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Author: Roger Wasley
- Setting up the Production Unit. Points to consider before choosing the site.
- Type of nursery it is to be: for example, Pot Grown, Field Grown, etc.
- The location (this was decided before-hand in my case), and the size of the piece of land (3 acres in my case).
- Accessability of the site to road, water and electricity.
- Ease of location of the site; e.g. situated on a main road, etc.
- Location of horticultural suppliers.
- The physical properties of the site. These include: soil type, frost pockets, drainage, liability to flood and exposure to wind.
- Stock plants
- Cold frames (low capital cost)
- Growing areas
The site was then tile-drained and subsoiled so as to improve soil structure etc., as the parent soil was of a clay loam type.
The main areas of the nursery were:
Author: Michael Farmer
To overcome this problem, various methods have been tried to propagate vegetative shoots. These vegetative shoots can be grown under glass to produce plants with relatively thin stems and small heads which are not susceptible to bacterial rots and which can produce high yields of seed.
Some research work in Edinburgh about fifty years ago demonstrated that pieces of cauliflower curd could be propagated successfully. Following this, at Seale Hayne College it was found that when rooted pieces of curd were grown on in a warm glasshouse, the flower buds aborted and vegetative shoots developed on the inflorescence.
This technique has given quite useful results but
Author: Hudson T. Hartmann, John E. Whisler
In our plant propagation course at the University of California, Davis, which is given in the spring quarter, we are presently accommodating about 150 students with five 3-hour lab sections per week. In the lab we cover the usual aspects of propagation by seeds, cuttings, grafting and budding, layering, etc. Into this we have interjected two exercises using aseptic culture techniques. The first is handled during our two laboratory sessions on seed propagation in which the students sterilize and plant cymbidium orchid seeds, in nutrient agar as is done commercially. After seeding, the flasks are placed in growth chambers for germination and development of the seedlings. In the second exercise the students cut apart cymbidium orchid shoot-tip
Author: Edwin D. Carpenter
Several methods of visual presentation are open to the instructor — audio-tutorial, wide-screen, multiple-screen and/or multiple-images. All of these methods have proven to be effective in developing concepts and in maintaining student interest (1,2,3,4,5,6).
The audio-tutorial system places the emphasis on the individual student's learning ability (4,6). It is designed for independent study with the aid of several to many learning events integrated into a meaningful sequence. Consequently, the slow learner has the opportunity to repeat the process as many times as necessary while the fast learner can move along more rapidly and without delay. Traditionally, the learning
Author: Henry Robitaille, Bruno Moser
A major problem in the laboratory and field with large groups is that many often cannot satisfactorily observe demonstrations. We have found that with close-up television everyone can see equally well and, in addition, individuals have the opportunity to go back and review the technique at the audio visual center. Those who may have missed a laboratory can see the demonstration by simply replaying the tape. With today's classes of upwards of 200 students, field trips are virtually impossible. The best we can do is bring commercial operations to the students on tape. The disadvantage is that students cannot see as much as they would on an actual field trip. They also do not have the opportunity to ask questions. It is up to the instructor, therefore, to
Author: Robert L. Baker
Evergreen herbaceous perennials lack secondary stem tissue and thus can be distinguished from suffruiticose evergreen perinnials such as Epigaea repens and Daphne cneorum which have persistent woody stems. Several other well-known evergreen perennials are classed as subshrubs, or suffrutescent perennials, whose stems are
Author: Susan M. Burd, Michael Dirr
Author: Don Wedge
The production of lilac has been our major specialty since 1935. We graft 120,000 to 150,000 each year. In brief, our method of propagating hybrid lilac is to bench graft the lilac scion on green ash root pieces. We use a whip graft and secure the graft with grafting thread. The completed grafts are packed in poly bags, then placed in refrigerated storage, kept at a temperature of 31 to 35°F until we are ready to plant them directly to rows in the field.
Over the years we have made many experiments, 500 to 1000 grafts per trial, to test out a method and repeated it 2 years or more to double check the results. Like a good gambler we play the percentages learned from these experiments. Late years the stands of our lilac grafts have been quite consistent ranging from 70 to 90% per variety.
To raise this percentage closer to the 100% goal, we must look to the men handling the grafting knife. The sign of a good craftsman is a graft with a perfect contact the entire length of the cut, the cambium layers matching and in
Author: Raymond J. Evison
Author: Kathleen S. Freeland
Potentilla is propagated by division, seeds and cuttings. Cuttings are by far the most economical commercial method; it is this method of propagation which will be discussed exclusively in this article.
Cuttings may be taken any time from early
Author: Roger G. Coggeshall
Author: James D. Kelley, James E. Foret Jr
Author: Tom Allen
Stocks. One can produce one's own or buy them in. If the latter, order them early the year before, in June or July. Stock plants should be set aside early and potted on into large pots around Christmas time and placed in a warm house, 50 to 60°F. The first scions should be ready in February.
Method: Side Graft. Plants then potted on into 2–½" pots and placed in closed cases, at a temperature of 70–75°F. Benlate is widely used on all clematis crops in order to combat Botrytis and, on growing plants, for mildew; application is every two weeks. Grafted plants should start to grow within the next month. They are removed from the case when buds are 1/8" high and placed on an open bench. They are staked with 12" splits when ready and moved into a cooler house. They should be ready for potting by the end of May/early June and will make good plants in flower by the middle to end August.
Author: L.P. Stoltz, J.N. Walker, G.A. Duncan
Although it is important to maintain the turgidity of the cuttings, excess mist can cause problems by reducing the medium temperature and/or leaching
Author: D.C. Milbocker
Author: Joerg Leiss
We obtained our first two plants from a Belgian nursery approximately twelve years ago. The price at that time was $7.50. When we lost one of the two, the cost per plant was well over $20.00. However, during the second season of growth, large double compound leaves more than one inch long, edged on each of the more than 150 leaflets with a creamy white, was worth any price.
Author: Bruce A. Briggs
A second research project was set up to determine what properties the active herbicide would have on root formation when applied to the base of the cutting in a liquid solution. Eight different herbicides were applied to the base as a 5 sec dip in strengths of 5, 100 and 1000 ppm. The cuttings were then suspended through black poly and placed to grow under controlled conditions. They were observed and evaluated as to the effect on callus, root formation and hormonal reaction. While callus was slightly increased on some and decreased on others, no significant pattern developed. No attempt was made to correlate callus with rooting. In general, no hormonal reaction was observed that produces increased number or shorter roots.
The results of these two projects on Cotoneaster dammeri ‘Lofast’ seem to support other literature from former IPPS meetings, that a normal application of the herbicides tested to a stock plant, does not greatly affect the rooting ability of cuttings subsequently taken from that plant.
