ft. candles. This is due to chlorophyll destruction by the radiant energy. Light intensity above 1100 ft. candles reduces the number of flowers per plant in some cultivars. More commonly, the initiation of flowers by African violets is seriously limited at radiant flux densities below 300 ft. candles. A radiant flux of 100 ft.
Author: Jack Pike
Figure 1. Classification of Soil Moisture. From "Irrigation Principles and Practices" 3rd Ed., Israelson, O.W. and Hansen, V.E. (3).
Excess or gravitational water will rapidly drain from the soil under the forces of gravity. This water lies in between the saturation and the field capacity points.
Available or capillary water is the free water available to the plant, held in the soil by capillary forces and thus drainage is very slow. It lies between the field capactiy and the permanent wilting point.
Unavailable or hygroscopic water lies beyond the permanent wilting point. Unavailable water is held too tightly in the soil by the capillary forces and surface tension and is not accessible to the plant roots.
The phenomenon of capillary rise of liquids
Author: Ian D. Geard
Consideration of disease can be based on what is sometimes called "The Disease Triangle" (Figure 1). It is self evident that to have disease there must be a host and a pathogen but the mere presence of these two does not necessarily mean that a disease problem will result. There are few, if any, fungi encountered in nursery propagation which are so virulent and so infectious that their presence is a virtual guarantee of disease. The influence of the third element of this triangle, the environment, is vitally important in determining the outcome and whether or not disease results.
This Disease Triangle represents the three important elements in the natural situation but in crop production generally, and in nursery production in particular, there is another important factor which
Author: Robert E. Harris, John H. Stevenson
Author: Marcus A. Petersen
We have a dividing range of mountains running north to south. On the eastern side of this range we have a very fertile coastal strip, with rainfalls ranging from 50 inches in the south to over 200 inches in the tropical coastal zone in the north. To the west of the range the rainfall decreases inland and a large area of the western region has less than 10 inches of rain per year and is subject to very bad drought periods at times.
The major part of our population of 2½ million lives along the coastal region with about one million of these living in the state capitol, Brisbane, which is in the southeast corner of the state. Most of the nursery production takes place in this area. Nurseries in the north of
Author: David R. Roberts
In Northern California, spring sales generally break loose in early March. For many greenhouse operations this means spring color production must get off to a fast start in December and January. For most growers, this means waiting for poinsettias to clear out and then quickly replanting. It is extremely important to have seedlings, cell paks, bulbs, or pots for shifting ready to fill up emptying greenhouses. These crops can be for finishing in early
Author: David L. Morgan
Plants propagated asexually (vegetatively) through cuttings reproduce all the genetic information of the parent plant. This is why the unique characteristics of any plant can be perpetuated by establishing a clone. Cuttings taken from a tree genetically resistant to the formation of insect-induced mealy-oak galls, for example, should be expected to grow into gall-free trees.
There may exist further reasons for vegetative propagation of oaks, such as availability of cutting material when acorn crops are poor or out of season; it may prove easier, more rapid, and more
Author: Howard C. Brown
Before discussing the agriculture that we saw I would like to consider this Leadership Program because I believe it is one of the most important developments that has taken place in agriculture in recent years.
The program was initiated by the Agricultural Education Foundation and is funded entirely by agricultural organizations. It costs $240,000 to run a class of 30 through a two-year program. The objective is to select young people between the ages of 27 and 40 who have demonstrated leadership ability and show the potential for even greater leadership. Working with the Agricultural Education Foundation are the deans of agriculture of four California universities — the two Cal Polys, Fresno State and the University of California at Davis.
Candidates are interviewed by six screening committees, with a requirement that 80% of the class must be
Author: Robert L. Mazalewski, Wesley P. Hackett
Author: C.J. Alley
Most persons beginning to drink wine will choose a sweet to slightly sweet white table wine because it more clearly resembles non-alcholic beverages to which they are accustomed. Red table wines are more harsh than white wines and the desert wines, which are higher in alcoholic content, are more difficult to drink. Because of the increased demand for white table wines a shortage in this type of wine is now present along with somewhat of a surplus of many common red wines. Consequently there is a higher premium paid for fruit of the white table wine cultivars than for the reds. In some of the
Author: Bart Schutzman
Seeds of 14 species of xerophytic, succulent plants representing the Cactaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Passifloraceae and Vitaceae were given combinations of various pre-treatments including the following:
- 24-hour soak in 200 ppm gibberellic acid solution
- 3-minute soak in 0.1% thiourea solution
- hot water soak
- mechanical scarification
- leaching for 24–36 hours
Also used was a post-planting treatment, namely complete darkness surrounding the seed flats during the germination period.
