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Author: Richard M. Bullock
Scientists tell us that the Hawaiian Islands are of volcanic origin but the formation of the islands above the surface of the ocean is still unknown. For centuries limestone and coral deposits accumulated to from the islands as we known them today, extending from Kure Island just northwest of Midway to Hawaii Island on the east and Johnston Island on the southern extremity. The mineral content of the volcanic material has made the soil of the islands tremendously fertile and productive.
Hawaii, as most of us think of it, is comprised of six major volcanic islands between 19 and 22°15' north latitude and 2,700 miles from the nearest
Author: William Barr
Our objective is to find a Pinus radiata clone, with good characteristics, that will root in a high percentage. Of major interest is smog resistance, color, shape, and compactness. These vegetatively propagated trees could be very desirable as Christmas trees and as general landscape plants in southern California.
The Monterey pines were rooted using these procedures: The cuttings were made five to six inches long with the needles on the bottom half of the cutting cut off. Tip and second cuttings were used. They were dipped into 3000
Author: Richard A. Criley
The next 30 years will bring an explosion of urban growth in areas now largely rural. Cities will continue to grow upward. How congested we feel will depend on how we design and use our space.
The 1972 Yearbook of Agriculture, "Landscape for Living," tells us that an estimated 80 million people garden as a hobby in the United States, and that 59 out of every 100 people believe that "green grass and trees around me" are most important to their happiness. Everyone seems to enjoy plants and the effects that they create.
We are all familiar with the diverse uses to which
Author: Bettie E. Lauchis
Probably the most useful and fascinating genus is Musa with its many types of edible bananas and fiber products. The Polynesians brought bananas with them when they migrated to Hawaii over 1,000 years ago; it was one of their main staples and generally eaten cooked. Until the kapu was broken about 1820, however, Hawaiian women were forbidden to eat most bananas under penalty of death. Probably more legends and proverbs evolved around the banana than any other plant. In sacrifices to the Gods sometimes a banana stalk was used as a substitute for a human sacrifice. Many bananas do not produce edible fruit but have such a strikingly colorful inflorescence that they are grown ornamentally or as oddities. One of the oddest is the mai'a hapai which is Hawaiian for pregnant
Author: George F. Ryan
The relationship between nutrition and response to growth retardants is discussed Nitrogen levels probably are as important for the growth retardant response as reported for P levels. Data presented show a significant reduction in number of flower buds where N fertilization was reduced or omitted, with only a reduction in leaf N from 1 9 to 1.7%
Results are presented of the use of chemicals to prune and induce branching of Photinia × fraseri. The number of side branches was increased from 0.6 to 8 4 per plant by treatment with a combination of the pruning agent Off-Shoot-O and the cytokinin SD 8339.
Author: Clyde L. Elmore
Much physical harm and discomfort arise from man and animals contacting thorny bushes and trees such as thistles, starthistle, gorse, or Opuntia sp., cactus, as well as plants with lesser armament. Others of this type include members of the families Cactaceae and Euphorbiaceae, generally of the desert regions of America, Africa and Asia. Plants also are poisonous to man and animals. In the western United States sheep losses from feeding on halogeton are great. In one reported case in Idaho 1,620 sheep were lost in a single day.
The expenditure of funds and lack of crop return for the control of weeds cost the people of California over 374 million dollars for a year (over 1 million/day). In the U.S. a staggering 2.5 billion figure was suggested in 1968.
Although the total costs of weed
Author: Howard C. Brown
When we started planning the British junket over a year ago we contacted Richard Martyr, a member of IPPS, G.B. & I. Region, and Director of the Horticulture College in Pershore. Richard was most helpful in setting up a tour of British horticulture.
Two of our most worthwhile and interesting experiences in Britain were the IPPS Day at Exbury Estate and the Chelsea Flower Show. I want to tell you today about Exbury.
This famous estate, the home of the Rothschilds, is located a short distance from Southampton in Southern England. Our visit was on May 9 and we were hosted by the IPPS Region of Great Britain and Ireland. The estate consists of over a thousand acres. In addition to the home grounds there is an arboretum of over 250 acres devoted to rhododendrons and
Author: Carl Zangger
Author: Margaret E. Marston
When the main objective is the rapid multiplication of a selected individual, in vitro culture techniques may prove to be the answer. Ever since Morel showed that thousands of potential plants could be produced from one meristem of a Cymbidium in a year, it has been the dream of tissue culture workers to repeat ‘meristem culture of orchids’ with other plants. Plant breeders are particularly interested, as years may elapse between hybridizing and obtaining flowers. When selections are made, selected individuals must be bulked up as rapidly as possible into clones so that cultivar trials may then be carried out. Although plant breeders are only too aware that genetical variation may occur in culture and that precautions must be taken, nevertheless Eucarpia, the European Plant Breeding Association, spent much of its five-day conference, in Leeds, in July, 1973, discussing aseptic methods of vegetative propagation.
The range of material which responds to in vitro culture techniques is
Author: P.B.H. Tinker
I cannot summarise all recent work in one paper but for convenience we can classify such studies under these headings:
- Root detection and measurement.
- Root system morphology and distribution.