Author: Edward Auger, Charles Zafonte, J.J. McGuire
Author: Rick R. Allred
We start by taking 4 to 5 inch cuttings directly below a node using hand clippers. For convenience we use Clorox sterilized 2 gal buckets, which are used by our mail-order picking department, for collection of cuttings. While collecting cuttings, we try to keep them shaded and cooled with water to maintain turgidity. The average cutting is medium soft with six nodes and approximately 5 inches in length depending on cultivar. We find that we have a greater percentage of rooting and much less disease problems if we cut out the soft tip growth. Leaving two nodes with leaflets, we strip the rest of the cuttings and put them in bundles of 50. We have found it critical that the cuttings be cut within 1/8" below the node, for if more of the stem is left below the node a larger percentage of cuttings are lost due to rotting off. The cuttings are dipped in a quick-dip solution of: 10 grains of IBA (K salt), 20 cc isopropyl alcohol and 1 gal water. The cuttings
Author: C.C. Powell Jr
Achieving an environment free of disease is the same as saying controlling diseases during propagation. Active disease at this stage of the game means we will lose cuttings or seedlings. Disease means we will lose control of crop management and rooting or seed germination programs. Finally, disease means that we will be producing a certain amount of lower quality material that may actually be infected already. This infected material will be impossible to adequately program later on. It may eventually die after you've invested time, space, and money into it!
Author: Alfred J. Fordham
Many cultivars of Kalmia latifolia have been selected as natural variants either in the wild or from nursery rows. Oddly enough, K. latifolia ‘Rubra’, one of the first cultivars of this native American plant to appear in the records of the Arnold Arboretum, came from the English nursery firm of Veitch and Son in 1886. From native sources, the Arboretum received such Kalmia latifolia cultivars as ‘Obtusata’ (1886), ‘Polypetala’ (1870), and ‘Myrtifolia’ (1885).
Despite the fact that good garden forms were first described more than a century ago, few are carried in nursery lists. This can be explained by the fact that they were
Author: Case Hoogendoorn
The deep pit storage is now completed and during 2 years of operation we have been able to work out the bugs that have cropped up and it is now working to our satisfaction. The purpose of the deep pit storage is to prevent the splitting of more sensitive cuttings and grafts, yet allowing the plants to receive a little frost to get the proper dormancy. On the ground where the plants are stored we maintain a temperature of 28°F. During the first winter the storage was in use, the temperature outside was 14°F and the temperature at the base of the pit, where the plants were stored, was also 14°F, which led us to believe that the whole project was a disaster. The blue hydrangea cuttings were as black as coal; when rubbed they
Author: David G. Leach
I joined the Plant Propagators' Society either the year it was founded, or the year after,
Author: Ivan R. Dickings
Preparation. Established pot grown stocks of Acer platanoides are brought into a cool, airy house 4 to 6 weeks prior to grafting. When they are suitably dried off, grafting can commence which takes place in late January.
Operation. The stocks are cut back to within 2" to 3" of the soil. The type of graft used is a side whip and its tied with thin rubber strips. The scion wood used is 6" long terminal shoots.
Aftercare. When grafted, the plants are plunged into moist peat with the union covered in a closed case with 65°F bottom heat. In about three weeks callus is visible and top growth begins. At this stage air is gradually applied and watering can take place. After hardening off, the plants are stood on an open shaded bench and, when weather permits, the plants are planted into a cold frame.
Author: Harrison Flint
Dr. Harrison serve as moderator for the new plant forum.
MODERATOR FLINT: Our first speaker on this portion of the program will be Ray Evision from the GB&I Region.
RAY EVISON: Clematis 'Niobe' is a new large flowered cultivar raised in Poland. It has bright red sepals with yellow anthers. This free flowering cultivar produces its first flowers from the old wood during late May/June and continues to produce flowers on the new growth until the beginning of October.
MODERATOR FLINT: Tom Pinney ha two birches he would like to tell us about.
TOM PINNEY: Two new birches which have apparent resistance to bronze birch borer are Betula platyphylla var. japonica, Japanese white birch and Betula platyphylla var. szechuanica, Szechuan white birch. The Japanese white birch has flat, light green shiny foliage. It has a medium growth rate with fine twigs which give it a somewhat drooping habit. It has a white bark but the bark is not exfoliating. The birch
Author: Wilbert G. Ronald
‘Jacan’ elm is a 1977 introduction of Japanese elm (Ulmus japonica (Rehd.) Sarg.) which holds promise as a replacement for American elm. This new cultivar has a vase-shaped growth form, strong branches and demonstrated tolerance to inoculum of the Dutch elm
Author: Alfred J. Fordham
For observation and possible selection, seeds of Pieris floribunda ‘Millstream’ were sown and a seedling population comprising several hundred plants were raised. However, none showed improvement over the parent plant. Pieris seeds have no barriers to germination. When sown in late winter or early spring they will germinate and grow with the lengthening days.
Although other species in the genus Pieris root readily from cuttings
Author: Ben Davis II, Ralph Shugert
MODERATOR SHUGERT: Have any useful fruiting (not just ornamental) cultivars of Malus been rooted?
PETE VERMEULEN: Yes, we rooted a number of cultivars several years ago and I believe these were reported in the Proceedings. We are not doing it now because we have quit growing the crabs. If the person who posed this question will search through the past literature and especially that of the Proceedings I am sure they will find quite a bit of information.
MODERATOR SHUGERT: Charles Heuser, what compounds can be used for the promotion of adventitious buds on root cuttings?
CHARLES HEUSER: The three most common materials used are kinetin, benzyl adenine, and 2-IP.
MODERATOR SHUGERT: When cuttings are some deciduos contoneasters are taken late in the seaon with the foliage still on and green, they root well and quickly under mist, but after hard
Author: Milton B. Spurling
Amenity horticulture and the associated propagation of plants has been largely neglected in the past but there is currently an upsurge of interest in this aspect. It may be useful for propagators to review the changes that have occurred during the "revolution" so that they may avoid some of the pitfalls during the present period of rapid change in their industry.
I want to define the manner of changes which have occurred, illustrate these by some specific examples of significant changes over that period in whole horticultural industries, in the management of individual crops and, finally, to draw attention to the consequences of these changes in research, extension and
Author: Ian Gordon
I have no crystal ball and am reluctant to predict what the future holds for the industry. Instead, I would like to pinpoint some of the areas where developments can be made in the industry. There are six which I think deserve attention: Education; Research and development; Business management; Nursery efficiency; Specialization; Marketing.
Education. Education and training are of vital importance at all levels within any industry, including the nursery industry. At management level there is a great need for more graduates who can integrate basic plant sciences and business efficiency to develop sound nursery production techniques. At supervisory level there is a need
Author: Margaret E. McKay
There are so many different types of greenhouse structures, covering materials and accessory systems for environmental control that it is difficult to decide what is the best to use in any given situation. The decision is a compromise of many factors including the crop or crops to be grown in the greenhouse, their management, environmental requirements, the climatic conditions in the area where the greenhouse is to be built, the availability of capital and the cost of maintenance of the greenhouse.
