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Author: Seward T. Besemer
Greenhouse production of cut flowers and pot plants began after 1950. At this time air transportation capability made it possible to grow flowers in "natural" climates and transport to markets throughout the U.S. Also, the advent of extruded plastic films enabled mild climate producers to construct economical structures to protect flower, crops from winter rains.
The San Diego coastal climate is characterized by mild winders and cool summers. The average annual sunshine is over 80 percent with excellent light energy during the winter and spring months. The prevailing onshore wind from the Pacific ocean helps to ventilate the flower crops.
In 1974 the estimated greenhouse area in San Diego County is 400 acres. There are also 2500 acres of field flowers and foliage. At least 250
Author: William C. Barr
Approximately 80% of our production is from cuttings. All of it is done in flats. We have a special crew whose sole job is collecting the cutting wood. About 90% of the cuttings come from the container material. The other 10% comes from plants we have planted on the banks as parent stock. There is about one person collecting cutting wood in the field every five persons making and sticking the cuttings. After taking the cutting material it is kept in walk-in coolers at 40°F until they are made. We usually make the cuttings within 3 days from the time of collection.
The basic propagation medium we use is 90% of ¼" perlite and 10% fine peatmoss. Calcium is added during mixing to provide sufficient amounts of this element for proper root growth. A flat is filling machine places the medium into the flats at the rate of
Author: Peter Orum
In order that we understand the same thing from the same words I shall define containerization as growing and selling ground covers in some type of container — be it plastic, peat, metal, paper or other. Bed production is growing the ground covers in some type of earthern beds or fields and selling the ground covers bare root or as clumps.
The first and foremost purpose of the undertaking in which we are involved is to make a profit, and we make profit by solving people's ground cover problems. It gives us the satisfaction of having a utility (of helping to keep the country from eroding away) and doing so on a sound business basis. Ground cover problems can not be solved by handling ground cover plants over a counter or out of a sales yard. Ground cover
Author: Dale M. Chapman
All plants originated as cuttings (or rootless in the case of Ajuga). All flats are 14 × 18 inches and may hold 30 3-inch square plastic pots.
Author: Steven M. Still
Author: Richard Martyr
What is a sandwich course? It is a full-time course containing as an essential part of that course one or more periods of full-time training with an employer; training which is supervised jointly by the employer and the educational establishment. And it must be emphasised that a full-time course with vacational employment is not a sandwich course — neither does a year before or after a course — nor any year between courses — provide the requirements for a sandwich course.
The pattern of sandwich courses can vary. It may be a "thick sandwich" in which case a long period of industrial work is
Author: George Tereshkovich
Horticulture, both a science and an art, has proven to be therapeutic to many people. Working with plants has a healing quality that is relaxing and satisfying. "There is nothing new about Horticultural Therapy; it is not proposed as a new therapy but merely as a supplement to the already recognized forms of occupational therapy" (19).
Man's early interest in plants was centered on their healing properties and many of our earliest horticulturists were physicians who sought to grow plants of medicinal value. This early work was initiated at Oxford University. Their Botanic Garden was the first of its kind in the British Isles, established in 1621 — primarily to strengthen the faculty of medicine (9). People have long practiced garden therapy as preventive medicine. Before the science of psychiatry, physicians prescribed work in the garden for ills of the mind and nervous system (17).
Progress during the 20th century centered around the development of horticultural
Author: Lawrence L. Carville
To place this presentation in its proper
Author: J.Q. Aylsworth, J.T. Scott Jr
Woody ornamental plants are harvested in many sizes corresponding roughly to the number of years of production. The revenue accruing to the crop at various ages of development provides the basis of determining the optimal time to harvest the crop to maximize income, over time, to the producer. Demands for current, over future expected income, cause the optimal harvest date to fluctuate among producers. A strong preference for current income reduces the profitability of holding long term appreciating assets for additional time. Thus, the time to harvest the crop must be earlier than if there is no time preference for current income. To
Author: Glen P. Lumis
Author: Roger D. Uhlinger
- Sufficient hardiness to survive and perform well in the environment of the Great Plains.
- Florist quality blooms.
- "Open" inflorescence that will not require disbudding.
- Erect stems that will not require support.
- Sufficient field resistance to soil-borne pathogens to remain attractive throughout the growing season.
- Everblooming habit of flowering.
- Frost tolerant buds.
- Evergreen foliage.
This ideal will not be reached quickly. However, these characteristics are all present in the breeding complex we are using and I believe we can eventually get them all together.
The material that forms the basis for our breeding and development program originated from three sources. The first is advanced generation offspring from crosses between the Grass Pink (Dianthus plumarius) and
Author: Lawrence Aubin
We knew that poly structures were being using in other parts of Canada and the U.S. To my knowledge no one had tried them on the prairies of Canada, where temperatures and winter conditions are much more severe than in the other areas mentioned.
With the cooperation and assistance of the Morden Research Station, Morden, Manitoba, we decided to erect a structure in which to store evergreens and to record temperatures on a weekly basis throughout the winter of 1973–74.
Evergreens were dug with a ball of soil in late August and early September and placed in
Author: Dennis A. McLain
Author: Elton M. Smith
To ascertain the amount of fertilizer necessary to produce optimum growth of plants in lining-out beds and the nursery, numerous studies have been conducted in cooperation with commercial nurseries during the past several years in Ohio.