- Root system function in nutrient uptake.
- Root system function in water uptake.
- Roots and soil biology.
I want to discuss some
Author: J.C. Kelly, P. Bowbrick
Heaths and heathers are examples of subjects being more commonly used for such purposes, and whilst generally in good supply are often too expensive to be considered for this role on a large scale. The costs and system of production dictate the selling prices and, as a result, these aspects were investigated at Kingsealy to ascertain how best to produce saleable plants that: (a) require the minimum handling during the various stages of production, and (b) spend the shortest time in the nursery after propagation.
Author: H. Kamemoto
From around 1941, interest in tropical ornamentals expanded rapidly, both among hobbyists and commercial growers. The exposure of many of these ornamentals to servicemen stationed here, and the improvements in air transportation provided the initial impetus for the expansion of the export of ornamentals to continental United States.
In 1951, the University of Hawaii and the Floral Association of Hawaii co-sponsored the First Floral Clinic. Some mainland experts were invited including
Author: G.V. Purcell
Everyone knows the quotation that, "big oaks from little acorns grow." May I therefore suggest that "big profits from little Hamamelis could grow." By this method of production you can obtain a good saleable end product in the same time it takes to produce a rose. The main difference being that you can sell the Hamamelis at 6 to 10 times the price which you could obtain for the rose (currently Hamamelis sells for approximately £3.00 to £5.50 and the rose for around 50p).
I should emphasise that the budding itself is not a new way of producing these plants, as I understand it was done in the prewar period. I will now endeavour to explain the whole operation with the aid of slides to illustrate the
Author: H.J. Eaton
Author: Henry Jackson
At Rovaniemi Nursery, which is a State Nursery in the Arctic Circle, I was told that several million Scots pine had been produced by the paper pot system, and that field results were very encouraging. On closer questioning I learned that in Finland only three main tree species are used in the forest, namely Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch. The manager at Rovaniemi told me that although Scots pine is successful in paper pots he was not able to produce a large enough
Author: J.L.W. Deen
For these trials a mist unit under glass was used with mist application controlled by an "electronic leaf". Base temperature was controlled at 20°C and the cuttings were rooted in small trays using a basic rooting medium of 50% peat, 50% grit.
Trial 1. 1972 Cuttings 12 cm long of Cotoneaster dammeri ‘skogholm‘
Author: John A. Wott, H.B. Tukey Jr
Author: N. Nahlawi
For the greatest level of success, 60 cm long cuttings should be prepared from the proximal portion of the shoot, treated with indolyl butyric acid at 5000 ppm in 50% alcohol to the basal cut surface avoiding, where possible, contact with the epidermis and planted during the months of November, December and January. For a summary of results see Tables 1,2,3 and 4.
Author: John Edmonds
There is talk within the industry in the U.K. of over-production in some items. There is truth in this for some particular plants. Thus it becomes vital to produce plants which can be sold. Remember that if you produce 100 plants and you are expecting to make 15% profit you will only cover your costs when you sold 85 of those plants all the profit lies in selling the last 15.
So our first requirement in planning our propagation is an accurate sales record. At Bransford we only have 3 years records but already it is beginning to show trends. We are selling proportionally less of
Author: B.C.M. Van Elk
After quick-dip treatment of 2,500 to 30,000 ppm, rooting was poor in comparison to the rooting of cuttings treated with a powder of 8% IBA + captan (83% spray material)
Author: Ralph Shugert
I will have to limit my remarks
Author: George C. Thorburn
In many ways I was luckier than most British students because I became involved with the growers who supply the better known Export Nurseries. I was, therefore, able to understand the business functions and dealings reciprocating between nurserymen and exporters alike. Although cultural methods are different in Holland as compared to those in Germany, the business methods used in both countries are very similar and, in turn, quite different to our present
Author: Gordon T. Shigeura
Most visitors to the Islands do not realize the Hawaiian Islands are made up of a seriés of islands in the North Pacific anchored in the southwest by our Big Island (Hawaii) and extending 2000 miles in the northwesterly direction toward Japan with Wake Island at the very tip of the chain. Excepting for the 12 major islands in the southwestern end of this chain and in the vicinity of Honolulu, the other islands are coral atolls, reefs or sands bars on top of volcanic mountain peaks arising from the ocean floor.
Unlike the shifting land masses of Europe, Africa, and the Eastern Americas drifting apart in the Atlantic Ocean, the ocean floor of the Pacific has been relatively stable for millions of years. Thus, the volcanically created Hawaiian Islands have been isolated from the greater land masses of Asia and the Americas for millions of years. This isolation resulted in an endemic plant population in Hawaii found nowhere else in the world. More than 85% of the plant species found in
Author: J.G.D. Lamb
Yet despite this obviously favourable background Irish nurseries are mostly small scale family businesses, catering for a local trade; few are large enough to become companies. Here then was an identifiable opportunity to encourage growth from a small base with, in the short term, a home market and further ahead, a large
Author: David Ridgway
Author: Arthur Turner
In September, 1970, Mr. J. R. Aaron of the Forestry Commission visited Wisley and asked if we could use pulverised pine bark experimentally for various purposes around the garden and offered a generous consignment of the material to enable us to assess its merits. Some of the uses were fairly obvious and these included mulching, plunging material and inclusion in growing composts for orchids and bromeliads; its use as a rooting medium was less obvious although it has the physical properties needed in cutting composts. It is capable of retaining moisture, although absorbing somewhat less than peat, and it drains off any surplus water rapidly, thus remaining well aerated.