A greenhouse can be designed specifically for one crop or so that it remains flexible and can be used for several different types of crops, should the economic viability of the enterprise change. Certain aspects of crop management such as the arrangement of beds
Author: Mervin Earl Dunn
So if the intensity of light which is admitted to the planthouse can be automatically adjusted to the "ideal" intensity at all times, it becomes easier to maintain the levels of supply of the other factors (air, water and nutrients), in balance with the intensity of light and in balance with each other. Rewards measured by the plant's performance will follow accordingly. The intensity of light applied to the plants is, therefore, the prime item for consideration in planthouse design.
To every plant on earth Nature provides an ever-changing intensity of the sun's radiation — light. At any point on earth the sun's radiation is different every second of the day. It is different on every day of the year. It is also different at any two points on earth.
Author: Alan J. Newport
In the rigid sheet we have polyvinyl chloride (e.g. Vinlon Tuflite), acrylic and, of course, fibreglass, either with or without tedlar (Dupont) coating. There are, of course, variations of these and other materials. Finally there is glass.
The following more common materials being used will be discussed, namely glass, fibreglass, rigid P.V.C., and polythene. In these we have a range of coverings that will meet the needs of growers over the whole of the climatic regions of the continent and the horticultural crops they grow. They also represent the materials currently most widely used.
Glass. The oldest covering used in horticulture and, in Australia, still one of the most
Author: L.G. Paleg, D. Aspinall
Author: Leslie Morgan
Understocks. I had no potted Acer pseudoplatanus understocks available at the time so I had to use three-year-old seedlings dug straight from the field, prior to grafting.
Scion Material. My scion material was in short supply, mainly because this tree had always been bought in before. I had one 10-year-old tree available at the nursery and had also found a much older specimen in a nearby village. The scion material was one-year-old wood and it was treated in two different ways. Material off the young plant was cut in mid-winter and heeled-in in peat and sand in an outside open frame. Material off the older plant was cut just before grafting.
Grafting Procedure. I grafted Acer pseudoplatanus ‘Brilliantissimum’ in mid-February. The method I used was the splice graft. This is a very simple graft — just like the whip and tongue without the tongue. First the
Author: Peter E. Albery
Initial pH of the sawdust; age source, i.e., tree type and
area from which it comes; particle size; sensitivity of
the crop to be grown in it; length of time the plant is to
be grown in it before planting out, etc.; pot shape (sur-
face area in relationship to depth); temperature of
medium at planting time; composting procedure; mix-
ing procedure; local environment conditions, e.g. evap-
oration rate, rainfall, etc., and quality of irrigation wa-
ter; and, very important, the method and approach of
When one discovers these variables from practical experience, it must be realized that the grower should be prepared to put into operation his own experiments. Much good information has come from various research workers here in
Author: Ray Wadewitz
Our present system is as follows: Bark is transported from the mill to Adelaide in 78 cu.yd. loads. It is hammer milled and screened into four sizes for use in landscaping and nursery potting media. To make the media, the fine screening spread on the ground and sand or loam is added according to the specific requirements of the client. This is mixed by a series of picking up and dropping with the front end loader. This mix is returned to the vibrating screener and the required amount of premixed fertilizer is added to the top and vibrated down through the mix. To reduce the dust problem and improve handling of the mix, water can be added to
Author: Syd Monkhouse
Further advances in tissue culture technique have enabled the production of virus-free plants from infected stock; however, this expensive process has been limited to very few cultivars. With tissue culture for virus eradication in
Author: Peter B. Smith
The two major highlights for me personally were Boskoop, Holland and Giesenheim, Germany, Boskoop being the birthplace of so many of our propagating techniques. This district has supported a nursery industry for more than 500 years, with some 400 open ground nurseries. The Viticultural Research Station in Giesenheim in the Rhine Valley is the Mecca of grapevine breeders and
Author: R.A. de Fossard
The two most expensive parts of tissue culture propagation facilities were the inoculating and incubating areas. Whereas some had designed, or bought, relatively
Author: Pamela K. Barker, R.A. de Fossard, R.A. Bourne
Culture media are discussed and the composition of the most successful media for the production of multiple buds and for rooting are given.
Problems concerning microbial contamination of field collected material are discussed and methods for reducing consequent losses are suggested.
A routine for the establishment of test tube plants in soil described.
Author: Noel L. Richardson
The most persistent pests in glasshouse in southern Australia are the greenhouse white-fly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood), the long-tailed mealy bug (Pseudococcus longispinus Targ.), and two spotted spider mite (red spider) (Tetranychus urticae Koch). At times, aphids, usually the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzar), can also be a problem. Many and various insecticides are recommended and used regularly against one or more of these pests.
Author: William C. Poynton
Cuttings are taken from the 1st week in September (spring) to the 1st week in April (mid-autumn), using a very sharp knife or razor blade. I recommend a throw-away Stanley knife.
Soft cuttings taken are 1 to 3 cm in length not including leaves. As each cutting is taken it is submerged in a bucket of warm Benlate solution of recommended strength for up to 10 minutes. Cuttings are transferred to 10" pot to drain where they may be left up to 24 hours.
The next step is to remove the bottom leaves carefully by pulling them off (not cutting off).
Cuttings are then placed in copper naphthenate-treated Victorian seedling boxes (flats) containing a mixture of 25% peat and 75% sand with 64 well-spaced cuttings to a box. They are watered in with
Author: Deane M. Ross
For these reasons, several South Australian growers are turning to the rootstock ‘Dr. Huey’ for both dwarf and stem production.
‘Dr. Huey’ was originally bred as a garden rose in 1914 by G.C. Thomas in California, U.S.A. and it was not until 1940 that its potential as a rootstock was recognized but by the early 1950s it was being grown as
Author: Nat Clayton, John Richardson
Cuttings. Cuttings are taken from stock hedges or any other source available. They are made approximately 6" long of one year wood, the material being no thinner than a pencil. Thicker material makes the better plants eventually. We start with Sambucus as soon as possible in late October and November as these cuttings are from hedges which will be cut by a contractor as soon as the sugar beets have been harvested. The Sambucus cuttings are the only ones cut deliberately to nodes as the inter-nodal length is so variable.
Author: J.C. Kelly
Author: J. Eaton
Do the scaling in September or October. Select only the largest bulbs for scaling as these are the most likely to be healthy. Pull away the outer scales snapping them away from the bulb near the base. Discard any damaged or diseased scales and you can replant the center portion of the old bulb. Treat the scales with fungicide by soaking for ½ hour in Benlate (4 grams/litre) or in Captafol if Benlate-resistant penicilliums are likely to be present. Drain off and mix scales with an equal quantity of damp vermiculite or peat and seal up in a polythene bag. Use not more than about 2 bulbs
Author: S. Ward
At Loughgall our interest turned to polythene as an acceptable alternative in terms of economic attractiveness. As a result of many variations on the theme we developed a simple and cheap method using the basic concept of small "inner" tunnels constructed inside a large tunnel giving the Double Tunnel effect. Over a number of seasons several combinations of milky and clear UVI polythene have been tried. Experience and results gained at Loughgall made it possible for a propagation programme to be recommended. Local growers adopted this technique with considerable
Author: Pete Wells
WHY GROW THEM?