Typically, the rates of fertilizer in most studies ranged from 0 to 10 lb. of actual N/1000 sq ft/yr. In all studies, the P and K were brought to a satisfactory level, according to soil tests, prior to adding the N or were applied with the N. The time of fertilizer application varied between fall, early spring and early summer. In most cases, the fertilizer was applied with a rotary granular distributor. The lining-out stock, and field grown shrubs and evergreens were measured
Author: Alfred J. Fordham
The growth of a typical Scots pine tree (Pinus Sylvestris) illustrates the normal process of control by hormones. With the advent of spring, the clusters of buds located at the tips of the previous year's growth become active and develop into new shoots. During their elongation period such growths are commonly termed "candles." The time of this activity depends upon location and season. At Boston, Massachusetts, it commences about May 1 and, in a scant 3 weeks, elongation is completed and a new cluster of buds has formed.
Author: Gary Long
More rapid progress can generally be obtained by improving cultural conditions rather than by plant breeding. The relatively large size and long span between generations require relatively large investments of both time and money for genetic studies of woody plants. To be economically successful; cultivars of woody ornamental plants must be adapted to broad geographic regions. This complicates testing of new cultivars and many receive only limited testing before they are introduced. In some cases most of the actual testing is done by the consumer.
Most plant breeders working with crop plants have definite indexes to measure their accomplishments such
Author: James S. Wells
MODERATOR WELLS: We have a large number of questions to go through this evening and, in addition, some people have requested time to show some slides. We will begin this evening's program with a few general questions. Dr. Elton Smith, in your paper, was the fertilizer applied broadcase or band-placed?
DR. SMITH: The work I reported at these meetings was a broadcast application, but we have done it both ways.
BEN DAVIS: Dr. Smith, from your paper I understood that you're recommending only 3 lb. N/yr, but for shrubs you're going to 5 to 7 lb. N/yr. Why the lower rate for trees?
DR. SMITH: This is somewhat difficult to answer. At the higher rates, we had taller trees with darker green foliage and other "plus factors" but what really counts is caliper. The 3 lb. rate is based on caliper but I believe there is more to this than just caliper and we h
Author: Austin F. Kenyon
Propagation Facilities. The basic propagation structure is of a quonset-type construction that is 97' long, 12' wide, with two ground beds 5' 4" wide divided by a center walk 16" wide. The first, and certainly one of the most important, factors in utilizing ground beds for propagation, is the grading for drainage during construction. These beds should have a 12" vertical drop in the 97' length. Less than 12" vertical drop will not allow adequate drainage potential, and more than 12" vertical drop makes proper leveling of mist lines to avoid dripping very difficult. The beds are crowned to allow an 8" vertical drop from the center aisle to the outside edge of the quonset on both sides.
The basic construction and dimensions were dictated to utilize standard and readily available materials. The length was made 97' to utilize the standard 100' length
Author: Paul Fukasawa
A common complaint amongst employers
Author: Martin Reid
I decided to narrow the subject of my talk to what impressed me most as a student during my stay — and that is the method of teaching horticulture used at Pershore College.
In England, more so than America, there is a shortage of properly trained horticulturists in the industry. This is due primarily to the public's misconception that horticulture is a second-class career with little need for
Author: Dan Lassanske
High school O.H. courses are focused upon two major objectives. One includes the very important task of helping students start to understand basic concepts, principles, practices, and mechanics of O.H. This should include an opportunity for introduction to not only the growing plants, their processing and distribution, but also a thorough understanding of the business aspect. Some students use this initial preparation as a basis for job entry, while others base future occupational education upon it. The second objective is preparation focused upon direct entry into an occupation — either a specific job, or possibly more appropriately a cluster of jobs.
This is quite a different educational philosophy than what it
Author: Howard C. Brown
I believe that it is important for the students to start their major courses within the first year. Otherwise, many of them lose interest and drop by the wayside.
We have three courses that give the student practical experience in the propagation and production of woody ornamental plants. The first of these is Nursery and Garden Practice, which is usually taken during the fall quarter of their first year. This deals with soil preparation and treatment, potting, canning and the production of plants from seed to saleable size.
Their second course in this series, Plant Propagation, is taken in the spring of the sophomore year and deals with layering, cutting propagation, and budding as well as field-growing operation.
The third course which we call
Author: Dale E. Kester
However, let us concentrate for the purposes of this talk on residence instruction at UCD. Undergraduate students interested in horticulture will major in Plant Science. This major was produced several years ago by combining instruction provided by numerous faculty in subject matter departments of Pomology (fruit), Viticulture (grape), Vegetable Crops, Agronomy, and Environmental Horticulture. Each of the departments includes 10 to 15 or more faculty members, each of which not only has a
Author: Richard Martyr
All agreed that there is a gap between what the grower expects of his employee and what the institutions are apparently prepared to teach their students. The sum total of all these deficiencies — whether of inadequate knowledge, lack of practical skills, poor motivation, no basic preparation for management or just plain technical inadequacy and lack of confidence — all these shortcomings which the grower feels the college ought to have prevented form, I assume, the educational gap.
There will be some academics who will says, "so be it". The College educates and the nurseryman trains; of course to some extent
Author: Robert G. Linderman
The first objective in this discussion is to present a brief explanation of what mycorrhizae are. Then we will consider how mycorrhizae function and what they can do for a plant. Lastly, we will consider mycorrhizae in terms of the propagation and growth of ornamental plants.
What are mycorrhizae? A mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between a non-pathogenic (or weakly pathogenic) fungus and living, primarily cortical cells of
Author: James R. Breece
Desert Area — In the desert area during the months from May through September, the temperatures are frequently over 100°F., and humidity is very low. These high temperatures are too hot for propagation of many ornamentals. The area is rather isolated from the market and lacks a good means of transportation. Desert palms and ornamental olive trees are raised Borrego Spring. One an area where they grow naturally, but most of the cactus nurseries are located over the mountains, west of the desert, in a strip of land 7 to 15 miles from
Author: Conrad Skimina
Author: Tok Furuta
Present day concern for our environment has necessitated that we examine our ways as producers. Degradation of the environment in the name of profit or growth is no longer acceptable. Utilization of all resources in an inefficient manner is not acceptable. Painful though the process may be, it is necessary to adapt to the present day real world. As some have stated, we, who are the prime providers of better environments through the use of living plants, certainly should not contribute towards the degradation of that same environment.