Pine bark is available in large quantities from felled timber and not many years ago was regarded as a waste product not easily disposed of; now, in its pulverised state, it is proving a very useful commodity in horticulture. It lacks any readily available plant food and can create nitrogen deficiency if mixed in the raw
Author: R.J. Hares
Many propagators feel that the principle of using synthetic blocks is a sound one, and it is my intention to try and assess what we have learned during our investigations, and with our knowledge of the known variables, to attempt to predict where we should go from here.
Perhaps the main advantage of using propagation blocks lies in the ability to pot up plants without root disturbance and therefore growth checks. In practically every trial we have undertaken, establishment using the blocks was better, and plants were often larger and more well established at the end of the growing season. A few plants were planted out
Author: R.J. Garner
Throughout the world fewer and fewer sweet cherries are being grown. Only a few countries are more or less maintaining their output, notably Germany, Italy, and the United States; the rest produce far less than they did. In ten years, English production has declined some 50 per cent — the Netherlands even more. Yet the demand for dessert sweet cherries remains high and is, apparently, insatiable. Then, why is not production not only maintained but increased? There are two main reasons, depredation by birds and high cost of picking. There are other contributing factors, such as delayed onset of cropping, diseases and pests; e.g. bacterial canker in cool climates and cherry fruit fly in others, splitting of fruit due to rain, and short storage life of the fruit. However, these contributory factors, whilst important, are all present subjects for research and may eventually prove solvable.
Author: C.D. Dempster
It was altogether by chance, while rooting certain conifers under double glass, that I discovered the conditions and the routine methods adopted were favourable to the rooting of the common English holly and its many cultivars. Since it needs no expensive electrical equipment, electricity, or water and requires a minimum of attention. I still prefer this method to mist propagation. It is foolproof and labour saving. Once the cuttings are rooted, they can be left in situ for several weeks without fear of nutrient starvation.
Success in rooting under double glass depends on a number of favourable factors. (1) properly constructed frames, (2) a suitable rooting medium, (3) growths at the right stage, (4) use of
Author: B.H. Howard
Chip budding. Potential for improvement lies in the replacement of traditional shield budding by chip budding, which involves the substitution of a wedge-shaped piece of scionwood bearing the bud for a similar shaped piece of rootstock tissue, rather than the addition of the but shield to the
Author: O.A. Jolly Batcheller
In January, 1971, attempts were made using the information obtained from Thulin and, although these grafts were not successful, the scions lived long enough to indicate that if the techniques and procedures were refined and improved, successful grafting might result.
California State Polytechnic University provides no
Author: Richard W Bosley
Some of the things that we should expect are selection for greater disease resistance, for earlier blooming and fruiting in the life of the plant, and for developing plants that lend themselves more readily to production. The plant breeder must help the grower increase productivity by such methods as selecting types that are more self-branching, respond well to optimum growing conditions, hold up well under the stress of the market place and perform well for the consumer. New leaf types and shapes are needed to lend interest to the landscape planting when the material is not in bloom or fruit. Greater cold and winter wind resistance
Author: B.H. Howard
Within each group, wounding consistently improved rooting but the response to all other factors was variable and inconsistent. Significant interactions of wounding and other treatments with nurseries and with years revealed unidentified factors which influenced the rooting response of cuttings to these treatments.
Author: William S. Stewart
In Hawaii, the 50th state of our United States, all of these conditions are represented and all are conveniently accessible. For these reasons it is important to recognize the climatic zone within the tropics where a plant is growing to evaluate where on the mainland it might be adaptable. On the mainland under indoor or conservatory conditions almost any tropical species can be grown if ingenuity is used to modify the environment. An excellent reference for this field of work is Exotica 3, "A Guide To
Author: P.F. WAREING
That plant hormones have a marked effect on the rooting of cuttings has been recognized for some 40 years, since it was first demonstrated that application of the auxin-type hormone, indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA), will stimulate rooting in stem cuttings of various species. For many years the auxins (which chemically are indole derivatives) were the only known natural plant hormones, but in the last 15 to 20 years it has become recognized that there are several other groups of natural plant hormones, including the gibberellins and cytokinins, which are growth promoting substances, abscisic acid, which often behaves as a growth inhibitor, and ethylene, the first known growth regulating substance which is a gas. These various types of hormone are very different from each other chemically. Thus, the gibberellins are terpenoid-like compounds with a fairly complex structure, while the cytokinins are purines, being substituted adenines or closely related substances. There are now about 40 known
Author: J.B. Gartner, S.M. Still, J.E. Klett
Recently, new laws were enacted and producers of bark waste could no longer dump or burn these residues. Therefore, they were interested in finding other ways of disposing of them. Growers of ornamental crops have become more interested in artificial growth media and are switching to container growing as
Author: Fred K. Buscher, David Van Doren
The water content in container plant production remains near field capacity under irrigation. The air-filled pore space following drainage to field capacity is an important aspect of soil mixes. It is through air-filled pores that gases are exchanged between the soil mixes and the atmosphere. This pore space is influenced by the amount and type of amendments used in the soil mix. Since we cannot yet predict water and air-filled pore conditions for different mixes, each grower must measure air-filled pore space for his own mix.