To fulfill the demand. E.F.G. produces up to 100,000 units per annum; there is little promotion of the product and I am sure there is scope for further development.
REASONS FOR THE DEMAND.
Vegetational Climax. The planners are attempting to recreate the vegetational climax of which the oak is the classic example in Great Britain. The Sessile oak being dominant on the acid soils in the west and north and the Pedunculate oak dominating the vegetation on the basic soil of the south and east. Sessile and Common oak interbreed freely and there are numerous hybrids occurring naturally throughout Great Britain. One interesting fact about oak trees which supports the planners choice is that 287 different species of invertebrates are dependent upon the oak tree at some
Author: B.H. Howard
Division of labour. Horticulture is
Author: J.G.D. Lamb
Author: Paul W. Moore
Greenhouse Cooling. Cooling is essential at Riverside where summer dry bulb temperatures exceed 100°F several days per year. The standard evaporative cooling system available from greenhouse manufacturers utilize vertical excelsior pads and exhaust fans. Disadvantages of the vertical (upright) pad systems are:
- After a few months use, voids develop in the pads which allow uncooled air to move into the greenhouse, thereby reducing the cooling efficiency of the system.
- To maintain reasonable efficiency, pads must be changed
Author: Arthur H. McCain
There are two main sources of plant-disease causal organisms: infected plant parts, and infested soil. Reproductive or survival units (spores, sclerotia, etc.), referred to as inoculum, may be present in soil or produced on diseased plants. The inoculum can spread or be disseminated (transported) in various ways. A knowledge of the various dissemination methods will help the propagator understand the need for
Author: Roy L. Branson, James P. Martin, William A. Dost
From an ecological viewpoint, it is important that organic materials decompose in soils. Elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon are released in forms that can be used by new generations of living things (1,5). Also, some products of decomposition have value in improving structure of some soils by aggregation of fine particles into larger crumb-like units that facilitate water movement and exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases, between soil and the air above it (6,7).
From the viewpoint of growers of ornamentals, however, who rely on synthetic soils, or soil mixes, organic materials used in preparing these media should be relatively resistant to decomposition. If not, there can be several undesirable effects: shrinkage of mix volume, changes in soil porosity that affect aeration, rapid utilization of oxygen by microorganisms making anaerobic conditions possible especially after irrigation, and nutrient upsets by competition of microorganisms with
Author: Frank T. Fielding
The majority of cactus species are propagated by seed. The seed is acquired from nursery stock or imported from Latin America. Seed propagation is the slowest method as most species are ready for market in not less than 14 months.
Special conditions must be met to be successful in see germination
Soil. A light soil mix that drains quickly is best. A commercial planting mix is preferred as it supplies all necessary nutrients as well as being of constant makeup.
Heat. Under-bench heating is needed to keep the soil temperature in the optimum range of 70° to 75°F. The greenhouse temperature should not exceed 100°F or drop below 46°F.
Benches. The benches must be sterile. Most any disinfectant can be used but longer lasting results are obtained by the use of copper compounds.
Shade. A greenhouse shade of approximately 50% is suitable
Author: Dennis Connor
At Monrovia Nursery, we employ specific sanitation procedures in our propagation department to produce as healthy a plant as possible. I will discuss the propagation department at Monrovia with emphasis on our disease control program.
Most of our plants are grown from cuttings which are obtained from our own container grown stock or from planted out stock. Any pruning or cutting wood collecting of disease prone plants such as Euonymus, Pyracantha, Nerium, etc. must be sprayed 24 hrs in advance with 200 ppm Physan. This is accomplished with the use of our spray trucks or portable hose proportioners, depending upon the size of the area to be sprayed.
Cutting wood is collected by a crew of men and/or women, and placed in plastic bags for easy transport to the propagation department. New plastic bags are used to collect the cutting wood of disease prone plants. Bags that are re-used must be washed in 30 ppm chlorinated water prior to use. The bags can easily be cleaned
Author: Hudson T. Hartmann
Plant breeders are continually developing new plant material, some of which eventually becomes important in the nursery trade. Plant introduction programs and arboreta often bring in valuable new germplasm to be used directly, or as a gene source for introducing, by plant breeding, new characteristics into present plant material. The biochemists, plant physiologists, and botanist develop new growth regulators, herbicides, fertilizers, and such new techniques as tissue culture. They also study plant structure, adaptation to the environment, and plant functions, to give us a better understanding of plant behavior. Entomologists and plant pathologist develop new chemicals and new techniques for controlling insects and diseases, while the engineers design new propagation facilities and equipment used for such
Author: W.H. Brokaw
Author: Hirofumi Uchimiya
Traditional plant breeding methods for commercial improvement of plants are restricted to hybridizing plants that are closely related. With few exceptions, hybrids combining desired qualities derived from both parents can only be made between different species of plants. These F1 hybrids are usually self-sterile and require doubling of the chromosomes before they can be used for further breeding purposes. Intergeneric hybrids are very rare. In recent times, some notable discoveries have come out of fundamental research on plant tissue cultures.
Some of these discoveries have already given rise to practical applications, such as embryo cultures of seeds, which would not otherwise germinate, to obtain rare hybrids, and creation of virus-free stock and rapid vegetative propagation of rare plants. Furthermore, production of haploid plants by anther culture and subsequent doubling of the chromosomes have provided pure line materials. More recently, special attention is being
Author: Gary C. Gallup
The expense of tissue culture is very critical in certain types of foliage propagation. Certain items still may be grown cheaper and just as well in mother blocks in the greenhouse. These items then, even though may be technically possible in the lab, may not be economically feasible; i.e., we have found African violets to be cheaper to produce outside the laboratory.
Many of these non-economic, feasible laboratory propagations may be done in the lab for other reasons. One is to have pathogen-free stock to put out in greenhouse mother blocks. Another reason would be a new cultivar to multiply in the lab to gain sufficient numbers to build up a large mother stock block then take cuttings from the greenhouse stock.
We have found that most ferns are economically feasible to
Author: Zachary S. Wochok, Mostafa Abo El-Nil
Author: John Stanley
Sources of Vegetative Material. Cuttings can come from one of three sources:
- Saleable plants in the nursery. It is only feasible to take cuttings if this fits in with normal trimming, otherwise you may be cutting away saleable material.
- Plants outside your control. Many nurserymen still collect cuttings from local gardens, the wild and parkland areas. This material inevitably has an unknown history and often involves excessive labour and transport costs to obtain.
- Stock Beds/Hedges. The advantage of a stock area is that the history of the plant
Author: Wesley A. Humphrey
- maintaining clean growing grounds;
- producing and/or purchasing liners or transplanting stock, free of weeds and weed seed; and
- maintaining the containers without weeds.
The last item will focused on here.