The seeds were planted using randomized complete block design and germination was monitored. No
Author: John A. Delargy
Author: Graeme C. Platt
Because of the desire of New Zealand's early settlers to have gardens that reminded them of their home country, great efforts were made to grow and propagate plants from all over the world. Many of those that grew well are, for the most part, on our noxious weeds list today, and a number of those early garden plants have been propagated continuously up until the modern time. While this was going on, New Zealand's natural flora was being destroyed during the process of clearing land for farming and horticulture. A number of New Zealand plant species were taken overseas, and to this day a few of our plants are more widely grown outside the country than they are in New Zealand. There are thousands of gardens in New Zealand that don't contain one indigenous plant. New Zealand gardeners have been slow to
Author: Andrew D. Maloy
As the leaves unfold and develop they are a beautiful shade of rich pink which makes a most spectacular display. As the foliage matures it changes to creamy white shades and then to a deep green for the rest of the growing season. It requires warm conditions and shelter from wind which can destroy the tender pink spring foliage.
Cedrela is an extremely popular tree for the home garden and is, therefore, a very worthwhile subject to be grown in the nursery. It grows well in containers and even when young produces the spectacular spring foliage.
Cedrela has a tendency to sucker from adventitious buds on the roots, and given favorable conditions one Cedrela plant can become a large cluster of many plants. This gives rise to the main method of propagation
Author: Barrie L. McKenzie
In ten years we have seen considerable leaps in the value of live plant exports. The following is the F.O.B. value of live plants exports (ref. N.Z. Statistics Department).1969 — $39,600
1972 — $96,800
1976 — $141,195
1978 — $530,859 (export to 27
Author: M.B. Thomas
Author: Walter P. Miller
A second reason for grafting is the widespread problem of Phytophthora which causes sudden collapse and the death of the plant. Some rootstocks are less prone to this disease, therefore, scions grafted on these stocks have an advantage when grown under less favorable conditions.
Selection of Rootstocks. The choice of a suitable rootstock is very important and like all root understocks has a definite bearing on the future success of the plants.The four rootstocks commonly used in this country are:
Rhododendron ‘Elegans’ (‘Roseum Elegans’? Bot. Ed.)
Rhododendron ‘Sir Robert Peel’
Rhododendron ‘Cunningham's White’
R. Ponticum. In England and America R. Ponticum
Author: Ian D. Ivey
Author: D. McKenzie
- new rootstocks, e.g. BAC 29, ‘Colt’ cherry, Aotea selections
- new cultivars from quarantine, e.g. ‘Red Fuji’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Gloster’
- new hybrids from breeding
- new virus-free selections
- new colour sports, e.g. ‘Red Delicious’, ‘Royal Gala’, ‘Braeburn’
- new kinds of fruit, e.g. Nashi pear, persimmon, loquat
The New Zealand Tree Crops Association has recognized the problem in the development of new kinds of walnuts, hazelnuts and chestnuts and, in order to find some solution to this frustrating delay, they have decided to establish a special trust fund that
Author: D.S. Anderson
The move into the topsoil business was the first step towards forging links with the horticultural trade and with the forming of N.Z. Peat Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary company, whose purpose it was to mine peat at Ngatea on the Hauraki Plains. Following this the step to blending mixes of a U.C. type became apparent.
Using the Hauraki peat and mixing with a suitable grade pumice sand, dredged from the Waikato river at Tuakau the company, which had now changed its name to Smith Soil Industries, began supplying mixes blended to each customer's requirements.
The use of slow-release nutrients became apparent and, with the addition of slow-release trace elements, container plant
Author: Andrew D. Maloy
The mix that we pot our rooted cuttings and seedlings into has 25% peat, 25% bark, 50% pumice. This is because the particle size of the bark is too coarse for the young plants. The source of the bark is Pinus radiata from the Thames area and is processed by Granulated Bark Supplies in Kumeu, Auckland. It is granulated by a hammer milling process and has not been composted or stored for any periods prior to being used in the potting mixes. The pH of the bark as it is delivered to us is 4.2 compared to Hauraki peat 3.75, and Kiwi peat 4.5. The bark and pumice is mixed in a paddle mixer and, during the mixing process, fertilizers are
Author: Robert Browne
The main use of this plant for me is as bonsai material. The growth appears naturally stunted and the leaf structure is very fine. It is endemic to the west coast of the Auckland district where it grows in great abundance. This plant does not grow through the normal juvenile stages and will flower after six years from seed planting. The flowers appear in mid-spring and the seed is ready to harvest in late summer. This kowhai has also proved to be very resistant to drought conditions.
Seed Germination. The secret of my quick and even germination of seed is the time of seed collection. The seed must not be allowed to harden at all, but at the same time must be allowed to develop fully. This is difficult to convey, but my simple test seems to be successful. I collect the seed at a time when I can, but with some difficulty, cleanly cut a seed in half with my thumb nail. If the seed
Author: Hudson T. Hartmann, John E. Whisler
Author: R. Noel McMillan
In order to give the problems of production some meaning, I would like to move through the production stages and relate some of the difficulties experienced at these stages.