Efficient and effective use of water for the production of container-grown ornamental plants is a many-faceted opportunity. Some
Author: Fred W. Dorman
The original plantings were made with seedlings, most of them obtained from the California Division of Forestry Nursery. As many of the replacements as possible are from rooted cuttings from selected trees. These selected trees are called "Mama Trees", as this term is more meaningful to customers at sales time than "seed trees," or "clone trees". Overhead for taxes and interest on investment is over $700 per acre per year. This makes it imperative that every tree space be kept filled with a tree that will sell in three or four years. The high culling rate necessary with seedlings does not make this
Author: Richard E. Puffer, Richard G. Maire
Fred Dorman, whose Christmas tree farm is located in Highland, California, has been a leading grower in the
Author: W. D. Christie
Of all systems tried, the most popular seems to be the Paperpot system. These Paperpots are actually individual tubes which are glued together with a water-soluble glue. The size used for forest seedlings is 4 cm. in diameter and 8 cm. deep (about 1 1/3 inches × 3½ inches). A strip of these tubes is stretched out to fill a flat approximately 13 inches wide and 3 feet long, containing 336 cavities.
Probably one of the reasons which has made these containers so practical is that the Finns have developed and manufacture an automatic filling and seeding line which can seed up to one-half millions pots per day.
Species being grown are mostly Scotch pine and Norway spruce. The growing medium is a fairly granular grade of
Author: Ed Wood
Our seedlings are grown in a high density polyethelyne container, holding 100 tubes. Each tube is approximately six inches long, ¾ inch wide and holds about three cubic inches of germination medium. From past experience, we expect to grow a minimum of five crops in each container.
The reasons we settle on such an unconventional size and shape for a
Author: Jeanne B. Jones and Toshio Murashige
Author: Mildred E. Mathias
Author: M. Clift
Chlorosis in the foliage was usually considered to be due to a deficiency of iron in the soil, induced by alkaline conditions. Dr. Tod collected many specimens from around the country of chlorotic foliage together with a sample of the soil in which the plant was growing. A high percentage were obtained from acid conditions
Author: R.A. Watson
Seed Seed is considered an essential method of propagation for some of the more difficult species and plants are self-pollinated under controlled conditions for this purpose.
Cuttings As many cultivars as possible are propagated by cuttings, especially R. griersonianum hybrids, R. repens hybrids, dwarf species, deciduous species, etc. Cuttings are rooted under conventional mist with soil-warming cables and in cold frames. Plants particularly difficult to propagate by this method seem to be R. campylocarpum, R wardii, R. thomsonii and their various hybrids.
Layering This is still an important method of propagation at Reuthe's especially where a true plant is essential, where there is uncertainty of seed propagation
Author: Charles L. Kline
Sea World is a marine-oriented park which entertains approximately two million people every year in its San Diego operation. We also have a park in Ohio and one in Florida. Both our Florida and San Diego Parks operate 365 days of the year and are often open for night parties and special events
The entire San Diego Mission Bay area is built on a reclaimed estuary. Dumping of every sort of material has gone into the creation of the land area that Sea World is on, although the major part of the fill came from mud that was pumped out to create the land areas. As the years have gone by, most of the salts have leached out of the soil leaving mostly a sand base requiring constant fertilizing. We do have a few large areas where a clay layer exists that is impervious to water. On top of these areas has been pumped bay fill that is rich
Author: Dennis P. Carey
Cuttings are taken off the parent plant with a heel, the lower leaves removed and the cutting is then wounded down one side to the cambium layer. All cuttings are treated with a slow-dip hormone treatment by placing in the hormone IBA at the rate of 22 ppm to a depth of 2 cm. Cuttings are left to soak for 15 hours, surplus hormone is removed with clean water, they are then ready to insert. The cuttings are inserted 2½ cm. deep into honeycomb type paper pots size 7.5 cm. × 5 cm. The medium for these is 50:50 fine peat and sharp sand; the cuttings are well watered-in. Bed temperature 18° to 20°C is maintained.
Author: R.L. Wain
Since then, many research workers have added to our knowledge and it is now known that plant growth is under the control of highly active chemicals known as growth hormones which occur within the plant itself. The most important is the auxin-type hormone — IAA. This substance is produced in the growing tip, and as it moves down the stem its makes the tiny cells below get bigger, so promoting growth. It is of interests to note that IAA was known as chemical for fifty years before it was found to be a plant growth hormone in 1934. This discovery led to big
Author: B. H. Howard
This work has been done with leafless hardwood cuttings of fruit rootstocks collected between autumn and spring and rooted in heated bins of peat/grit compost (1). Hormone treatment was by the "quick-dip" method using IBA dissolved in 50% alcohol. Evidence is
Author: Margaret A. Scott
Author: Brian H. Howard
Species in which problems were few and in which failure could
Author: Bruce MacDonald
Author: M.G. Adcock
As one can see, this is a very diverse and complex subject, possibly too ambitious for one short session. We had a very interesting and useful discussion. I gathered from most of the members that for many of their production methods, a substitute for plastic would be very hard to find. The polythene sheet has the unique advantage of being very quickly erected on a suitable area to
Author: John Bond, Christopher Lloyd
CLEMATIS ‘AURORA’ ‘DAWN’ - Ray Evison. Very free flowering in May/June grows 8–10 feet. Propagation by normal system of clematis cuttings.
