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Author: Wesley A. Humphrey
The advent of container production has seen the use of light-weight soil mixes being adopted as a regular practice. Arrangement of the nurseries often appears quite similar to those viewed in the western United States. Overhead sprinkler systems are installed and utilized by the nurserymen. Liquid fertilizer programs are used, but particularly in New Zealand with the major part of the production concentrated
Author: O.A. Batcheller
In southern California, as I think you realize, there are approximately a thousand nurseries within a fifty mile radius of us, so there is an opportunity for many of our students to get practical work and to work in nurseries. The demand for plants, as I think all of you realize, is very large. As a result, we, I think, do a little bit more commercial growing and selling wholesale to nurseries than does Howard: but likewise we do not advertise off the campus. We do sell to our students and to the faculty on the campus and we average about $1000 per month. Now this means a tremendous amount of production. We have about 13,000 square feet of glass; we have a five-acre growing ground; we have, I think, about 3,000 sq. ft. of lath or saran,
Author: Frank J. Schmidt Jr
Author: Leslie K.C. Clay
Seeding. Species such as Cornus nuttallii and Cornus florida are best raised from seed which should be gathered in early fall just as the colour begins to change. Best results are generally obtained if seed is sown in early fall in rows or prepared beds outdoors and covered with a thin layer of sand. No further winter protection is required. The seed should germinate evenly in the early spring, producing a good stand of 15 to 24 inch seedlings by the end of the first season. If the seed cannot be planted in the fall and must be stored for spring planting, stratification is required to break dormancy. With spring-sown seed, germination is patchy; in some cases the seed may lay dormant and come up the following year.
Layering. Cornus alba and varieties, Cornus florida varieties, Cornus kousa, and Cornus stolonifera and
Author: Ivan Arneson
The suggested way to propagate these was by layering in stool beds. A lot of experimenting was done in the years following to determine the best way to propagate these. I will try to elaborate on some of the procedures.
To get a bed fast we planted the stools about 1½ feet apart then staked them down at about a 45° angle with wire. As the side limbs grew they were covered with dirt or sand. Later sawdust was found to be a better medium that dirt. A mistake that was sometimes made was to graft
Author: Myrtle Fish
Camellias usually root quite readily, although there are a few that are quite hard to root, as we root between 80 and 90 different varieties; there are always a few that are either slow to root or will not root at all. After putting them in with No.
Author: Linda Rumgay
Hormodin No. 3 — 10 ounces
Benlate — 1 ounce
Indolebutyric acid — 5 grams (2 heaping tsp.)
These component parts are put together and shaken for 20 minutes to insure thorough mixing. For absolute mixing that has been used effectively place the ingredients in a container that can be put on a paint shaker. Expansion is involved in this blending, however, so be prepared with extra space in the container for fluffing. It is understood that Hormodin No. 3 does have a high IBA level already but our "H.P.M. Formula" gives yet another boost of indolebutyric acid.
Below is a summary of our research results:
- Deciduous plants, such as, Euonymus alatus "Compacta"
- In 1970, out of a flat of 150 cuttings, 75 rooted giving 50% rooting.
- In 1971, H.P.M. was used;
Author: Robert L. Ticknor
Author: Bill Webb
As you are aware, certain of our major tree species, notably Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) are inconsistent grafters, showing strong clonal variation in stock-scion compatibility.
Incompatibility not only kills a number of our grafts, but will obviously interrupt and delay seed production unless steps are taken to overcome or circumvent it. If we
Author: D. Kim Black
Results reported here show the importance of additional factors in the selection of cutting material. Depending on genotype, cuttings of juvenile trees under nine years of age had the potential for rooting 100%, declining rapidly after this age to less than 5% between ages 14 and 24 years. Genotypic differences in cutting rootability were greatest among the physiologically older trees. Rejuvenation of rooting in old trees and clones was achieved by shearing and successive propagations. Comparisons of sheared and non-sheared portions of old trees showed the rejuvenation effect to be localized in the sheared portion. Cutting ramets established from old clones produced cuttings which rooted 40% compared to 6% from grafted ramets and 3% from the ortet Crown position (cyclophysis) had little influence on the rootability of shoots from trees under 24 years of age. Branch order positions (topophysis), however, were important in cutting selection, with first order lateral (large), and second order terminal positions rooting better than first order terminal, first order lateral (small), or second order lateral cuttings.