Planting. Basically there is one rule, "Cleanliness and the avoidance of extremes in all aspects is essential". A standard
Author: D. Cohen, D. Elliott
In the case of blueberry, multiplication is achieved by cutting the shoots which develop in culture into single node segments. A multiplication rate of about 5 fold every 6 weeks has been achieved. Small shoots about 2 cm long can be easily rooted in seedling flats under high humidity conditions.
In the case of tamarillo, multiplication is achieved by a combination of enhanced auxiliary bud development and adventitious buds arising from the swollen stem base. A multiplication rate of 6 to 8 fold every 2 weeks has been achieved. Rooting can be carried out either in sterile culture or directly in a seeding flat.
Author: B.H. Howard, H.R. Shepherd
Sixty years of research into the use of clonal rootstocks for fruit trees has shown how they influence many important tree characters, of which tree size has been studied more than any other. It has been suggested, largely on the basis of observation, that rootstock influence extends to at least 53 genera of woody plants (9). Clonal rootstock attributes of particular interest to nurserymen include the following:
- Uniform and rapid plant establishment associated with a fibrous root system.
- High level of bud-take based on specific compatibility tests.
- Uniform growth because all the stocks are of the same genetic make-up.
- Known performance in relation to soil-borne diseases.
These important advantages noted for fruit must be
Author: Nicholas D. Dunn
Author: D.N. Whalley
Cuttings taken in February gave best rooting in all cases and those from lateral branches rooted better than those from shoot tips. Growth rates were measured during a full season in containers. The influences of age of tree, method of staking, and soil type on establishment and growth, when transplanted into the field, were also studied.
Clones superior in rooting and growth to those commercially grown were identified. Staking was beneficial only on a light, sandy soil type.
Author: J.S. Watkins
The first problem, and a major one, was trying to find any suitable material for scions. However, by some means or other, about 100 scions were grafted with a take of 20 to 25%. These plants were potted and the subsequent growth was quite good thanks mainly to the understock. It was decided to try budding that summer and strange to relate the success rate was similar, a take of around 25%, and again the growth response the following year was very good. Now we have solved the problem of good quality material for grafting and budding and the
Author: Christopher K.A. Verstage
There are various means available to the propagator, e.g. seed, layering, and cuttings.
Seed. This is not a commercial method, as good seed is not easily obtained and does tend to have double dormancy.
Layering. This has been the standard practice for producing plants up until recent times when cuttings have taken over as the best method.
Stock plants are lined out about 2 m apart each way, the beds are top dressed with waste cutting compost, which is worked into the soil to give a good medium for the layers to root into. A shoot from the stock plant is pulled down and pegged into the soil surface; where the stem is bent into the ground the stem is wounded to help in the rooting
Author: Stewart St. John
- Limited capital required
- Plenty of scope competing with imports
- Cheap source of seed — locally collected
- Working alongside knowledgeable people on the subject
- Interesting and challenging subject in itself
- Local outlets
Type of plants to be produced
- One-year-old lining-out stock
- Understocks for grafting and budding
- Hedging material
- Potted stocks for grafting — birch, beech, Robinia yew.
Chosing a site. One should choose a site with a light to medium well-drained soil. My progress has been stifled by having to start on sites that held these drawbacks:Half-acre plot right next to the river: subject to flooding and frosts. Soil is fertile but heavy and difficult to work when wet.
Top of a hill: very exposed, cold site. Land is ridge and furrow, causing irregular soil depth: poor drainage and difficult to mechanize.
Seedlings in their first year benefit greatly from warmth. An ideal site would be well sheltered, especially from the southwest, flat or with a
Author: Volker Behrens
But up till now only few investigations are published on questions like the following: in which amount should these fertilizers be given to grow containerized
Author: Roger Wasley
On our nursery we have most of the stock plants outside but we have some, e.g. Berberis ‘Harlequin’, ‘Darts Red Lady’, ‘Pink Queen’, ‘Rose Glow’, ‘Gold Ring’ and ‘Green Carpet’ planted under polythene to produce a large amount of growth fairly quickly. This is the first year I have had this type of stock plant under cover and so far the signs are encouraging as the growth produced is first class.
Now to the mechanics of the operation. There are two types of cuttings taken on the nursery, one type for the mist unit and the other for cold frames. The first method used during the year is the mist unit and
Author: Wesley A. Humphrey, Thomas W. Mock
Author: Keith Loach
The first recorded use of mist (3) by G.E.L. Spencer in 1936 was for propagation of cacao cuttings and was apparently unsuccessful. It attracted little attention at the time but at the end of that decade Rains, Gardner, and Fisher in the United States independently used mist systems for a wide range of species with considerable success. Through the 1940s mist was tried by an
Author: David N. Clark
While the time scale for the operation could be simplified into one year planning, one year construction, one year debugging, the decision, in principle, to build a new propagation facility had been made a few years earlier — in fact, at least 28 years ago, according to the oldest member of the propagation staff. In preparation for the new unit, Ivan has been building up a team of staff capable of exploiting the new facilities for the past four years. We had also reappraised the propagation systems we were using including rooting media, direct rooting systems, types of liner pots, etc.