The use of pre-emergent herbicides is a major aid in getting the job done. This is indicated by:
- work that has been done on pre-emergent herbicides as an aid in reducing weed populations and competition in containers;
- the increasing availability of registered chemicals for this use;
- the success of several nurserymen in using pre-emergent herbicides as a major part of their program in maintaining a nursery relatively free of weeds; and
- the importance of supplying
Author: Ronald D. Oetting
Author: George P. Gutman
Author: John Machen
Author: Hunter H. Boulo
The greater part of our propagation is done under saran shade or lath shade (50–60% shade). Only in the
Author: Zack Westbrook
- Growing on of large well-established potted or bed-grown liners. Cultivars are usually selected from the Belgian Indicas, Rutherfordianas, Pericats or F1 Hybrids.
- Purchase of hardy types in the fall (usually Kurumes) but including some cultivars as mentioned in number one.
- Growing plants from cutting or liner stage to market size in a continuous year-round cycle. Growers of this nature usually have cold storage facilities for breaking dormancy to allow for year-round flowering. They may force the plants into bloom themselves or sell in a budded stage for forcing.
My comments today will deal primarily with the third method. To grow plants on a year-round cycle and of a quality which is acceptable to the florist industry requires some additional equipment and investment compared to acquiring them by either of the other two methods mentioned.
Growing structures. To control temperatures so as to produce
Author: Fount H. May
Three types of plastic houses are used in our propagation of azaleas. Some have spray mist but most now have controlled water sprinklers. Prior to sticking the cuttings in June and July we clean the houses, then fill each house with 3 inch cups, using a medium of pine bark, peat and sand. Though the soil is sterile, we will give the filled containers a shot of fungicide before sticking, if time permits. Cuttings of abot 3-½ inches are then obtained, rinsed in fungicide, dipped in Hormodin #1, and stuck 2 to the cup. Azaleas produced are Kurumes and Indicas. We start our controlled water on a 3-½ minute to 4 second cycle. At the first sign of any roots we then lengthen to a 7 minute – 6 second cycle. With further root growth we reduce to 15, then 30 minutes, then off. During this period we spray twice weekly with
Author: P.L. Neel
Author: Charles H. Parkerson
Our nursery is similar to yours in many ways but vitally different in many respects. What I am about to share with you works for us, in our particular micro-climate. What I do may work for you … but it may not, so check it out first. I am sure that most of you are in the same position that we are in … everything that you own is sitting out in the field, so run your own trials before spraying a chemical that you have heard or read about. The herbicides we use only work when applied in a timely and accurate manner. In general we use the following chemicals for weed control in noncrop areas: Pramitol 25E, Paraquat CL, and Roundup.
Paramitol 25E. This chemical is a soil sterilant causing the
Author: Curtis W. Wilkins, Grady L. Wadsworth
Author: Lila W. Dick
Methods of Propagation
- Seed. As H. fortunei does not set seed regularly and progeny would not be true-to-type, we discounted this method.
- Division, the usual method of increasing hostas. Five plants were lifted on 13th October, soil washed from them, placed in peat and put in the cold store (4–6°C; 90–100° R.H.) for 50 days (to simulate the winter dormant period). On December 2nd the
Author: Bryson L. James
Half-heartedly waging war on weeds is expensive and usually leaves our fields miserably infested with weeds. Perhaps it will help to emphasize key points in this review if we can compare tactics and terms used by the military to those needed to successfully fight weeds. Keep in mind that the object is to destroy the enemy while providing safety for your own troops.
Author: George L. Taber III
Author: Earle R. Marvin
Our plants are planted 18" apart in 4' rows. We plant two rows of plant material and leave one row vacant for harvesting. We start our field program by fumigating all of our acreage before planting with methyl bromide. This assures a good start for young trees and shrubs, free from weeds and soil insects. We have what is classified as Goldsboro type soil, which is fairly sandy but contains sufficient amount of clay to permit this type of
Author: Charles R. Johnson
Soluble salts (SS) are chemical compounds formed when base ions combine with acid ions to form neutral salts. Some examples of base ions are calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K). Acid ions include sulfate (SO4), bicarbonate (CHO3) and chlorine (Cl). Problems of salinity arise when SS reach damaging concentrations in irrigation water and media.
Author: Geral Smith
We are attempting to achieve a balance in our potting mixes between the air and water content. Any grower that is producing high quality plants in a short period of time is achieving this balance.
A plant in a container is in a very different environment as compared with the same plant in the ground. In the ground it has a root system covering a larger area; thus it can obtain water and oxygen from a very large soil volume. When the plant
Author: Grady L. Wadsworth
Climatic Conditions. What is the rainfall, temperature (diurnal fluctuation), length of growing season, humidity, wind and day length like in the area where the plants will be grown? California nurseries, for example, are afforded an opportunity to use more native soil in their mixes, due to their low rainfall, than nurseries in the southeastern states (6). Of course, these are variables we have little or no control over, unless we
Author: James Fountain
Author: Richard Marshall
To explain why temperature manipulation using water is so important to us. I would mention that about 8 years ago we shifted our complete growing operation into wholesale production of broad-leaved evergreens. Our goal was to produce a full, dense, premium quality plant for the discriminating garden center and landscape contractor in the Northeastern United States.
We propagate practically all of our plants and grow them over the first winter in heated fiberglass houses. The transplants are lined out in raised beds the following spring, grown on for two or three years, then dug by hand and shipped in fiber containers.
These plants are vulnerable to frost and freeze damage, particularly the one year old plants. Distressed at severe damage from early fall frosts in 1968, we decided to
Author: Bryson L. James
CHARLIE PARKERSON: We use Meta Systox-R and Benlate with success on Japanese holly and Junipers.
BRYSON JAMES: As far as effects on rootings and cuttings, has anyone experience with this? I know that work done at N.C. State a number of years ago showed no effect of materials sprayed on the foliage on rooting of cuttings; I've done some work on this and had similar results.
VOICE: Does this hold true with Benlate and Truban used on soils to prevent fungus diseases? I've heard some greenhouse operators say that these will affect rooting when used in soils.
BOB WRIGHT: With herbicides, we found no effect on cuttings unless the stock plants were damaged.
MIKE MCCALL: We use Banrot on all our cuttings and don't see any bad effects from it.
Author: Don Shadow
The seeds are gathered from local native stands by collectors and brought to our nursery, where they are purchased by the pound. They are then placed in 55-gallon barrels to soak for several days prior to cleaning with a mechanical seed cleaner. The most effective method for determining whether the berries are well ripened is to press them between the thumb and forefinger; if the seeds press out freely, they are ready to be picked.
After the berries are cleaned, the seeds are air dried on burlap for several days, depending upon weather conditions, and then hung in lots of 25 pounds until ready for planting or storing. We find this is a convenient amount to handle easily.