CLEMATIS FARGESII VAR. SOULIEI - Ray Evision. Very free flowering June/Sept., grows 10–15 feet. Propagation by seed or normal cuttings.
AESCULUS NEGLECTA ‘ERTHROBLASTOS’ - Norman Villis, Spring foliage for 3–4 weeks in shrimp pink. A slow growing tree at least in eastern England. Propagated successfully using a spring greenwood graft, by wedge grafting into the hypocotyl of a recently germinated Ae. flava or Ee. hippocastanum.
QUERCUS RUBRA ‘AUREA’ - John Bond. A beutiful yellow foliage tree requiring some shade for best leaf colour. Propagation by conventional late summer grafting on Q. rubra rootstocks with closed case treatment.
SORBUS REDUCTA - Jim Sutherland. A
Author: P.D.A. McMillan Browse
Many of us grow hardwoods from seed and probably give the matter little thought except perhaps in terms of mechanisation. We accept too thick a stand this year - too thin a stand next year, we use rule-of-thumb measures for achieving sowing rates, which are based on figures culled from forestry publications or out-of-date and unreliable horticultural textbooks. What I hope to do is to present a few new facts, correlate existing information, and apply some scientific background to produce a logical sequence of events to
Author: C. G. Thomas
- Highly intensive systems of plantings such as the "meadow" orchard use of up to 30,000 trees per acre and, if such a system is to be economically viable, then the cost of establishment must be reduced.
- It has recently been found that many of the apple rootstock cultivars in use produce heavy crops of apples suitable for use by the cider industry. A project is at present screening fruits from rootstocks for their juice characteristics and there has been much interest from the major cider companies, who have been quick to realise the potential savings from growing trees that do not require budding or grafting.
Several techniques have been used to obtain cultivars on their own roots:
Layerbed technique. Seeds of the apomictic Malus toringoides collected in autumn and stratified in cold storage were sown under glass to obtain strong seedlings. The following
Author: James L. Degen
My topic concerns plants recently introduced into the California nursery trade mainly for use indoors. However, many of them are adapted for use in malls of shopping centers, covered patios, or very protected places outside in the warmer regions in the landscape.
I have arbitrarily divided these plants into the main uses for which they are suited:
- Plants used mostly in hanging baskets or as table plants cascading over container sides: Cyanotis somaliensis — kitten ears; Gibasis geniculata (Tradescantia multiflora of (California trade) — Tahitian bridal veil; Asparagus meyerii — Meyer's asparagus-fern; Senecio rowleyanus — string of pearls, basket of peas; Plectranthus australis —
Author: Hudson T. Hartmann
There have been certain specific major developments in plant propagation history that, one by one, have greatly increased the kinds of plants that can be commercially propagated and have changed the economic picture of the nursery industry.
Prehistoric man may have discovered hardwood cutting propagation when he jabbed his spear cut from a living tree into the ground and found it starting to grow. Later, early man may have developed the rudiments of the technique we now call grafting. Presumably he could have thrown his spear at a wild beast and missed, with the spear jabbing into a tree. If, by chance, the combination of spear and tree was compatible, and if,
Author: H.R.J. BYFORD
Labels are of first importance. It is no good growing the plant unless you can sell it, and you cannot sell a plant without a label. In fact — no name — no value. Labels, therefore, deserve our consideration. Reviewing the suitability of the wider range of labelling materials available ten years ago, Dullforce, (1963) found nothing more durable than zinc and lead types, which are expensive both to purchase and prepare. As a temporary label, manila tags have served the nurseryman well for many years and, up to now, they have been the best choice for a label to attach to the tree or a batch of plants on lifting. When the plants reach their destination the labels may need to be replace by some more permanent means of identification. Unfortunately, "waterproof" manila is no longer obtainable, and
Author: P. Howarth
We at Winster have used them very successfully and extensively on conifers, maples, pernettias, skimmias, and hope to use them in rooting leaf-bud cuttings of camellias this season. Where late summer and autumn propagation takes place and root disturbance prior to overwintering is undesirable then the Jiffy 7 is most useful; e.g., last season Exbury and Japanese azaleas were rooted in late July, placed under 75 w tungsten bulbs, then potted in January. These plants produced a useful batch of saleable plants this season.
Author: Raymond J. Evison
Seed. Most species come virtually true from seed; however, some do give variations.Clematis tangutica, C. flammula, C. serratifolia, C. fargesii var. soulei, C. intergrifolia, C. recta, C. campaniflora and C. armandii are some of the species which grow readily from seed, Large-flowered cultivars will also reproduce easily from seed, giving many interesting variations and forms. Many of the. new cultivars being introduced by nurseries at present are the result of such chance seedlings. Seed can be sown in the normal John Innes Seed Compost and germinate between six weeks and six months, depending on cultivar and method used.
Layering. Layering is used mainly by amateurs; plants establish after nine months.
Division. Division of herbaceous cultivars takes place during dormancy. ‘Heracleifolia’, ‘Davidiana’ and ‘Wyevale’ and
Author: Derrick R. Pope
When I first became a propagator I tried, in vain, for a couple of years to get Hydrangea petiolaris cuttings to root, It was at the I.P.P.S. 1969 Annual Conference at Hadlow, during ‘Question Box’ time, that a gentleman asked if anybody had succeeded in rooting Hydrangea petiolaris cuttings, to which another gentleman answered that it was not difficult to root soft tips early in the season, when made into cuttings about three inches long; the difficulty was in getting these rooted cuttings to grow. So, it occurred to me that, perhaps, I had not been taking my cuttings early enough in the season. My mind was made up to watch
Author: Martin J. Stokes
According to the Oxford dictionary, the definition of the term "aseptic" is "not liable to putrefy" which, I am taking to imply, indicates a lack of all micro-organisms — except viruses. The conditions and techniques that I am going to outline, can almost always be so defined. Any micro-organisms that do manage to penetrate
Author: John B. Gaggini
Author: N. Le Poidevin
Being principally tomato and cut flower growers, they began to examine the possibility of nursery stock production under glass in Guernsey two years ago and also out-of-doors in Country Kerry.