Objectives in planning a new propagation and liner unit:
- Provide near optimum growing environment facilities for the wide range of plants propagated and techniques used. Maximize use of space in this
Author: Margaret A. Scott
The experimental programme with hardy nursery stock deals mainly with container production plus some work on propagation. Between 1973–78 there was a rapid expansion in the volume of work. In order to have confidence in the accuracy of results from experiments, uniform batches of cuttings were required. This proved virtually impossible to obtain with bought-in material. Often greater differences occurred among plants within the same treatment than among the treatments themselves. Neither could there be firm guarantees of when cuttings would be available and occasionally mixed cultivars occurred which made interpretation of results more difficult. Hence it was decided to propagate our own material for trials.
Author: Peter Howarth
Regrettably in the 1978–1979 winter we lost many of these hybrids growing outdoors, the amazing thing being that many of the Japanese hybrids came through better than say, ‘J.C. Williams’ or ‘Donation’.
Under Rokolene net tunnels a similar situation occurred when the newer Williamsii hybrids stood up to the severe weather
Author: Christopher Lloyd
Rheum australe (R. emodi) strikes me as a handsomer rhubarb than the more widely grown R. palmatum, because its leaves are more deeply incised and the rich purple coloring on their undersurfaces is long retained. The pure white inflorescence, borne in May, shows up well against a dark background.
The liliaceous Veratrum album carries a striking, branched inflorescence whose whiteness shows up more tellingly in a general garden or landscape setting than the better known, dark maroon-flowered V. nigrum, which is in more general circulation. V. album has a long effective season from July onwards. It produces an abundance of seed, but about 4 years is
Author: A.R. Carter
It started with a recommendation of the book, Daphne, by C.D. Brickell and B. Mathew, published by the Alpine Garden Society.
A list of plants that provided a seasonably reliable seed set was given. Although experience was limited among group members, it was stated by one that his Daphne giraldii did not crop regularly.D. acutiloba D. m. 'Alba'
D. giraldii  D. oleoides
D. laureola D. pontica
D. longilobata D. retusa
D. mezereum D. tangutica
In general, seed should be collected before the berries are fully colored. Birds can be troublesome and greenfinches will take the berries whilst still green.
Arther Carter described an experiment with seed of Daphne mezereum taken from berries at different stages of ripeness on 15 June 1974. The results expressed as numbers of seed germinated in spring 1975 showed
Author: John Stanley
It was agreed by all that direct rooting was aimed at reducing the movement of newly rooted plants.
Rooting Cells. The discussion followed on to talk about what "cells" or rooting units have been used in the industry in recent years, with comments from the group on their advantages and disadvantages.
The following is a list of the rooting units which are available and have been used commercially or in trials at colleges and experimental stations:
- SYNTHETIC PREFORMED PROPAGATION BLOCKS.
- Foamed Polyurethane. This type of block is based on flexible foam, which was first marketed in America. Types:
Baystraat. These blocks were produced by Bayer in pre-cut sheets.
Nutri-foam. Developed by Dow Chemicals. These blocks tend to suffer from surface water drainage and saturation at the base of the block due to the pore characteristics of
Author: Brian Humphrey
Author: Bruce MacDonald
Author: P.D.A. McMillan Browse
Obtaining Seeds. A list was circulated of commercial seed houses and comments made on the extent of their lists and reliability of supply.
Some discussion took place on the merits of collecting one's own seed where it was possible. It was emphasized that this was not necessarily a cheap alternative as labor requirements were extensive if seed was to be brought to the state of being a clean, well presented sample. It did, however, permit the collector to positively identify his material, to be able to select parent trees for superior, typical, or desirable characteristics and collect at any particular time that was deemed to be advantageous. It was also emphasized that seed bearing, unusual, ornamental woody plants were, more often than not, present in most localities and it was merely a matter of locating such
Author: Charles Parkerson
Propagation Decisions. A propagation system starts with a basic decision as to the type of production that works best for one's business and climate. Since the bulk of our efforts are directed to plants for 2 and 3 gallon production, this paper will concentrate on this system. For many years cuttings were rooted into 2¼" rose pots during the summer and carried over in
Author: Ivor Stanger
During the five years of managership from 1972 to 1977 I became aware, as many others of you must have done, that to build up a new retail nursery with a very wide range of plants specializing in unusual and rare subjects, whilst in a very tight inflationary spiral, was a difficult task.
Now it seems we are off on another round of inflation which will again mean difficulty in budgeting and forecasting with any accuracy.
With this in mind, I think that nurseries, whether wholesale or retail, will have to examine profit margins more closely than before. What has occurred to me is to compare certain plants and their profitability with their relative ease of growing and their popularity with plants in similar groups.