During the months of October and November, when weather permits, the seeds are planted in the open field in 54 inch rows which have been ridged up to 6 to 8
Author: John J. Costin
Eucalyptus have many modern potential uses because of their rapid growth and evergreen canopy. They must be considered as a serious contender as a quick temporary replacement in areas ravaged by Dutch Elm Disease, or as a screen for industrial and mining sites, and in our parks where vandalism would only improve their growth. Species such as Eucalyptus vimnalis will
Author: Henry H. Chase Jr
The mix was 2/3 finely ground pine bark and 1/3 sand, fumigated prior to filling the containers. Flats were filled by hand and shaken down to get an even compaction of the mix. Three cleaned seeds were sown in each cavity about November 1. The container trays were then placed on raised benches in open plastic houses. The house was left uncovered to provide cold stratification, then covered about March 1 as
Author: Hubert Nicholson
Under the best conditions field budding of dogwood is done on very tender seedlings, and it is very important to have budwood in a similar condition. For these small tender seedlings we want small tender budwood but firm enough to push into the seedling. A lot of skill and dexterity is required to handle these tender buds and tender seedlings. The first
Author: Carl Bauer
Most of our work has been with softwood cuttings of current year's growth. Our work has been confined to cultivars that we normally produce: Cornus florida rubra, and C. florida cultivars: ‘Cherokee chief’, ‘Cherokee Princess’, ‘Cloud Nine’ and ‘First Lady’. We have
Author: Carl Fletcher Flemer III
We try to plant our dogwood liners around March 15 while they are still dormant. The best size liner is at least 12 inches in height, but not taller than 24 inches. Planting is done with a "homemade" one-row planter. Dogwood liners are planted in rows which are 6 feet wide. Plants are spaced either 18 or 24 inches apart within the row, 18 inches if they are to be grown for larger lining out stock, 24 inches if they will be sold as 4/5, 5/6 and 6/8 foot trees. Liners which are planted 18 inches apart are grown for two or three years until they are 4/5, 5/6 and 6/8 feet. Then they are dug bareroot and transplanted in 10 or 20 feet rows during December, January or February. Dogwoods
Author: Robert C. Lambe
Foliage Disease. Foliage diseases reported on C. florida have included leaf spots, blights, mildews, and viruses.
Ascochyta leaf spot, caused by Ascochyta cornicola Sacc., was first reported in 1942 by Hepting at Biltmore, North Carolina (7). Leaf spotting begins as early as mid-June, being characterized as round or slightly irregular areas, ranging in size from 1.5 to 6.5 mm in
Author: Philip M. Hall
Understock. The first step is to build a good supply of understock. We use both Thuja orientalis and Juniperus chinensis ‘Hetzii’ as understock for upright junipers. Thuja orientalis, more popularly called biota, understock is grown from seed in open beds for 2 to 3 years. Seed is sown in early to mid-spring at a high density. In the fall of the following year we undercut the seed bed and selectively harvest the seedlings of a size acceptable for grafting. Oversize seedlings are discarded and undersize plants are left in the bed for one more year. After harvesting, the roots are trimmed back just enough to allow easy potting in a 3-inch round clay pot. We use these larger pots with Thuja in order to give more room to the plants when
Author: Michael Hobbs
Seed sources. The seeds used for propagation of the liners and understock used in this area come from several sources. The wild collected seeds are the oaks, dogwoods, maples and many others. There are more plant species native to the McMinnville area than in the Great Smoky Mountains, which explains why the Tennessee nursery industry originated in this area. The seeds are harvested at the proper time of the year by people commonly known as "seed collectors." The collectors are usually older people who are capable of knowing the
Author: David Byers
We are in the very center of North Alabama, Zone 7, where temperatures sometimes drop to zero, but ordinarily are not quite that cold. Overall we have a very moderate climate. We have a fraction over 50 inches of rainfall annually in normal years. Our soil is a heavy, red-clay type. I think
Author: John Machen
The process of mixing rooting hormones is a relatively new one, which affords the convenience of having on hand a wide range of concentrations and combinations of several rooting compounds. These various concentrations and combinations can, and should, be used to compare results produced on any given crop which is to be rooted in your nursery.
All of the compounds most commonly used as plant hormones are readily available from chemical supply houses (1) both in bulk or as pre-weighed samples. Naturally, the bulk material is least expensive.
Our first procedure deals with mixing rooting hormones with talc. I will use 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA), as an example. A brief look at the
Author: Earl H. Robinson
These are some questions I want to deal with here today. I have had the privilege of working side by side for the past two years with a CPA. He has devoted the last 8 years to developing and refining a cost accounting system that is simple enough to give daily information in running a nursery business and motivating supervisors in a positive way.
At American Garden Cole, budgeting and reporting are a way of life. If no useful benefit comes from this effort at the branch level and by the people reporting, this becomes a burdensome task.
American Garden Cole (Hamilton) is a container growing facility that has been developing over the past five years. The motivational aspect of costing actually begins with the preparing of a budget for the next fiscal year. Our budget is prepared
Author: R.F. Martyr
Australia is a very large country, about the size of the U.S. but with only 13 million people. It is easy, therefore, for us over here to get the impression of a thinly spread rural community. Nothing is further from the truth. It is an overwhelmingly urban and suburban population. Brisbane, alone of the state capitals, has less than 50% of the whole
Author: Dennis V. McCloskey
This morning I would like to explain the method we use at Windmill Nurseries to produce liners and to transplant these to our field. All of our broadleaf liner production for the field is handled as follows:
First: The cuttings are rooted in metal flats or seed is germinated in flats. Our medium is composed of 17 4-cubic foot bags of perlite and one 6-cubic foot bale of peat moss. Depending on cultivar, from 150 to 500 cuttings are placed in each flat. Women do all of this work on an hourly wage basis. They take, strip and stick the cuttings. I am satisfied with a 2000 per day per worker average. Of course, this varies greatly; it is much higher on easier cuttings.
Second: The flats of cuttings are placed in the mist houses and handled accordingly. I will not go into detail as this subject has been discussed in other papers.
Author: Peter Van Der Giessen
Another step to cut down on wasted motion was labeling each group of plants so that everyone would know where to find the information in the field. The label on the first plant on the left hand side of each cultivar gives such information as number of plants, plant name, potting date, soil mix and feeding. Not only did
Author: Rob Hollings
Bed preparation is a very important process. In the summer preceding the spring planting, we apply limestone to the field at the rate of about 1000 to 3000 pounds per acre. Following that we plant a cover crop of sorghum, usually in August. Sorghum will get 7 or 8 feet tall in a matter of months. The purpose of planting sorghum is to put a lot of organic matter into the ground. Once we dig the azaleas, we must replace as much organic matter as possible. During the winter, we disc the field 3, 4 or maybe 5 times and also subsoil it. Subsoiling is really a very important step in this production to break up the pan that builds up year after year and allow drainage. Furthermore, cracking this hardpan allows
Author: William R. Studebaker
So first of all, what are your standards? You need to analyze:
- What is your market? Homeowners want full-headed low-branched trees for the corner of the yard, while municipalities want street trees limbed up 5 to 6 feet for clearance.
- At what size are you selling. A 1-¼-inch tree limbed to 6 foot height may have few, if any, lateral branches left to form a head.
- What are some growth characteristics of a
Author: George R. McVey
Proper selection of media is essential. A guaranteed supply of uniform ingredients (media and fertilizer) which will provide proper drainage and porosity is needed. Media containing heavy metals or other toxic compounds should be avoided.