Author: M.N. Westwood
Historical. In 1880 a rhizogenic substance was postulated to be produced in leaves and translocated
Author: Richard H. Converse
Strawberry plants for the commercial industry on the Pacific Coast are grown by a few specialized nurserymen in four areas in Washington and California. There are 13 nurserymen involved, raising 1,200 acres of strawberry plants worth about $ 6,000,000 annually.
The Washington and California State Departments of Agriculture each administer their own strawberry certification programs. In both cases, the programs are designed to provide the public with adequate supplies of strawberry cultivars that are true to name, of good horticultural quality, and free from serious pests and diseases,
Author: Dorothy Dickson
I will talk only about a few of the more common kinds and give you a glimpse of a few of the others. Here, we call all primula, primroses but only the acaulis type, one flower to a stem, is a primrose. The polyanthus, with a cluster of flowers on top of a stem, is the most common commercial primula in the United States.
The easiest to grow are the Juliae hybrids which are crosses of the species, P. juliae, a low creeping plant which is not a prolific bloomer, with species of the acaulis or polyanthus type. These crosses produce mainly magenta-colored flowers. It takes two or three generations and the infusion of some of the bright colored primroses and polyanthus to achieve the color range of our modern “Julies”. The further away from the species to obtain new colors, the more we lose the
Author: Robert Whalley
My name is ‘Nova Zembla’. Genus Rhododendron. Because of my growth habit, my hardiness factor, and my red flower color, I am an exploited variety. It seems I grow well in many locations in the Eastern and Midwest regions of the U.S.A. because of my flower bud survival rate. I propagate comparatively easy and my color is demanded as a highlight for gardens and landscapes in the spring. Northwest nurseries grow me into a semi-mature shrub in 3 years. Then I am shipped in cool fruit or beef carrying refrigerator trucks to Eastern cities — but I am getting ahead of my journey —
In breezy fields of the Willamette Valley I grow lush and bushy. Then July arrives and I get trimmed — reduced — thinned
Author: Richard J. Smith
Rapid clonal propagation was impossible until George Morel (2), while attempting to free a cymbidium of virus by culturing the shoot tip, noticed that the isolated piece of tissue seemed to revert to the seedling protocorm stage and proceeded to divide into a clump of 3 or 4 identical structures which eventually became plants. He continued his research on the so-called method of "meristem culture," applying it to many other orchid genera, so that during the 1960's many orchid labs around the
Author: Jiro Matsuyama
Phaedranthus buccinatorius is a subtropical vine which withstands temperatures as low as 20°F. In the interior valleys of California it should be planted in a protected place. Along the south coast area of Santa Barbara county it is used extensively on high walls and along fences; it blooms most of the year with lots of bright color.
To propagate Phaedranthus buccinatorius, I used two types of cutting wood from outdoor and indoor grown mother stock plants. The outdoor mother plant has thick, dark, leathery leaves. The indoor mother plant has thin, tender leaves which are lighter
Author: Robert M. Warner
SUGARCANE, Saccharum officinarum L., is a member of the grass family and, except when breeding for new varieties, is propagated vegetatively. Cane sections about 22" long with 4 nodes are cut by hand or mechanically from mature plants, soaked in a fungicide and placed horizontally in furrows and covered lightly with soil Shoots and roots are produced at the nodes. In Hawaii the plant crop (the first after planting) matures in about 22 to 24 months. The cane is cured by withholding water and nitrogen during the last 3 to 6 months.
When ready for harvest, the field is burned to reduce the amount of dead leaves and trash. The stalks are bulldozed into windrows, loaded onto trucks and transported to the mill for grinding. The irrigation furrows are reestablished and the ratoon crops grow from the underground parts which remain after harvest. There are usually three ratoon crops harvested before the field is replanted, a total 8 years. Temperatures above 70° F are required
Author: John E. Eichelser
I became interested in kalmia about 18 years ago when I first saw this red strain which is now known as ‘Ostbo Red’. In the past it has been variously known as ‘Dexter No. 5’. ‘Ostbo No. 5’, ‘Red Bud Kalmia’, and ‘Westcoast Kalmia’. The first time I saw it was while visiting the nursery of the late Endre Ostbo in Seattle, Washington. I acquired a plant of ‘Ostbo Red’ at this time and was told by Mr. Ostbo that it was useless to try to root it as it had been tried and
Author: J.D. Vertrees
What was a hobby-study a few years back is now a full time effort of working with the smaller maples, particularly Acer palmatum, and A. japonicum, and their numerous variations.