Take, for example, Rhododendron ‘Princess Anne’ (R. hanceanum var
Author: Denis McCarthy
Author: Alan Mitchell
Flowers or autumn color are spectacular but brief and have a low score on their own. Foliage is of long duration or is permanent (evergreen) and so has a high score. Bark is permanent and is best seen on deciduous trees in winter and therefore scores highly. Any combinations of the above add greatly to value. Ease of propagation, and hence (but not necessarily) ease of acquisition, is considered secondary, even if decisive.
Some trees with high general scores.
Arbutus menziesii. Pacific madrone. Evergreen, rich bark colors; prominent flowers, colored fruit; good
Author: Don O. Shadow
The outside propagation beds were built from round peeler core posts (8 ft × 5 in). Being the same dimension throughout, they connect well with strapnail fasteners. The beds are 48 feet long by 4 feet wide with 3 feet isles. Future plans call for underground electrical supply of 24 volts in the beds.
The beds are covered with a wire frame made from 6 by 6 in square construction wire, cut every 13 squares, to make a circular frame without any additional bending. The frame's rough ends are bent, and the whole frame is dipped in a non-fiber asphalt roofing compound diluted with enough gasoline to make it more workable. After drying, the frames are placed on top of the beds and fastened with a long staple at each corner. The staples work much better for me than a bent nail. The above procedure gives a good smooth circular surface on which shade cloth or
Author: Peter Orum, John Wilde, Dieter Schumacher, Gary Knosher
What does this mean to us anyway? Making our propagation departments more efficient means that we will produce more plants at a lower cost per plant with the same effort we are already putting into it! And producing more plants at a lower unit costs means more profit. Profit is the lifeblood of business. And that is just as valid for commercial propagators as it is for General Motors. The more profit we propagators make, the more new and better facilities we build, the more propagator meetings we go to, the more plant excursions we go on, the more plants to produce for an expanding market, and the more people we put to work. So the more profit there is, the more life there is. It is high time that we commercial propagators
Author: John R. Hannah
Author: J.B. Fletcher
The first shear machine we made used a 1½ horse power electric motor which turned 3450 RPM's. The motor had a double shaft which allowed us to mount a 16" cutting blade on the bottom and a 12" fan blade on the top. This machine worked as well as our present machine, however, it required an extra person to control the electrical extension cord and a 12 horse power portable power plant to run the electric motor.
Another version of the shear machine is the lawn mower type. This type did not work well for us on junipers. It left a lot of clippings on top of the plants, the cuts
Author: J. Peter Vermeulen
Poly-covered overwintering structures for our container-grown nursery stock, which consists of woody ornamentals ranging from Abies to Zelkova, are a costly requirement for the production of top quality stock.
Our structures are variations of the quonset (hoop) style houses quite common in the trade. Because of the consistency of our soil, a silt loam, we have problems with our houses moving up and down from the heaving effect of frost. Initially we had problems with wind entering the houses and drying the containerized stock inside. We solved this by using a double layer of poly stapled to a 2" × 4" wooden stringer running the length of
Author: A. Bruce MacDonald
Hadlow College is situated in Kent, some 30 miles south of London. The village of Hadlow lies between the towns of Maidstone and Tonbridge. As horticultural and agricultural colleges function, Hadlow is relatively new in that it was founded in 1967. It was formed with the amalgamation of two Farm Institutes in Kent — Swanley, which was devoted to horticulture, and Sittingbourne — where the bias was agriculture and fruit growing.
The structure of the college is basically as follows: Firstly, there is the College Principal,K.E. Garner, and he is backed up by Adam Sommerville, who is both Vice-Principal and head of Horticulture. Within the Horticulture Department there are the college lecturers, the great majority of whom teach and instruct in specialist subjects. Working closely with them are the technical instructors, whose involvement is teaching students the practical skills. If one takes the nursery stock section, then Chris Lane as senior instructor is very much responsible for the planning
Author: Joseph A. Bowers
Therefore get to know your camera, its assets and limitations. The proper way to hold the camera is with your left hand under the lens, with your thumb and index finger manipulating the focusing ring and other settings. Use your right hand to hold the camera body and to depress the shutter release. Keep your elbows close to your body to minimize camera movement. For low light conditions requiring a long exposure, use a tripod and cable release. Other alternatives are to lean against a tree or building, or rest the
Author: Tom Wood
Among United Kingdom nurserymen there is an increasing awareness in the need for specialization in the containerized market for Garden Centres, which is particularly attractive to marketing groups, and the awareness of the need for purpose-grown stock particularly smaller feathered trees, potted shrubs, and herbaceous plants.
Specialist producers are now concentrating either on landscaping and its plant requirements, high quality choice or upmarket plants for the plant enthusiast, heavy standards and larger specimens for local authorities and, in particular, indigenous trees and shrubs which are used in considerable quantities for conservation and the landscaping of industrial developments and roadworks. It is in this last specialist need that we have developed our production technique and it is by relating our own experiences to meet this need that I hope to convey something of our own particular part in nursery production in England. Our development is very closely
Author: John W. Hart, James W. Hanover
At Michigan State University, research has been
Author: Gary L. Koller
Author: H.S. Bhella
Author: Peter Vermeulen
The recognition is that of his/her fellow members by nomination, which only makes the granting of the award that much more esteemed. The award committee functions only to solicit, screen and make final determination, completely separate and apart from opinions or desires of the officers other than the exercise of their privilege to nominate, the same privilege accorded to every member. The award is made only, when in the opinion of the committee, it is warranted. The 1979 committee is immensely pleased to say that it has so determined and is much warranted.