We entered the field without any preconceived ideas as to hot to grow nursery stock but with a long experience in problems of management and of plantsmanship. I want to explain how we have tackled things so far and brought this experience to develop what I believe to be a unique system of production. To avoid any difficulties within the company we had to apply our existing system of labour management to our plant propagation work, I shall try to outline this system.
We do not have foremen. Our tomato and
Author: John De Putron
Strictly speaking, Philip Ladds of Swanley, were not hardy plant producers, but the whole set up was so exceptional in all aspects, that I hope you can bear with me for a while. It is true, that very little was produced that was unusual, nor were the methods especially unusual; in fact, I suppose traditional would be the best word to describe the whole enterprise.
Yet I have always been fascinated by the process of knitting together on six nurseries of 150 acres in North Kent, the output for Covent Garden of about 1¼ to 1½ million pot plants each year and about 80 acres of this total was employed in open ground cut flower production, which I will only enumerate; 45 acres of outside chrysanthemums, 10 acres of
Author: Hollis M. Barron
What is meant by "fertilizer efficiency"? Fertilizer efficiency is simply that proportion of the plant nutrients
Author: Dieter W. Lodder
During the first years of our business a comparatively high volume of
Author: R.W. PETRIE
The Resting Seed. The resting seed of most of the economic plants contain a well-developed embryo and reserve foods stored in the endosperm or in the cotyledons of the embryo, all of which are enclosed in a seed coat. Respiration is very low in many dry resting seeds which contain such chemical substances as suberin and cutin. These substances slow down the absorption of moisture by the seed and the exchange of
Author: Ray Aitken
Again, it is necessary to arrange salt tolerant plants in two categories:
- Plants to be grown in soils with high salinity — for example, reclamation work around salt lakes and on farms.
- Plants to be grown in soils of rather lower salinity where sensible soil husbandry may produce a more favourable pH reading by admixtures of peat, compost, etc., but situations in which the plants are subject to wind-blown salt, and hence saline windburn. Category 2 refers, therefore, to plants to be grown on our sea coast in Belt 1 (after Menninger). These notes concentrate on plants which might be grouped in category 2
Author: Ian S. Tolley
I would like to address my remarks particularly towards the production of trees for commercial growers. Some of the problems faced by all nurserymen are spiralling costs of labour, lack of suitable labour, and control of this essential element in production in open-ground situations. Our nursery reached a cross-roads a few years ago in making decisions for determining our future directions of operation. One of the first steps we took was to analyse the use to which we put our labour and facilities
Author: H.A.M. Van Der Staay
The term "softwood cuttings" applies to vegetative branch tips carrying one or more mature leaves. This is different from hardwood cuttings, which are taken from mature stems, with or without leaves, and usually stripped of leaves if they exist.
There are basic criteria which must be satisfied if success in propagation is to be assured. These include:
- Absolute freedom from disease.
- Elimination of moisture stress once cuttings have been removed from the mother plant.
- Adequate bottom heat (70–72°F) during rooting.
Conditions during propagation are highly favourable to spread of and infection by disease organisms. The program of sanitation must be directed towards
Author: Patricia Broadbent
Author: R.W. Boden
The term "conservation," defined to include the protection of soil, water, plants and animals presented few problems, however the term "environment" raised, and continues to raise, difficulties. Many people equate environmental care with pollution control, rejecting the broader concept. It is the view of Dr. Moss Cass, the Minister for Environment and Conservation, that the term environment must be considered in the widest sense to cover all social, physical and biological aspects of man and his surroundings.
This view is also taken here in discussing the responsibility of the plant propagator in environmental management. Similarly plant propagation is considered broadly to cover the collection, dissemination and cultivation of all forms of plant life, either for commercial use or creative pleasure.
Author: D.K. McIntyre, G.J. Whitehorne
A great deal of research is being carried on throughout the world in this field as it has enormous potential as a propagation method. It is particularly important as a rapid method of vegetatively reproducing monocots, which cannot be propagated quickly in great numbers by conventional methods. The method is also very applicable to the rapid clonal multiplication of hybrids,
Author: L.D. Pryor and R.R. Willing
Author: A.G. Sonter
Not only is their natural habitat being physically eliminated by man's machines, drowned under feet of water by his dams, buried under the concrete tanks of his sewage treatment works, swamped by the excessive floods that follow his urban and rural development, and poisoned by his polluted creeks and rivers, but the natural habitats themselves are being invaded by foreign and devastating forms of life.
Lantanas and privets are ravaging our secluded gullies and gorges; imported snails and slugs are chumping their way through millions of fern prothalli every night; imported strains of grasses and weeds are
Author: A.L. Bertus
Author: Philip E. Parvin
Test shipments of cut flowers and foliages were initiated when it was determined that one species, Leucospermum cordifolium, bloomed earlier in Hawaii than on the mainland. The enthusiastic reception these flowers received, and the prices paid in the test markets of Texas, Michigan, Pennsylvania and New York was responsible for the creation and approval of a new research project dealing exclusively with ornamental species of the family Proteaceae.
The new project, "Protea Selection, Management and Marketing," now serves as
Author: Lance Smee
There are three basic types of greenhouse — narrow span or venlo, medium span, and widespan. A low cost alternative is to use plastic film over a simple framework of wood or pipes; these will be discussed later.