Remarks on propagation of this group must be preceded with a few words on nomenclature. The abundance of synonyms in A. palmatum is massive. Evidently this species is prone to sporting, or producing atypical seedlings. We know of over two hundred names clones or cultivars of this species. We have over one hundred sixty named
Author: Basil S. Fox
Undesirable Methods of Propagation. I can think of no excuse whatever for the practice of grafting or budding these plants when raising them for general planting, and the use of Sorbus or Crataegus stocks is indefensible It is very likely also that, in the past, seedlings of the early cultivars have been distributed under the cultivar names — adding to the confusion, but people may more innocently
Author: D.W. Robinson
In some important respects Japanese nurseries differ from those in the West. A smaller number of plant species are propagated
Author: Brian H. Howard
At the 1971 Annual Conference it was decided to examine whether the mechanism of the wounding response could be attributed to the enhanced absorption of IBA and/ or water. Seventeen members did an experiment in which cuttings of × Cupressocyparis leylandii clone 2, (supplied where necessary from the Glasshouse Crops Research Institute, by D. Whalley) were wounded and then treated with a readily absorbed solution of IBA in 50% alcohol, or a less readily absorbed powder formulation, both at 4,000 ppm. Cuttings treated by each method were inserted in relatively dry or wet rooting beds, the latter obtained by supplementary watering in addition to the normal mist. The purpose of this approach was to investigate
Author: C. J. Allison
By 1969 the nursery had over 53 million seedlings in three age classes; 1–0, 2–0, and 2–1. In October of that year, an unexpectedly severe freeze occurred that killed or seriously damaged about 12 million seedlings, mostly in the 1–0 age class.
In September of 1970, another early freeze occurred. The 1–0 blocks were protected by sprinkling, and losses were minimal. Well capacity was not adequate to sprinkle the 2–0 beds and they were extensively damaged. Although the incidence of mortality in the 2–0 stock was low, the quality was poor and subsequent field performance of
Author: C. G. Thomas
Machines have been constructed before using razor-blades and a few are in use in Europe, particularly in Holland. It proved impossible to purchase a machine and it was decided that one should be designed and built to our own specifications by the Long Ashton Instrument Workshop (Fig. 1).
The machine is powered by a 12v motor which can be run off the electrical system of a Land Rover vehicle in the field or with the aid of a small transformer by mains electricity. A belt drive from the motor rotates a cylindrical stainless steel cutting blade mounted on a nylon core at a speed of
Author: D.C. Harris
During recent years the materials which can be broadly termed soil sterilants have increased in number and some of the more representative types are described below.
Author: James C. Kelly
Each batch of cuttings was lifted after three months. Table 1 shows the rooting percentages of the cultivars rooted on the dates indicated. Generally
Author: J.G.D. Lamb
Over the three season, 1970–1972, the cultivar, Atropurpureum, has been one of the easiest to root. In April, 1970, cuttings were taken from mother bushes forced under glass. After potting the rooted cuttings, subsequent development was observed under three treatments:
- Pots plunged in a sheltered and shaded bed out of doors.
- Kept under glass, minimum temperature 15°C, ventilating at 27° C (sun heat)
- Same as for (2), but given a 17 hour day by means of 75 watt tungsten filament bulbs from August 19 to October 14
Author: Clive Deeble
The cuttings are taken in bulk early in the morning when they are fairly turgid. These are then brought in and dipped in a solution of Benlate (3 oz/50 gallons water). This washes and cleans the cuttings. They are then drained, labelled, and stored under polythene sheeting to keep them fresh and turgid.
These cuttings are taken from healthy, well grown stock plants, which are grown in a wooded area; they are of current year's growth, with thin growth being preferred to thick.
Preparing the cuttings.
- Cuttings are approximately 4 in. long.