Our Award of Merit recipient was born in Providence, R.I., November 13, 1923. With one notable
Author: A Bruce MacDonald
- Contributions by the nurseryman.
- Contributions by the research stations.
- Contributions by the advisory (extension) service of the Ministry of Agriculture.
However, one cannot in reality look at them as isolated compartments, as many ideas have been join efforts within two, or all three sections.
Author: Douglas J. Chapman
Softwood cuttings were used in this study so that the plants could be grown on using accelerated growth techniques after propagation (6,7,8,10). It was felt that juvenility moves acropetally in plants, and juvenile plants (seedlings) are more photoperiodic responsive than mature plants (9,10). If this hypothesis held up, one could maximize growth. Softwood cuttings of the aforementioned Acer species were
Author: J.F. Ahrens
Author: David H. Bakker
We use the following procedures: Plants are dug in the fall or early spring when they are dormant. Sometimes the foliage is "sweated off", as with rose bushes. Botran spray is applied on storage in bins. The bins are made out of 2" × 4" lumber and placed on pallets so that cold air can pass under the bin as well as over the top since the floor gives off some heat. Plants are placed root to root and a layer of paper waste (called clarifier), obtained from a
Author: Clayton W. Fuller
We always gather our cuttings from the best growing stock in the nursery. In our area, cuttings are taken the 4th week of June. They are taken only from the most vigorously growing plants. The cuttings we make are 6 to 7 inches in length and about the diameter of a lead pencil. They are put in bundles of 25 in the field as they are made, and held together with an elastic band. They then are brought into the propagating work area where the bottom 2 or 3 sets of leaves are removed. We do not recut the cuttings; thus reducing the labor in the work area. We never remove any part on the terminal growth, because we feel that natural self-branching is sufficient. We also find that it checks the growth of the plant later on in its growth cycle.
Author: D.L. Hensley, R.E. McNeil
Nitrogen fixation by legumes has long been recognized and has become an important part of modern agriculture. The occurrence of nodules and nitrogen fixation by non-legume angiosperms is less noted but offers many potential uses.
The first occurrence of nodules on nonlegumes was recorded early in the nineteenth century
Author: Philip A. Barker, D. Carl Freeman
From an ecological viewpoint, there seems good reason for expression of sexual flexibility in plants. Because of immobility, plant survival depends on the ability to cope in place, whatever the environmental stresses may be. Charnov and Bull (3) proposed that "labile sex determination (not fixed at conception) is favored by natural selection when an individual's fitness (as a male or female) is strongly influenced by environmental
Author: Ralph Shugert, Bruce Briggs
MODERATOR SHUGERT: Question for Gary Koller. Do you have blight problems with Aesculus parviflora? Have you propagated this plant?
GARY KOLLER: We have had no major problem with it. I have seen some leaf scorch in a few areas.
MICHAEL DIRR: It will propagate from root pieces, suckers and seeds.
JOE MCDANIEL: A. parviflora is susceptible to leaf hopper damage and scorch will set in after an infestation.
RALPH SHUGERT: We can not grow it in Ohio. I think it has a heat problem.
MODERATOR SHUGERT: I have a very hardy Tilia cordata from a northern source. Where can I obtain rootstock of comparable hardiness?
DAVE BAKKER: From the federal experimental farm at Mordon, Manatoba.
MODERATOR SHUGERT: I have several superior selections of Celtis occidentalis. How can I profitably propagate them?
JOE MCDANIEL: I have several superior sele
Author: Leonard P. Stoltz
Author: K. Welsh, K.C. Sink, H. Davidson
Actively growing shoots were a prerequisite for a high percent rooting of proliferated shoots. Eighty-five percent of shoots cultured on ½ strenght LS + 0.5 mg/l indolebutyric acid (IBA) developed roots within 10 days. Phenolic secretion that inhibited growth was controlled by preconditioning explants on potato dextrose agar or LS basal medium by a series of 3-day subcultures.
Author: Brent McCown, Ron Amos
Author: Shu-Ching Huang, D.F. Millikan
Callus tissue can be induced on many plant species, aseptically removed, and cultured under in vitro conditions. Culture of such tissue provides healthy
Author: Richard H. Zimmerman
The laboratory was built in the basement of the main building of a Technical Agricultural Institute in Cesena. The laboratory consists of a media preparation room, a dishwashing and autoclave room, a transfer room, a large growth room, and office and storage space. The rooms are large, well-lit and constructed so that maintaining a clean work environment is facilitated. The capital cost for the laboratory was about $200,000.