Author: J.R. Rumbal
Age of Stock Plants. This affects the rooting of many cuttings, not only conifers, and is a factor that can only be determined after several seasons of experimenting. While it is generally agreed that cuttings from young plants root more readily, I have noticed a number of exceptions where conifers are concerned. For example, cuttings of Thuja occidentalis cultivars definitely root better if taken from mature plants. On the other hand, plump lateral cuttings from young Cupressus stock of several types, give far better results than similar cuttings taken from older mature trees.
Juvenility factors can be most important when selecting cuttings of conifers. In Chamaecyparis lawsoniana cultivars, a marked difference
Author: R. Barry
My interest in the possible difference found in different sister plants was roused many years ago when I discovered that cuttings from two mature ten-year-old specimens of Camellia japonica ‘Lady Loch’ in a private garden gave very different rooting results no matter how, when, or where the cuttings were dealt with. The plants were apparently identical in health, vigour and outward appearance and were planted eight feet apart and yet from
Author: Richard Ware
- Setting up. Factors in setting up an outdoor mist unit. The main problem was finding a suitable site which would have:
- Maximum sunlight
- Good drainage
- Shelter from excessive winds
- No heavy frosts
- Abundant water
- Suitable material types; subsequent operations. We had our unit working reasonably well by January (mid-summer) and started to look for suitable material. A local firm producing seedless grapes for their canning factory brought in a large bundle of softwood grape
N.B. Water must be available at all times as there can be no allowance from pump or power failure.
Author: P. Sheerin
For horticultural purposes the genus is divided into four main sections: Fibrous, Bulbous, Tuberous, Rhizomatous.
Author: Judith Cowan
Present methods of raising the understock from seed and then field budding produce a saleable plant after 4, 5 or even 6 years, whereas cutting-grafted plants attain a similar size in 18 months to 2 years. We commenced our cutting-grafting in autumn (March) but this can be carried on in to May, this being about the latest because of the semi-deciduous nature of the Poncirus trifoliata understock. I see no reason, however, why this method could not be extended to the spring and early summer.
Wherever possible, cuttings were used as understock, these being collected from several stock hedges. This has several advantages over young seedlings which give only a very small diameter in which to make the cleft graft. Cuttings can be up to
Author: O.E. Gibson
Consequently, planting in my nursery takes place in early winter (from April to July), although if the cutting is still ripe and not showing any signs of movement, rooting can still take place very satisfactorily and very quickly as late as August and early spring. In fact it has been found that rooting generally occurs better at either end of the season than in mid-winter.
We make up open ground beds of volcanic clay loam sub-soil which contains a fair amount of sand and has a low pH. The beds are 3' wide and the sub-soil is compacted somewhat before being covered with
Author: O.E. Gibson
I knew our stock looked quite clean but thought the presence of viruses, e.g. cucumber mosaic were masked. We have no leaf drop in the propagation pit at all; leaf drop is quite apparent in virus-infected plants, Similarly, saleable infected plants tend to drop leaves shortly after being balled-up — here again we have no problems. How we achieved such clean stock is a bit of a puzzle but I have a few thoughts on the matter which I would like to expound.
Rogueing and burning of any plants immediately any visible signs of virus occur is important and we have been quite meticulous about this over the last ten years, now finding only 20 to 30 infected plants in a batch of 5,000. Control of aphids is of
Author: B. K. Powell
During the years I have been dealing with imported plants at Duncan & Davies, I have come to the conclusion that one just cannot make any rules about their treatment, as no two consignments are ever identical, and there are so many factors over which the importer has no control. At times parcels have been delayed as much as three weeks from the date of despatch have been delayed as much as three weeks from the date of despatch, and the result can be either dried up leafless sticks, or an evil-smelling compost — according to the materials and methods used in packing. Of the two extremes, I prefer plants to arrive too dry — if they have already decayed, nothing can be done, but very dry
Author: B.A. Rapley
Grafting. During late spring in 1971 (the first week of November) a consignment of scions arrived from Hilliers in England and these were grafted immediately. By this time the stock plants had put on a lot of new growth, and a large number had to be cut back at the time of grafting — mainly to conserve space. For the Acer negundo and A.palmatum
Author: William Teague
Plant of the whole Proteaceae family require a very well drained soil of good porosity. Their climatic requirements are somewhat strict also. The average summer temperature should not be above 90°F for best flower production. Foliage burning and flower aborting can result from temperatures above 100°F. In general protea production is limited to areas with very little, if any, frost.
I am growing proteas on 20 acres near Vista, California, near San Diego. The growing site is approximately 11 miles from the ocean. It is located on high sloping ground. The ocean breezes keep the temperature cool in the summer afternoons (85°F).
We have about 30 different species of Proteaceae growing and flowering as good, or better in some respects, as their South
Author: R. Watkins
There are 4 basic factors that could cause poor or non-germination of seeds:
- Was the seed viable prior to sowing?
- Were dormancy factors taken into account?
- Were the physical constituents of the seed bed at optimum levels?
- Was there any evidence of pathogens, either externally or internally on the seed, in the germinating medium, or contained in the various ingredients added or surrounding the germinating medium at a later stage; for example, in the water or air?