A representative sample of each component in the mix and a composite sample of the final mixture, before any nutrients are added, should be submitted for analysis. The analysis of the individual components will provide information on which fraction is providing the most nutrients to the final product. Nutrients should be added to the medium based on the soil analysis. Excess or deficiency of nutrients can cause an imbalance, which can
Author: Dick Ammon
Author: Robert D. Wright
Acclimation of plants. Cold acclimation of overwintering plants generally follows a two stage pattern (21). The first stage of plant acclimation to freezing temperatures appears to be induced by short days in late summer and fall (18,19). The first stage of acclimation appears to involve two distinct events; growth of cessation and the initiation of the metabolic changes which facilitate the plant's response to low temperatures during the second stage of acclimation. The
Author: J.H. Tinga
In the container nursery, roots are not in a normal environmental — they are hotter in the winter day and colder at night. Most roots are against the side of the container where the temperature changes are most severe. Without examining roots in pots by upending them, you do not realize that two plants with the same size top may be supported in one case by half a root system and in the other by a quarter root system. In the field, roots are spread over a wide shallow area with a moderated air temperature. Freezing is delayed by earth heat. A long fall
Author: Oliver Washington III
The most important factors of a medium that influence cold protection are its: (a) percent air filled pore space or porosity, (b) moisture, and (c) organic matter content (1).
Air space within a container minimizes heat loss through conductance by serving as an insulator. Potting mixes with a large percentage of ingredients that are fine in particle size, such as the
Author: Phil Beaumont
Previous years, during the latter part of November and early December, all 2 and 3-gallon containers were pushed can tight, except for the azaleas. We jammed at this time for several reasons. One is that we ship on into mid-November and we find it difficult to pick out orders from can-tight stock.
Author: D.J. Wickens
About early December, or when the leaves have fallen, lift the understocks. It is important to lift them with as much fibrous root attached as possible. If using an undercutter, check that the blade is 10" to 12" below the surface. Store the seedlings in boxes between layers of moist peat in a cold glasshouse.
Bench Preparation. In January prepare a heated bench with a 50/50 peat-sand mix to a depth of 5". Ensure this is well moistened. Heat bench to 55°F. Switch on 2 to 3 days in advance. Cover with a polythene tent.
Collection of Scion Material and Preparation of Grafts. Take scion material from stock plants and dip in
Author: Stanley Foster
In January of 1977, we had a low temperature of near –20°F, and the temperature did not get above 10°F for three days. Had we not had the system of overwintering that we have used for the last several years, our losses would have been devastating. As it was, our losses were basically limited to 5-gallon pyracantha that were outside and 5-gallon sweetgum. All items that were in our overwintering houses were spared, including azaleas that we had brought in from Alabama and hollies from our nursery in Texas. Thus, we feel like our system had the ultimate test and came through in relatively good condition.
Our overwintering system is divided into four basic procedures:
- Bunching for mutual protection.
- Mulching with wheat straw.
Author: John B. Wight Jr
We produced about 4 million container-grown plants per year, approximately 1/3 conifer and the balance broadleaf. We have never had damage to coniferous evergreens and have never made any effort to jam or space these plants. We do not jam azaleas but do put a polyethylene windbreak around the shade houses. Quite frankly I would hate to be growing a large quantity of container plants in a colder zone than this, particularly if the production were in broadleaves.
We have found that our biggest crop, Ilex, starts having severe root damage at around 12°F and sustained temperatures of 10°F or lower will kill them if some protection is not given.
Our protection at Wight Nurseries is very simple. As a preventive each year, all plants that do not have large tops and
Author: Ted Richardson
I have attempted to solve the first mentioned problem by having no plants with less than four flushes of growth to carry through the winter. My propagation is done in late June. In early November the rooted cuttings are potted out in South Florida and two
Author: Raymond L. Self
The results of numerous laboratory and field tests have revealed the following facts regarding protection of container-grown plants from freeze injury:
- The freeze rate varies with the type of potting mixture ingredients. The rate of freeze is fastest for sandy clay, intermediate for spent wood (charcoal and sand from burned pine stumps), and slowest for German peat moss. By incorporating generous quantities of peat moss or charcoal with the potting mixture, many additional hours of freeze protection can be built into a potting mixture (6). The mixtures that freeze fastest also thaw fastest, causing undue rupturing of roots, which kills the plants (8).
- Freeze and thaw
Author: Richard Stadtherr
MODERATOR STADTHERR: Which is more harmful to plants after a 6°F temperature, a fast thaw or a slow thaw?
DR. JAKE TINGA: If the root ball is frozen, slow thawing of the shoots would be more compatible with the slow thaw of the roots. If you could thaw the roots as fast as the shoots, there would be no problem. Slow thawing of the shoots would reduce transpiration. Turn the water on before freezing starts; keep the water on until all ice has melted. This layer keeps the surface at 32°F (cell damage begins at 28°F) and also prevents dessication. If the sun hits a dry leaf and it transpires, and there is no available liquid water to come through the frozen root and stem, the leaf dessicates and dies. However, I do not think you can hold a plant at 6F. I think the limit is about 20.
CHARLIE PARKERSON: Dr. Robert Wright told us today that roots freeze before the tops. How can roots freeze
Author: J.P. Salinger
Growth Retardants. Vegetative growth manipulation, especially height control, is achieved by the use of dwarf-inducing compounds. Desirable house plants should be relatively wide in relation to height; the most suitable height to diameter ratio is 1 to 1.62 (6). This is difficult to obtain without control in many pot plants due to the natural growth habit of the cultivar and the environmental conditions imposed on the plants; frequently several plants are placed in one container to rapidly produce a
Author: Dick J.W. Endt
During the following winter months disaster overtook this nursery block as 80 percent of the seedlings succumbed to Phytophthora root rot, owing to extremely wet soil conditions. The surprising result was that none of the grafted trees were affected.
On the strength of these results I was convinced that grafting tamarillo plants on these rootstocks would solve the Phytophthora problem. My property has a clay soil and 60" of rainfall per annum, where seedlings die
Author: D.S. Tustin
The initial approach to the propagation of deciduous ornamentals by hardwood cuttings has been to impose those treatments which were successful on genera such as Malus and Prunus, to a wide range of ornamental species. Although some species have responded well to the standard treatment, others have not. Subsequent research has established a broad base from which more detailed studies can be developed. Many of the factors limiting the successful hardwood propagation of
Author: J.M. Rumbal
Any specific pest of disease not controlled by this combination is picked up with routine checks and the following sprays are usually used to combat these: ¾ oz Plictran for mites; 3 oz Cuproxide + ½ oz Agrimycin for fungous diseases. All of these again in 3 gallons of water. This programme outlined controls most pests and diseases, but other controls are used for specific pests. Recently the nursery has undertaken the spraying of stock plants and nursery crops with a helicopter with
Author: C. Lester Diack
Seed Selection. For the growing of eucalyptus in very cold areas such as we are in (Southland), it is very important that seed be selected from a cold locality; this will give resistance to frost. Seed should only be selected from trees of good form and true to the species.