The laboratory facilities are well designed with a good work flow from one section to another. Six large
Author: Lydiane Kyte, Bruce Briggs
(See page 90 for complete text of this paper.)PAUL READ: Would you comment on stock plant manipulation and cultivar differences?
BRUCE BRIGGS: I feel that you should bring the stock plant into a greenhouse and give it the best growing conditions. Do not water the tops so as not to contaminate the new growth. This is the best we have devised to get the plant into the proper condition. In conifers they have taken mature tissue and grafted it onto juvenile understock. After they get that to grow they put it in tissue culture. There is, considerable cultivar differences in rhododendrons. Cytokinins appear to be the factor most influencing success.
DICK JAYNES: Do cuttings from tissue cultured plants propagate more readily than cuttings from older plants?
BRUCE BRIGGS: Yes.
Author: John Ganzer
Our involvement came from discussions with suppliers on the future of the rootstock business and the fact there were many new rootstocks on the horizon and some old ones which had the viruses removed, but
Author: Mark Zilis, Douglas Zwagerman, David Lamberts, Lawrence Kurtz
Author: William Mertens
Author: Hugh Steavenson
One of the more sage nurseryman put it this way: "We used to take two or three years to produced a gallon can plant. Now they never see a birthday."
We are in-ground, or field growers. A specialty with us is hardy deciduous tree and shrub seedlings of which we grow several million and almost 100 species. About 100 acres, or one-fourth of our nursery area, is devoted to seedling production. These find their way into a number of markets in 49 states — for canning and field lining, for understock, for various conservation and highway plantings. Many are of ideal size for mail-order nurseries, for packaging, for hedging and other direct uses.
With few exceptions, it is desirable, indeed economically necessary, to produce the
Author: Jack Alexander, Michael A. Dirr
SIDNEY WAXMAN: Pinus strobus 'Yu Coon' is a dense fast growing shrub or small tree grown from seed obtained from a witches' broom. Unlike normal white pines, it retains the lower branches. Its dense branching develops naturally without pruning. The dimensions of this plant, after having been grown for 15 years are 10½ feet tall and 7 feet broad.
Larix x eurolepsis (unnamed cultivar) is a weeping, spreading tree. Its most interesting characteristic is that the major branches tend to grow horizontally and undulate, while the secondary branches weep. Its winder character is also of interest.
Sciadopitys verticillata (unnamed cultivar) has several chracteristics that are desirable. The foliage is deep green. The needles do not bronze in the winter but retain their green color and become glossy. Also this particular tree was selected
Author: H.B. Turkey Jr
Physiologists ask the nature of the signals, which cells perceive them, and why root cells are produced and not some other type. These are important considerations, because the theory of totipotency suggests that cells in plants have the genetic information to make a complete new plant.
First, what types of cells have the ability to rejuvenate, de-differentiate or to divide again, and where are these cells located? Many cells are so differentiated that it is difficult if not impossible for them to
Author: Jack Siebenthaler
Curiously, while many northerners long for the chance to loll under the evergreen palms and other flora of the Sunshine State, southern residents complain that we do not have the wonderful change of seasons with its colorful foliage. Many of these people have simply not stopped to take stock of the wonderful color displayed by the many species of tropical trees that abound in Florida.
While not an absolute substitute for the rainbow of color accompanying the frost periods of the north, many flowering trees do bloom in the cool weather months of the Deep South. Many valuable introductions from more exotic areas can be used along with those presently grown to give color during the fall and winter.
Surely, few sugar maples are more spectacular than the glory of mature
Author: Peter E. Girard Sr
The first step is to write down what is wanted from a cross. Do we want to gain hardiness, compactness, certain foliage color, or improved flower texture?
The next step is to find out all we can about the parent plants we intend to use. This is important. Even though the parent is attractive, recessive undesirable characteristics may appear in its offspring. Therefore, we need to know the origin of the parent plants in order to predict what we may expect from the next generation. Our breeding record is shown in Table 1.
I set out many years ago to try to develop an azalea that would withstand the occasional
Author: Peter Van Der Giessen
During the fuel shortage of 1976 we decided we must find a method that would produce a crop without requiring so much fuel. Since then we have experimented with houses closed at each end, with houses open at each end, with different soil mixes and with other variations in technique. Although we are not certain exactly why, I can tell you about the methods that have worked for Cottage Hill and perhaps you can adapt these methods to your own operation.
Over the last few years we have developed a heating method for our propagation that has saved us an increasing amount each winter.
Author: Randall E. Strode, Patricia A. Travers, Raymond P. Oglesby
Author: Bill Lawson
Everything is done outside in open beds, each holding approximately 100,000 liners. We start preparation by tilling the soil. We then take a soil sample, make the necessary adjustments with fertilizer and lime, apply a nematacide and a prophylactic dose of fungicide and, finally, fumigate the soil by injecting Brozone.1 This is a form of methyl bromide, which we use because it is effective at low temperatures, and we do most of our fumigating during the cold season.