Seed viability. Obviously it would be uneconomic to sow seed that does not even have the ability to germinated. Thus the first requirement becomes
Author: D.S. Tustin
The prime objective of this research is to investigate why two cultivars of the same plant species, have a widely differing ability to form adventitious roots when treated and planted as cuttings. By using apple rootstocks to grow successfully, then it is a much easier and less laborious task than raising rootstocks by the traditional methods. Apple rootstocks are useful research plants for several reasons. Firstly, workers at East Malling have described a system of propagation of hardwood cuttings which has had some success, Also preliminary studies on rootstocks have resulted in obtaining two rootstocks, one which roots readily,
Author: M.B. Thomas
The nutrition of six species of plants was examined using peat: perlite (1:1) mixes and slow-release fertilisers in factorial experiments. Most plants responded strongly to nitrogen while there was little response to phosphorus. Medium phosphorus levels proved fatal for Protea repens and depressed the growth of Grevillea rosmarinifolia particularly when accompanied by high nitrogen. Tomatoes responded to very much higher fertiliser levels than proteaceoks and other shrubs and there was a very strong N × K interaction with tomatoes even though they were grown in winter.
Author: John P. Salinger
- The continuing or increasing demand for ornamental plants in all advanced areas of the world.
- Increasing specialisation in production, particularly the production of plants for cut flower growers,
- The reappraisal of existing techniques of propagation rather than the development of entirely new techniques.
- The increasing research being carried out in nursery production.
A brief survey of the re-evaluation of existing techniques is appropriate.
The use of plastic film. Increasingly plastic film is being used in the nursery industry in the U.K. and warmer areas. In several nurseries cuttings of softwooded plants, e.g. chrysanthemums or woody plants, both broadleaf and conifers are being propagated under white plastic tents in existing glasshouses. In one case at least the film was laid directly on the cuttings; additional light shading may be necessary. With the high humidity and high
Author: R. Barry
Propagation was done in 5" clay pots filled with sand which had been sieved and then washed by swirling in a bucket until the finer sediment was suspended in the water and poured off. I was told this was a slight variation to the system and methods well tried and proven in England over a great many years.
Many years later (immediately after the war) I faced the
Author: J.J. Fawkner
Apart from direct synthesis, is one of the most promising sources of raw material appears to be the New Zealand
Author: Francis R. Gouin
Author: Carl E. Whitcomb, Gordon C. Hall, Lonnie T. Davis Jr, Gerald S.
Author: David C. Ruppert
It should be recognized that the use of hormones does not replace good propagating practices in other areas. Hormones are just one of the many tools the plant propagator has disposal. If used effectively, they can be of great benefit, but if misused they can cause additional problems (1).
The most common root
Author: Bert T. Swanson Jr
Author: Albert E. Canham
Perhaps citrus is too commonly thought of as an economic crop. It is, for orchards, planted in large blocks in neat, regularly spaced, rows; planted in this manner, the trees are very attractive.
Drive through any citrus growing area in California, Arizona Florida or Texas and depending on the season of the year, one is pleased by the perfume of the blossoms, or the contrast of various colors of the
Author: H.A.J. Hoitink, A.F. Schmitthenner, J.Q. Aylsworth
Recently, the disease has disappeared in nurseries where proper sanitation procedures are used during propagation and where container mixes consist largely of composted hardwood bark. The disease still is present in nurseries that use container media consisting
Author: William W. Hamilton
This species has long been recognized as a very desirable roadside plant, both for aesthetic reasons and for control of erosion on steep banks. Many attempts over the years to establish sweet fern on Massachusetts roadsides by transplanting a square foot of sod containing sweet fern
Author: Donald J.P. Ziraldo
Author: A.E. Einert
Author: Lonnie L. Lankford
In our first attempt the cuttings got too wet and also tended to form a large amount of callus. They did not make good roots and when the hardening process started they could not make it. This meant the MM 106 needed special treatment in regard to the amount of mist received and a better system of hardening off.
The MM 106 cuttings were moved to a timer section by themselves and not allowed to become too wet, partially by reducing the number from 12,000 to 10,000 per bed. Previously the hardening scheme had started when ½ to 2/3 of the cuttings had begun rooting. But since this never happened because of the
Author: Booker T. Whatley
This state of affairs remained until 1954 when Sharpe (3) reported the results of his work on rooting of Muscadine grape cuttings under mist. Cuttings of about 8 to 10 inches long were made from the terminal tips of canes, two or three basal leaves were removed and these cuttings were inserted about 3 inches into the medium. From the data (Table 1), Sharpe concluded that
Author: Arie J. Radder
At one time we bought cut-back laurel plants, which were shipped in from the Carolinas. We gave this up after a few years, because we had a 15 to 20% loss in plants that never "broke," and there were always 20% or more culls in the ones that did break. Because of this we decided to start our own seeding program.
In Connecticut there is no problem collecting seed from the laurel, which is indigenous to our state. We collect the seed pods sometime in October, extract the seed and put it in a sealed jar, which we keep in the refrigerator for 1 yr. We normally sow the seed
Author: William Flemer III
All of us, in the pressure of daily work, tend to become absorbed in the narrow details of our special field, and follow by rote a familiar formula for success, often losing sight of the whole picture of what we are trying to do. Occasionally we are surprised and irritated by an unexpected failure with a plant which has long given us no problem. If we pause and mentally retrace the steps we
Author: William E. Snyder
Successful root formation on stem cuttings depends upon:
- cells capable of dividing and differentiating root initials,
- favorable internal factors
- favorable environmental conditions.
First, there must be cells capable of dividing and differentiating into root initials. It is quite possible that all cells of the plant which contain a nucleus and cytoplasm, contain the necessary information needed to develop into a shoot, a root, or even an entire plant. There are three major
Author: Carl Orndorff
To set up an effective schedule, detailed propagation information must be obtained for evaluation. This is normally the result of long continuing experience and study, as well as keen accurate observation. The following information is essential before considering the preparation of a propagation schedule:
- Determine the most efficient rooting period or periods and the effective length of these periods. As an example, hybrid lilacs, Syringa vulgaris cultivars, may have only a 7 to 10 day effective cutting period in late May for softwood cuttings. Euonymus species and cultivars may be rooted all year.