A way to determine
Author: John P. Sparmann
Propagation by cuttings is done from May through February. The cuttings are taken from 1 or 2 yr old container stock, and we like to let the time the cuttings are taken coincide with the time the plants need pruning.
Cuttings are taken from healthy and well watered plants. They are washed in fungicide solution, wounded by means of stripping and cut to a uniform length. Each worker gets a small wooden stick, previously cut to insure this uniformity. Cuttings must be short and stocky, in order to produce a
Author: James Slezinski, Harold Davidson
Over the last 30 years propagators have successfully used mist to control water loss from cuttings during the period of root regeneration. There are many excellent references on the subject (5, 6, 8, 9, 13). Emphasis has been on the use of mist to cool the leaves of the cuttings. This results in lowering the vapor pressure within the cutting, thus reducing the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) between the leaf and the ambient atmosphere which, in turn, reduces loss of moisture by transpiration. However, another method of reducing the VPD is to increase the relative humidity of the ambient atmosphere. At a relative humidity of 100%, the VPD (mmHg) at any temperature is zero. Humidity control received some attention by propagators (1, 3, 7, 10) over the years, but most propagators have relied on mist.
Since 1953 many propagators have utilized polyethylene film in plant propagation. Coggeshall (2) propagated difficult-to-root plants in a plastic case. Warner (12), Van Hoff (11) and others have
Author: Carl Orndorff
Low cost does not mean only construction costs, but also general maintenance costs, operating costs such as heating fuel and general labor operating costs.
Our firm operates a 328 acre wholesale nursery, growing mostly winter hardy woody plant materials in medium and large sizes. We cater to the landscape contracting business in the Mid-Atlantic area, with 90% of our business in a 50 mile radius that covers the Washington and Baltimore markets.
Our firm was originally in a rural area, in what is now the suburban Maryland-Metropolitan Washington area. During the late 1950 period, we moved to the rural area 20 miles west of Baltimore and 25 miles north of Washington. Again Washington and also Baltimore are moving in on us very fast.
In the late 1950 period, we had to start a new propagating facility at our new
Author: James H. Kyle
Over the years we have rooted Taxus, Juniperus, and Thuja species in many ways. Cuttings have been stuck in outdoor frames, greenhouse benches, flats on greenhouse benches moved outdoors when rooted, and even some under outdoor mist. We wanted to expand using the best of what we had done in the past. A good production area was to be built with reliable control of heat and other environmental conditions. The space would have to be flexible to use for other crops.
The 180 × 15 ft poly tunnel was constructed like other houses in the area. The floor, however, was submerged 2 ft underground. A hole was excavated 3 ft deep, sloping to a 12 inch drain tile at one end. Pipes were driven into the ground to support the structural hoops. A concrete footer was poured to support precast concrete slabs, with 2 inches of styrofoam
Author: Gied Stroombeek
Before I comment on how this crisis might affect the overwintering program, I would like to describe it to you. The program concerns mainly vulnerable container-stock and this refers to: (A) broadleaf material that is somewhat tender, e.g. evergreen azaleas; (B) broadleaf and deciduous stock that is root-tender at low temperatures; Japanese and American holly, cotoneaster varieties and pyracantha.
This stock is pushed together tightly in Quonset structures during early November. The huts receive a thorough spray of 3 lbs. Captan plus 1 lb. Terraclor per 100 gal with a quality sticker like Vapor-guard or Nufilm added; this spray is applied just prior to covering. The huts are covered with two
Author: Francis R. Gouin
Few growers have had 100% success over-wintering plants by packing them together on level ground and covering the containers with mulch. Peripheral containers generally become uncovered before and during the most severe
Author: Ralph Shugert
For the information of our new members and guests, I hold the office of Historian on the I.P.P.S. Board, and in my files I have the Proceedings of the National Association of Propagating Nurserymen for their June 23, 1926
Author: Marion O. Mapes
Author: Alfred J. Fordham
Dormancies, often irksome to propagators, are functional in design. They are safeguards which nature has furnished to insure continuance of the species. If these protections did not exist and germination occurred during a warm spell in autumn or winter, the seedlings would perish during subsequent cold. Dormancies which cause germination to be erratic and extended over long periods of time lead to a reserve of seeds which stand ready to
Author: Harold Pellett
Author: Thomas S. Pinney Jr
Author: Hugh Steavenson
Regardless of outlet or usage, we are ever more impressed with the importance of seed
Author: C.W.M. Hess Jr
Some very popular species at present are the amelanchiers — known as June berry, shadblow, sarvis tree and other common names. These plants
Author: Paul E. Read, Vincent L. Herman, Paiboolya Gavinlertvatana
Author: Heung, Shi-Luh, Rosa, John J. McGuire
When talc and ethanol formulations were compared on the basis of adventitious root production in Ilex cuttings, it required four and a half times as much IAA in talc to get the same amount of roots as obtained in ethanol formulations
Author: William E. Snyder
The award for the best undergraduate paper was presented to Mr. Richard Randall of Virginia Polytechnic Institute.