After soil preparation is completed, we install galvanized pipe mist lines. Eight 48-inch beds are irrigated by a single line, 4 beds on each side. Each of these 8-bed sections has a single time clock that controls both the mist, and or both at the same time.
Author: Robert C. Hare
Author: Richard W. Henley
Author: P.L. Neel
Author: Larry Carville
One of the keys to successful propagation is to do things at the proper time. This is true whether it involves taking cuttings, transplanting into beds, or any of the other myriad operations associated with nursery production. At Rhode Island Nurseries, between 600,000 and 750,000 units are propagated each year with a labor force of seven full-time employees in the propagation department. All cuttings are taken from plants growing in fields of the parent operation.
Propagation Methods. This discussion will concentrate on propagation of conifer cuttings taken during their dormant period.
Author: William H. Cribbs, Robert Little
Author: F.A. Pokorny
Tree bark, a by-product of the forestry industry, is an organic material that has undergone evaluation in recent years as a peat moss substitute for greenhouse and nursery crops (1,8,9,14,17,20,22,24,26,29). The advantages of using bark, either hardwood or softwood are: 1) it is a renewable resource; 2) it is currently available at lower cost to the grower than imported peat moss, and 3) bark can be processed by hammer-mill and screening to
Author: H.A.J. Hoitink, H.A. Poole
Author: Hudson T. Hartmann
For the IPPS, it is advisable for us to follow this same pattern in planning, conducting and reporting experimental projects (1,2). This article has been prepared to assist Society members in setting up experiments, recording results, and preparing their papers for publication in the IPPS Proceedings.
The general outline of these accepted procedures, and how they transform into a manuscript ready for publication are listed below and will be discussed using the final sections of the completed articles as an outline:
- Title of article. Considerable thought should be given in selecting a title which will be brief yet informative and complete. The title of the article is all the reader will see in literature citation lists or reviews so the title should be as informative as possible.
- Authors names
Author: B.P. Verma
Systems analysis using a dynamic computer simulation model is a logical-mathematical representation of a system used for analyzing and identifying problems in a wide variety of industrial and agricultural problems. Numerous
Author: William E. Colburn
We soon started applying piece work to many other nursery operations. There are advantages and disadvantages; however, the advantages are far greater. Probably the greatest advantage is that we have
Author: Dan L. Gunter
- Knowledge of individual plant costs will allow managers to insure that production costs are absorbed and a profit is earned when the price lists are developed.
- This knowledge also allows managers to produce plants that return higher profits.
- Plant cost can also serve as the basis for inventory valuation. The plant inventory is of particular importance when the nurseryman is concerned with a financial analysis since "growing plants" are usually the largest single investment item. Therefore, an accurate assessment of the nurseryman's net worth depends on accurate valuation of the plant inventory.
Author: C.H. Hendershott
In order to make the most effective use of the methods available to us for protecting plants in the nursery, it is helpful to have some knowledge of how heat is transferred. There are 3 ways heat moves — by radiation, conduction, and convection.
Radiant energy is energy in the form of short waves above the visible region of our spectrum. These waves travel in a straight line at the speed of light, 186,000 mps. This energy is not heat as it moves through the atmosphere, and it does not become heat until it strikes a solid object. It is, therefore, not affected by wind. On a cold, calm night a plant loses heat by radiation since any object warmer than its surroundings will lose heat to the colder objects which, in this case, would include the atmosphere. If we could prevent the loss of radiant energy from the plant, it would stay at its same temperature and would not be damaged by the cold. During the day the plant is absorbing radiant energy from the sun. It is protected
Author: R.C. Lambe
Some of the diseases that have been reported are restricted to a single species of holly (14), whereas other diseases occur on several different species (20). In addition, certain holly cultivars of a species have been reported to be more susceptible than others (5).
Under the intensive culture practices of high fertility levels, frequent irrigation, and high plant density currently employed in the nurseries in the east and southeast, holly is frequently predisposed by conditions favorable for diseases development. During a particular year it is not unusual for
Author: Richard Stadtherr, Jake Tinga
JACK SIEBENTHALER: What is fly ash? Several growers are using it in their media.
JAKE TINGA: It is a slate-like waste product resulting from coal combustion and was formerly readily available.
TED RICHARDSON:Fly ash is still available from coal-burning companies.
RICHARD VAN LANDINGHAM: Calcined clay is another product that can be used as a medium. It is manufactured by heating clay as is done with vermiculite and perlite. It is then light and sterile and is comparable to perlite.
DON CLAY: The clay is similar to Fuller's earth.
JUDSON GERMANY: We are able to buy styrofoam, which is considerably cheaper than perlite.
PETER GIRARD: It works well and is cheaper than perlite.
JAKE TINGA: It might be possible to use the waste from hot drink cup manufacturing. In addition to improving aeration I have also read a report from Germany that formaldehyde is a break-down product, which provides