- Determine the required average rooting time. This is essential in calculating space and labor priorities. This may
Author: Fritz Toohey
During the period of 1920 through 1970, 3,897 cultivars of edible fruit bearing trees have been catalogued in the United States and Canada. These are the cultivars which have a known commercial value or those which have important or unusual characteristics for the plant breeder.
Since we cannot in 20 minutes, describe 50 years of new fruit introductions, we will only mention a few which have been introduced recently. There is always an outstanding reason or feature that brings about the popularity of new fruit cultivar.
APRICOT: ‘Autumn Royal’
This cultivar, which has a patent pending, has medium to large sized fruit, oval-shaped, with firm and juicy
Author: Jeremy Wells
In the book, "The UC System for Producing Healthy Container-Grown Plants," there are two statements that I think are pertinent to fungicide use, and I quote: "Fungi may be suppressed under the controlled condition of the seed bed or flat only to appear again when the plant is in the pot, the five gallon can, or in the largely uncontrollable environment of the commercial or homeplanting. It is important that the stock produced be not merely disease-free — that is, healthy appearing — but that it be pathogen-free as well."
Author: J.G. Henrietta
Try to schedule your crops so that your propagating houses are empty for a week or two in spring or early summer. This time should be spent checking benches for structural weakness, replacing and repairing heating equipment, checking misting equipment and making major repairs to equipment and propagating facilities in general. The less you have to disturb cuttings after they are stuck the better, and taking care of these repairs in a vacant house reduces the chance of disturbing a crop for repairs at a later date.
After repairs are made, remove everything from the house that doesn't have a functional purpose, all plant material, such as scraps from previous crops and weeds under benches and in aisles. We grow our plant material up off the floor so we can use Pramitol PS for weed control on soil floors and in walkways. This material is a soil sterilant and is quite persistent in the soil so don't use it if you nee the ground you're putting it on in the next couple of years. We get
Author: Harold E. Stoner
Author: Noel Jackson
I am assuming that if the cry for helps is to a plant pathologist then no physiological problems, such as dormancy, stage of maturity, herbicide residues, hormone excesses and deficiencies, excess salts or other adverse environmental conditions, are involved. Rather, the problems are those attribute to disease-causing organisms, particularly fungi and bacteria, the commonly termed molds and germs. Hence, a more apt title would have replaced the looking glass with the magnifying glass since it is at the microscopic level, as the phrase goes, "where the action is."
Soils and organic debris literally teem with microscopic life forms, the majority of which prey on each other or contribute to the
Author: Thomas S. Pinney Jr
Categorization is the first step in the program. In our case, we divided our corporation into five categories: wholesale nursery, greenhouse, landscape, garden center and administrative overhead. The last item is a division in which, at the end of each month, we spread the expenses back across the other four divisions by a percentage of sales of each division. We further breakdown the wholesale division into the following categories which we entitled
Author: Earl H. Robinson Jr
All costs of materials and labor for any given year must be charged into one of these categories. After all costs are entered we break them down to a cost per plant or container produced. We keep a record of all plants planted during the year, and charged our costs as described below. It is virtually impossible to accurately account for cost by acre or plant cultivar as our acreage is too diversified and the record keeping is impossible to maintain. Many sizes, ages, rates of growth, etc. do not lend themselves to keeping cost in this manner.
We start by keeping our ledger sheets up to date, time cards posted daily, etc. Then at the end of the year we make the following computations: to the inventory of
Author: Ralph Shugert
The costing information reported to the Society at our various meetings includes a wide range from generalities, to formulae, and finally culminated with a paper printed in Vol 23 showing the time study on costs in England pertaining to several grafting operations. As I mentioned in a paper presented to the G.B.&I. Region in 1973, the propagator must be
Author: Al Fordham
On behalf of the society, Mr. Richard Zondag presented the award for the best graduate student paper to Mr. Steven Still. Mr. Al Fordham made the following presentation:
MR. FORDHAM: Professor F.L.S. O'Rourke was scheduled to made this presentation but unfortunately was unable to be here and I have been requested to do so in his stead.
In 1934, the recipient of this year's award was instrumental in organizing and developing a two-year program of study in ornamental horticulture at a well known agricultural college. Class research projects under his guidance involved turf plot trials of grass seed mixtures and fertilizer formulations suitable for the sandy soil of Long Island. These studies led to a blend of grasses known as "Farmingdale Mixture". This, together with a fertilizer formulation, was accepted and marketed through commercial channels.
Under his guidance, propagation
Author: F.A. Giles
The perfect ground cover plant would be an impossible ideal. It would have deep, fiberous root systems; be quick to cover the ground but not weedy; and be easily propagated and transplanted. It would have an attractive flower that blooms for three or more weeks. It would not climb shrubs or structures; it would tolerate a wide range of soil types and conditions, withstand sun or shade, be dense enough to eliminate weeds, easy to clean of leaves, disease and insect resistant and would require little or no care.
Ground covers are used for many reasons, erosion control being the most misunderstood. When selecting a ground cover a erosion control,
Author: Harvey Gray
Ajuga reptans ‘Burgandy Glow’, Carpet Bugle. This plant develops stolons which produce rooted plantlets at the stolon terminals. The plantlets are well developed in July and August. These small plants develop well when potted in Cornell mix in peat pots and placed in a coldframe for growth and winter protection. A 40 to 50% shade is most helpful to these plants at all stages of growth.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Bearberry. This is a procumbent plant developing very few roots. In past years I have rooted this plant with varying degrees of success. The following statement is based on data from Jim Cross: "Small cuttings taken well back in from the long