Hardy, cold tolerant species. (e.g., Eucalyptus delegatensis, E. niphophila, E.gunnii, E. coccifera, E. perriniana, etc.) Seeds of species that are cold tolerant are best sown in seed boxes and stacked outside in a cold, shaded position during the winter; this provides stratification of the seed. Keep turning the stack over and water any boxes
Author: Philip McMillan Browse
The operation requires skill and expertise which essentially comes in two parts;
- The Carpentry aspects, which are specifically manual and
- The Husbandry aspects which are concerned with the knowledge and ability to prepare the rootstocks prior to grafting and to give subsequent aftercare.
These operations, however, are inevitably costly despite available skills, training to improve speed and efficiency, and the availability of knowledge which will ensure adequate productivity. This system of propagation is expensive. It is not, therefore, surprising that so much of modern research programmes are concerned with looking for alternative methods of plant propagation so that plants may be produced both more simply and cheaply.
On occasions, however, grafting cannot be avoided or, alternatively, it may be
Author: Neville L. Jones
Stage I. This started with choosing and clearing a site for our propagation unit, and then drilling for a new water well. The existing two bores were not sufficient for our plants.
Author: Donal Duthie
Removing the leaves. The parent plant must be of reasonable size and should have a stem not less than 10 cm diameter at the base. The top foliage should be removed by cutting through the stem about 30 cm up from the base. Then begins the delicate operation of removing all the leaf bases to expose the crown and the growing tip. In a plant with a 10 cm diameter stem, the crown would be about 3 to 4 cm high. The leaves are removed partially by tearing and partially by cutting
Author: D. Allen Beaumont
Cutting Propagation. All our evergreen cuttings are made in March/April and are taken mostly from plants growing in the open ground which will be lifted for sale in June/July.
The genera of plants we propagate from cutting are:Azara Cytisus Pittosporum
Boronia Erica Photinia
Calluna Euonymus Senecio
Chamaecyparis Griselinia Spiraea
Choisya Hebe Teucrium
Coprosma Hypericum Viburnum
Corokia Juniperus Weigela
Cotoneaster Nerium Westringia
All cuttings are treated the same way. We make heel cuttings or otherwise cut under a leaf node. Cuttings are made as large as is practical; for example, Cryptomeria elegans cutting are up to 20 cm long. All cuttings are put in boxes of pumice and sand, the latter from the Waikato River. The trays we
Author: M. Richards
The true costs of a growing medium are made up of a number of factors, some of which are not easy to measure. The most important of these are:
- The raw materials. The material costs of a growing medium are fairly easily determined. Table 1 sets out the on-site-cost per M3 of some commonly used materials, while Table 2 sets out the materials cost of three mixtures made from these, including the costs of a fertilizer programme. These costs will vary from nursery
Author: A.F. Rainbow
Author: A.J. McCully, M.B. Thomas
Author: S.H. Nelson
Author: B.H. Howard
Author: Albert H. Bremer
Chip budding, a recent introduction in our propagation program, may prove to be a dominant factor in increasing future bud stands. We have worked 2 years with this budding technique. It appears to be more costly than conventional T-budding, requiring precise timing and accuracy. Chip budding has possibilities of increasing our winter survival rate in the field.
Understocks for apple are propagated by layering, while peach and cherry rootstocks are started from seed. During the first growing season, apple rootstocks are mound layered with sawdust, undercut in the fall and placed in cold storage through the winter. Early in the spring they are transplanted by machine and grown to suitable grafting caliper.
Author: James B. Law
Over a period of time our company has tried a number of grafting machines. The latest one we have tried is the Wahler Graft-Star unit, making what is popularly referred to as the Omega graft. With this unit we were able to produce 5500 grafts in an 8 hour day with a skilled operator. Using an unskilled operator a production level of 3300 grafts per day was reached. This would compare with a 1600–1800 average that we would expect to have made
Author: David A. Husband
The aim of the unit is to be basically self-perpetuating, enabling students to gain an insight to field production of fruit and ornamental subjects. We have no glasshouse on site. It is an old site, with many years of horticultural use behind it comprising 0.557 ha, or so, total land, with approximately 60m2 of seed beds, and 800m2 of layer beds, and seven cropping plots averaging 440m2 each.
Where possible, the propagating material — (i.e. cuttings, bud sticks, or grafting scions) comes from stockplants lined out as "hedges" in between plots.
Author: Leonard Savella
Considering that we all know the basics of grafting I would like to talk about how, with the use of plastic, we can improve our percentage of success and at the same time lower the time and effort it takes to care for the grafts once they are placed in the grafting bench.
The practice most commonly used by propagators is the open bench and sweat box type of grafting. Whether or not you cover your bench, getting the peat moss at the right moisture content, covering the union on the graft, syringing, draining the glass, rolling back the paper, all these can be eliminated by using the poly tent method.
The poly tent method involves building a frame of wood or wire over the grafting bench. The height and the length of the tent depends on what you graft and
Author: Robert F. Carlson
Author: Marion Van Slooten
Some time later, the stem growth will stop and the tree will develop a bud. The root growth will continue for a period of time and then the tree will become dormant and remain so during the winter until the soil warms the following spring.
After the new growth begins, the same cycle will follow wherein the tree will develop both root and top growth during the summer followed by a period of dormancy during the winter and new growth the following year.
The principle of accelerated growth is that the tree is subjected to conditions which break this dormancy period. Instead of going into dormancy
Author: James E. Klett
Author: Dale M. Maronek
There is overwhelming evidence that many
Author: Mary Ann Dicenzi
Many references can be found in the history of plant propagation concerning the utilization of bottom heat to aid in stimulating rooting. Each firm might have different facilities available to them and in our case we had a conventional plastic covered quonset house which is 14 feet wide and 135 feet long. Since there is not a lot of head room for using conventional benches and since the greatest width is at the base it was decided that if the propagation trays could be set on the floor that the greatest return per square foot would result. It was decided that warm water circulated through plastic pipes in the
Author: William Flemer III
Author: Carl E. Whitcomb
Operation of the structure. The greenhouse is a Quonset type structure 26 × 72 ft (dimensions can be varied), constructed from ¾ inch galvanized pipe bows placed on 6 ft centers with one center purlin (Figure 1). Covering is by 3 layers of air inflated polyethylene. The triple layer system gives
Author: Charles W. Heuser
Author: Carl Orndorff
Very little can be found in the literature on plant propagation concerning the use of root cuttings for woody plants. L.H. Bailey in The Nursery Manual, published in 1920, devotes three paragraphs to the subject. His primary discussion is of the bramble fruits, horseradish and certain tropical foliage plants. He states, with no elaboration, that fruit trees may be grown from root cuttings. Bailey also states that true root cuttings process no buds whatsoever. This would seem subject to question. (Possibly I should have entitled this presentation "root sprouts" rather that "root cuttings".)
James S. Wells in his Plant Propagation Practices, published in 1957, devotes two paragraphs to root cuttings