Dr. William Synder, Secretary of the International Board of Directors, made the following presentation:
DR. SYNDER: President Tukey, members of the Eastern Region and guests. Mr. Leslie Hancock, Chairman of the Award and Merit Committee, could not be with us this year and I have been asked to act in his stead to present the Award of Merit for 1973.
The recipient of the Award this year joined the Society in 1952 which missed by one year being an honorary charter member of the organization. At an early age, he indicated an interest in plant materials by
Author: Thomas A. Fretz, Elton M. Smith
The ultimate fate of an herbicide once introduced into the environment can be seen in Figure 1. Three major degradation processes and six transfer processes play a role in determining the fate of these chemicals. Biological decomposition or break-down by living organisms; chemical decomposition, the break-down by chemical processes in the absence of living organisms; and photodecomposition, the degradation by chemical processes involving radiant energy, are the three processes by which herbicides are degraded and their chemical composition changed.
The major transfer processes which affect herbicides in the environment include absorption by plants and animals, retention in
Author: Thomas A. Fretz
Author: Leslie K.C. Clay
With all species of dogwood, we take the cuttings in late June and early July. The cuttings are placed in flats in a medium of 1/3 sand, 1/3 peat moss, 1/3 coarse perlite. Several flats of cuttings were prepared with medium of pure washed concrete sand. These, however, did not root nearly as well as those in our standard mixture. The cuttings are taken only from the current season's growth. In the case of Cornus alba, and varieties, if the growth is long enough, cuttings from secondary growth may be used. With Cornus florida and its cultivars and Cornus kousa only tip cuttings are used. The cutting length is four to six inches and the lower leaves are removed. Following removal of leaves, cuttings of Cornus florida, and varieties, and Cornus kousa are given a wound of ½ to ¾ inch in length. The cuttings are then given
Author: Charles H. Parkerson
Weeds are a problem because they effect plant growth, cause unsightliness of our nursery, and present a labor and financial burden. It is hard to say what single factor really pushed us to turn to the bags of chemicals that we had sitting in the back of the shed but never used. We had an experience with a herbicide about 5 years ago. Before the use of the herbicide, we had 50 weed species, and after its use we had 5 species of weeds present. These 5 together were more of a problem than the 50 we started with. I think the one thing that pushed us to the breaking point was our desire to use one of the slow-release fertilizers that cost somewhere around $15.00 per bag. We could not justify sending labor into the field to pull weeds and at the same time pull and eventually throw away this
Author: Elton M. Smith
We control in lining-out beds has always been expensive, since weeds have been controlled for the most part by manual labor. With beds usually composed of small plants, weeds must be removed frequently to reduce the competition primarily for light, but for moisture and nutrients as well. Although, women and teen-agers have been used extensively for weeding the labor costs have steadily increased to well over the $600/A/yr for weeding field stock as reported by Johnson in 1962 (1).
In recent years, pre-emergence herbicides have been used extensively by nurserymen in field stock but not in lining-out beds. Among the reasons for limited use in liner beds are: 1) fear of herbicide damage to small plants with a limited root system; 2) with large numbers of plants in a small area, concern that a mistake will eliminate a future crop; 3) often, lining-out beds contain numerous cultivars of plants and herbicide selection becomes more difficult; and 4) certain herbicides such as Treflan are not as
Author: William J. Bennett
Field trials of many herbicides and combinations of two or more chemicals have been conducted in Massachusetts by the Cooperative Extension Service for several years. Growers and chemical companies have been very cooperative in making these possible. In designing various field trials several considerations were basic to the decision making process. These are as follows:
- The first flush of weed growth following transplanting is probably the most important to control effectively
- Granular formulations are much more practical for the smaller grower or the treatment of smaller blocks of
Author: Paul L. Smeal
As one looks at industrial management, the growth of manufacturing requires special supervision of machinery and the elimination of inefficiency. The first sustained effort in this direction was made in the 1880's by F.W. Taylor of the Midvale Steel Company. The motions of workers were studied to speed up production by cutting out excess movements. Such time and motion studies of the flow of materials through the plant became a major item of inquiry, as did product design. Relations with workers became the subject of industrial psychology. Soon
Author: John B. Roller
The poor stands from inexperienced budders and the percentage of "dog-legs", plus the fact that cutting off the understocks came at a time when we were very busy with other work, combined to make this a poor method of producing crabapples, so it was discontinued. Then for two seasons we bought crabapple whips from outside sources. This solved all of our problems except the "dog-legs," as our source budded their trees and we still had "dog-leg" trees.
We decided to go back to the old-fashioned method of whip grafting,
Author: R. Wayne Mezitt
The types of plants I graft are usually dwarf or weeping cultivars of the various species on which they are grafted as rootstocks. The unusual shapes and forms are the result of the subsequent growth of the grafted plant. Most of the plants are top grafted, from 1 to 6 ft. high although some are grafted in tiers, using side grafts, depending upon the effect desired. Most propagators are familiar with simple top-grafting techniques. Those who have toured nurseries have undoubtedly seen Cotoneaster cultivars, Acer palmatum ‘Dissectum,’ and Syringa velutina (S. palibiniana) as well as other plants grafted on standard rootstocks. My report is an extension of these procedures, drawing from my experience over the past few years.
Author: Richard P. Wolff
I will define the term "grafting" to bring this talk into sharper focus. Grafting is the art of joining parts of a plant together in such a manner than they will unite and continue to grow as one plant. In the plant industry, grafting must be fast, efficient and precise if good economy is to be effected. Our end result should produce a vigorously healthy tree of superior quality.
Briefly, let me review with you the pre-grafting, grafting and post-grafting procedures and, along the way, I will discuss specific points that have a
Author: Ben Davis II, Lonnie Lankford
This climate makes it difficult to grow crapemyrtle [Lagerstroemia indica] by the conventional method of propagating from unrooted hardwood cuttings lined out directly in the field. Because of the cold winter temperatures, cuttings lined out before mid-April are many times freeze-damaged. Late planted cuttings do not make enough growth in one season for most of the plants to reach salable size. It is very risky to leave them in the field 2 years because in most years the 1 year old plants will nearly all be winter-killed. We have tried digging all of the plants at 1 year before extremely cold weather, grading out the plants large enough to sell, and lining back out the smaller plants. As a rule this did not work well because,
Author: Michael J. Medeiros
If you propagate rhododendrons almost exclusively, as we do, after the fall crop is rooted you will have an empty cutting house. Starting another crop at this time spreads out the work load and keeps our facilities operating year round.
Before giving a month-by-month accounting of our cutting activity, I would like to describe our propagating structures and materials.
Our propagating house is a Quonset-type structure covered with polyethylene. It has a bench on either side with a path in the middle. Each bench is constructed to support three rows of flats. The bench is a pipe structure covered by a length of copper naphthenate-treated snow fence. This allows the bottom of the flats to be heated by a
Author: Arie Radder
About the third week of March we start to remove the plants from the hoop houses and space them on black plastic in the growing area so that we can put some good growth on them without any further spacing during the season. At the same time we will shape up all the plants to obtain compact, full rhododendrons. In the past we threw the clippings on the compost heap, but I noticed that there was a considerable amount of nice propagating wood among the clippings so we decided to try to root them. We had space open in our propagating houses and on April 4, 1973 we placed cuttings of four cultivars of rhododendrons in our cutting benches. The rooting medium consisted of
Author: Bruce A. Briggs
Author: Lawrence Carville
MODERATOR CARVILLE: The Potpourri is a little different concept than our usual Question Box in that I've asked two of our members to begin this evening's program with slide presentations showing some new and innovative methods and techniques. Some of these new ideas you saw last night when the tour leaders were discussing the different tours which we went on in England. Some of you were not able to go with us on the "Propagator's Tour of a Lifetime" and I felt it would be a good idea to try to show you some of the things they are doing over there. I've asked Hugh Steavenson to lead off this evening's program by showing you some slides of a new technique that we saw on the tour in England.
EDITOR'S NOTE: Mr. Steavenson showed slides and discussed a jacketed cold storage unit for nursery stock; conifer seedlings and transplant can be stored in these units for as long as 18 months and then taken out to the
Author: Ellaby Martin
A gathering of plant propagators was held at the University of Waikato, Hamilton, to discuss the formation of a Chapter of the Society here in New Zealand.
The move to start a chapter here was initiated by Mr. J. S. Wells of Redbank, New Jersey, in correspondence with Mr. Ella by Martin of Martin's Nurseries, Hamilton. Although this was not the first time the development had been considered, Mr. Martin felt that the time was right for exploring the possibilities in greater depth. He contacted Mr. R. E. Lycette of the University of Waikato and other horticulturist he knew to have an interest in plant propagation as well as some of the existing members of the society living in New Zealand.
The preparation for the inaugural meeting was carried out largely by Ellaby Martin and Ron Lycette and the date was fixed to coincide with Mr. Jim Wells' visit to
Author: E.E Toleman
Normally, when only a few plants are required, side shoots from the main rootstocks are removed but natural increase thus is very slow. It has long been known that Nymphaea will survive in wet soil only with no water above the rootstock but in such cases smaller leaves and far more growing shoots are produced. It was also known that a dormant shoot bud is present on the rootstock at the axil of it and the leaf stem, even if the latter is no longer present. With this knowledge, the rootstocks were placed in containers and grown in water 30 centimetres deep. This water depth was decreased over a period of eight weeks so that finally the rootstocks had no water over them but were in wet
Author: R.E Lycette
The purpose of this paper is. very briefly, to discuss the success we have had here at the University of Waikato with the propagation of ferns from spores.
The ferns species we have tried are chiefly exotic, many of them subtropical. Although more elaborate techniques have been tried we have finally
Author: R.M C. Scott
A leaf-bud cutting, as its name suggests, consist of leaf blade, petiole or leaf stem, an axillary bud plus a small portion of the stem. In actual fact a leaf-bud cutting is a miniature softwood cutting.
It is important when taking these cuttings, as with any cuttings, to select healthy disease-free stock plants. A cutting from a poor quality stock plant will produce an inferior quality new plant. It is also important to select mature tissue, i.e leaves and petioles which have a mature axillary bud or axillary shoot primordia capable of producing shoots in a relatively short time. However, although they should be mature, the cuttings should be made from relatively young, healthy growth, as cuttings from old growth will
Author: B. Haggo
Stock Plants — I consider the key to D. odora ‘Rubra’ production is healthy vigorous stock. Selected plants are set out in the best piece of nursery land and grown for two years before being used for cuttings. These stocks are maintained from 5 to 7 years before removal and replacement by fresh plants. Below a soil pH of 6, growth is restricted. Good results are achieved with a pH of between 6 and 6.4. A balanced fertilizer applied in early spring and again after the cuttings are removed (late summer) maintains growth.
Author: A.W. Palmer
- A stronger root system which will handle stronger winds.
- A more vigorous plant, flowering earlier and better, with longer life.
- A hardier scion variety in reference to frost.
- A saleable plant in approximately 6 months.
- A larger quantity when stocks are limited.
Grafting. Spring seems to be a successful time, and plants grafted at this time can be retailed in February [late summer]. If grafted in late summer and wintered in a glasshouse they produce good saleable plants for early spring.
Method 1: Grafted onto a growing stock — in a tube — is ideal. The stock must be vigorous, hardy and produce roots very quickly. Some good examples are ‘Suva Queen,’ ‘Simmond's Red’, ‘Fifi Flame’, ‘Agnes Gault’. If hardwood cuttings
Author: Judith Cowan
Propagation Department: The emphasis here was that all visitors be allowed to wander about as they pleased, migrating to the area of particular interest to the individual. Static displays were mounted of heating equipment (kindly loaned by the local City Council), mist nozzles and ancillary equipment, and these stimulated much discussion and exchange of ideas. Much doubt was expressed about the types of misting nozzles at present available.
Media trial work on rhododendron and magnolia cultivars was displayed in chart form with samples
Author: B.L. McKenzie
The rooting medium I use consist of peat and sand, 1:1 and, as our nursery produces liner crops only, 90% of the plants are rooted directly in tubes. This also reduces root disturbance which is particularly important with Proteaceus plants. Certain small-leaved cultivars are rooted in small tubes and, when rooted, transferred into larger tubes. The potting mix here comprises 2 parts soil, 1 part peat, and 1 part sand, sterilized with M.B.C. and contains the following fertilizer per cubic yard: lb. Uramite, ¾ lb. superphosphate, 1 oz. potassium nitrate, 1 oz. potassium sulfate. No lime is used but supplementary liquid feeding is given.
Our aim through
Author: N. Parr
The understock used is C. deodara seedlings about 18 months old and grown in small containers where a vigorous root growth is maintained through liquid feeding. The plants are brought into the glasshouse for several weeks prior to grafting to stimulate root activity. This is usually about mid-March (early autumn) or when the scion wood is considered mature.
I use the oblique wedge method, matching the scion on one side only . The scion is a 2–3 terminal shoot of well-matured current seasons growth, if possible taken from the upper parts of the tree where maximum growth has taken place. The scions should be about 1/8" in diameter, thinner wood being avoided if possible. I have found the scion wood is best used fresh, although it may be safely stored in polythene bags in cool conditions for several days if necessary.
The graft is tied with
Author: Fenton E. Larsen
In 1967, a report to the International Plant Propagator's Society (IPPS) covered the findings of the early work in Washington (4). Since 1967, several additional reports have been published concerning the most successful treatments (5,6,7,9,10) under central Washington conditions. Other materials have been tried which might be useful elsewhere. It is the purpose of this report to briefly present information gathered since the above mentioned report to IPPS (4) and to describe the currently most
Author: B. Blackman
I have been told that dwarf conifers are nature's freaks and it would appear, by the inability of most forms to set seed, that nature tends to conserve her species. We have found on rare occasions when a dwarf conifer does produce cones, the resulting seed is usually not viable or, if viable, plants true-to-type cannot be produced, e.g. Pinus mugo and Thuja orientalis ‘Aurea Nana’.
Having observed the result of imported grafted dwarf conifers, I am convinced that grafting should not be practised unless cultivars are impossible to propagate economically by cuttings. In the same way an apple tree will respond to rootstock vigour, a dwarf conifer grafted onto a strong-growing seedling will lose its character.
All of our conifer cuttings
Author: Judith M. Cowan
History. At Duncan and Davies we have been using sawdust as an integral part of the propagating medium for the last 14 years during which time a change was made from "pit" to "container" propagation. Sawdust was considered suitable because it had the following advantages:
- Availability — Most materials had to be imported from outside the Taranaki region, e.g. sand and pumice from the Waikato area. Sawdust was available from a number of local mills and a regular supply could be maintained.
- Cost — For a medium which is being used once only, it becomes
Author: T. Hatch
Author: B.T. Bulloch
Biological science today has two prime backdrops: the interaction of organisms with their environment, including other organisms — that is the broad field of ecology; and how organisms function — that is the broad field of physiology.
In the course of their practical work at this University, botany students investigate common hormone-mediated plant responses. For example, a property of GIBBERELLINS is to induce dwarf cultivars of peas, beans and maize to
Author: A.S. Edmonds
2,4-D 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
2,4,5,-T 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid
These chemical substances intervene and exert recognisable effects on plant growth and development but in a characteristic, non-nutrient way. Small amounts are effective, and these quantities are not incorporated into the substance of the plant.
Among the many regulatory substances in common use are the two above-named selective herbicides which kill plants of broadleaved species but not of grasses. As well there are total-kill herbicides, e.g. CMU, 3-p-chlorphenyl 1–1 dimethylurea, and Ammate, ammonium sulphamate. There are chemicals which stimulate the rooting of cuttings, e.g. indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). There are chemicals which cause leaves or fruit to drop, e.g. Endothal, disodium, 3,6-endoxohexahydrophthalate. There are
Author: Jack Pike
I was reminiscing only last week about how maybe this Australian inaugural meeting of the International Plant Propagators' Society would have been if it had come along five or six years ago, when people in the industry were saying there was over production; we needed more merchandising; we needed more outlets and anyone more mentioned propagation or new techniques to produce more efficiently, well, they were sort of frowned upon. How thing have changed.
There is one of the greatest shortages of plant material in Australia today than there has ever been in the history of the country and how timely it is that here at Leura, we should be holding an inaugural meeting to form the Australian chapter of the I.P.P.S. It is a very timely thing and I think it is going to, or it has, there's no
Author: James S. Wells
Author: Michael G. Mullins
I hope to show in this lecture that the fields of Virology and physiology and biochemistry have many affinities and it will be certain that new research programmes will be forthcoming which will be of some interest, I hope, to the nursery industry and plant propagators in general. So if we can just turn to the subject at hand, and that is virus-free plant propagation material. Many people are not too keen on the use of the term "virus-free material." That is because it implies that the plant is free of all known viruses and that it has been tested and shown to be free. The "in" term is virus symptom-free material, but we
Author: Roy Rumsey
None of this really news, as everyone knows by now, that miniature roses from rooted cuttings are, by far, better than budded plants; sales also have increased greatly since they were available for the public in this manner.
However, this started us wondering if it would be possible to produce the larger type rose as budded plants, completely container-grown, with the rootstock placed in the soil mix and, at no time would the plants be field-grown. Of course, we had already seen the advantages of
Author: A.J. Teese
The genus Rhododendron is divided into 43 series — Excluding the Malesian group — 22 of the series are "Lepidote" (with scales). Azalea is one of the "Elepidote" series. There are approximately 900 species. For the purposes of this paper we will discuss only the
Author: Donald P. Watson
Now the most common and perhaps the most necessary plant as far as the Polynesians were concerned was the taro [Calocasia esculenta]. Taro was basic in their diet. They had to have a good source of carbohydrate and today at the Lyon Arboretum there is a collection of many, many kinds.
Author: R.J.E. Davidson
Some plants from colder climates — although we could produce them effectively as nurserymen — did not perform well in the State's gardens. We believed that either we introduce shrubs, trees, palms and ground covers to the public that would grow and thrive in the average person's garden, or continue to produce seasonally those species which flowered in containers but did not always grow well for the average gardener.
As we introduced indigenous species that gave satisfaction to the customer and could be planted from containers at any time of the year, the sales graph has changed. This has been achieved by the selection and introduction of selected forms of Australian flora
Author: V. Levey
Most of our propagation is done on raised benches which are covered with polythene; these are in the form of roll-up shades which, in turn, are covered by 30% shade approximately 7' from ground level. At present we use perlite and peat moss as the medium; this is cleaned with air-cooled steam. For grevilleas, cutting material is inserted directly in plastic tubes, smaller cuttings going into 1½" and the larger into 2".
At this stage I would like to trace a
Author: J. W. Wrigley
The Australian flora includes a great number of species of good horticultural potential. Many species have been introduced to cultivation only in the last few years and even now, large numbers of valuable plants remain untried. It is, therefore, only recently that some of the problems associated with the cultivation of Australian native plants have become apparent.
Canberra Botanic Gardens has concentrated its resources on the study of the Australian flora and has the largest living collection of Australian native plants in the world. In 1969, large scale deaths occurred in the Botanic Gardens nursery. These were traced to the root rot fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. On further investigation, it
Author: D.H. Simons
Author: Jack Pike
Author: Alan Newport
If one is going to have plant production, the propagating material, whether it be a plant material or seeds, has to be treated against pathogens. We have found that steam-air treatment has been the most satisfactory. I am going to talk on flower and vegetable seedlings, but the same procedures would apply to tree and shrub seedlings.
The problem associated with flower and vegetable seeds is similar to those for trees and shrubs — what stands for one will hold for the other. Our first experiences as seedling (bedding plant) growers came when we were using 212°F soil sterilizing in 1956. When seeds are sown into a mix thus treated one experiences a great