- The lower leaves are removed leaving 4 or more leaves at the top of the cutting.
- A heavy wound is given on both sides of the cutting, approximately 1½ in. in length.
- The terminal bud is removed.
- Large leaves are trimmed by half.
Author: A.E. Canham
Over the years techniques have been developed to enable him to optimise a number of environmental factors either by a process of trial and error or as a result of research — for example the control of bed temperature, the use of mist propagation techniques, etc. However, one very important factor has received relatively little attention, and that is the light on which the seedling or cutting is so dependent. For a large part of the year light may be regarded as the most important factor, in that it is the one which is limiting growth or development in one way or another.
Growers are now beginning to realise the magnitude of this limitation and an increasing number have sought to effect some form
Author: Odd Bøvre
Author: D.M Donovan
Grafting. Seedling Rosa canina of broad caliper and with long hypocotyls suitably straight, are selected from imported rootstocks on arrival, and potted into 3½ inch pots with the full length of the hypocotyl exposed The pots are plunged in a sand bed for the rootstocks to establish for a year, when management is confined to some watering and weeding The thickening of the hypocotyl during the growing period is minimal
In early January the rootstocks are removed from the bed and the roots and tops are trimmed, and then they are placed in a grafting pit, using some bottom heat to dry them off for working in late January.
Scion wood of ‘Mermaid’ and ‘Lutea’ is collected mid-December from stock plants in a cold house, the others from
Author: B.H. Elliott
- Propagation. Propagation was carried out during the winter months under conventional mist. The cuttings were 4 in long, preferably with a ripened base of ½ in. All cuttings were treated with Seradix No. 3 Seed trays were used to give greater flexibility of handling and in which 60 cuttings were inserted. The compost used was 3 parts sphagnum peat to 1 part sharp sand and then the cuttings were placed under the mist with a basal temperature of 75° F.
Two main batches of cuttings were rooted. The first during October–November consisted of Chamaecyparis and Thuja cultivars — the great majority of cultivars being easy to root, Those which
Author: J.L.W. DEEN
The various systems in use in Great Britain were reviewed starting with that developed at GCRI and described in the 1971 Proceedings. Simple wire hoops are used to support white translucent polythene over a prepared bed three feet wide, the polythene being secured by polypropylene baler twine. The pro
Author: William A. Smith
Size of Pallet: The size of pallets for propagation is usually
Author: STEPHEN HAINES
On 20th of July several members had attended the Open Day at East Malling Research Station, when field budding problems had been discussed. Talking to various growers and to the East Malling staff during our visit, it was apparent that many had suffered low bud takes due either to frost damage or to other reasons which were not too obvious. Although at East Malling the frost damage was on apple buds, many growers were more concerned with bad bud-take on Prunus species, particularly on te ornamental cultivars.
The Chairman, having encouraged everyone to take part in the discussion, launched the debate in typically
Author: DOUGLAS WEGUELIN
- Acer, particularly A. palmatum 'Dissectum' forms
- Berbis x lologensis
- Betula spp.
- Cedrus atlantica 'Glauca'
- Cytisus battandierilac cuttings.
- Fagus spp.
- Malus spp. (a useful way to build up stock).
- Picea pungens 'Koster'
- Pinua spp.
- Prunus spp.
- Rhododendron> spp.
- Robinia pseudoacacia 'Frisia'
- Rosa spp. especially Rosa 'Mermaid'.
Author: ARTHUR R. CARTER
A more uniform crop will result if sufficient cutting material is available to produce a reasonable size batch at any one time.
The "age" of the material is important. Stock plants should be "young". Taking cuttings retains juvenility. Three year old stock plants pretty well stripped every year for five years produced about 250 cuttings per plant over the propagation season. It was suggested that if 30 cuttings were available from a small plant, 5 shoots should be left intact. Flower buds were produced and then a flush of useful growth developed.
Stocks plants under protective cover produce earlier cuttings.
Author: I.P. Scarborough
Author: D. Knuckey
We usually begin our bench grafting at the end of January onto stocks of Robinia pseudoacacia of pencil thickness and upwards. These are drawn from outside where they have been heeled in for the winter, and are then headed back to approximately 6 inches. The scion wood taken from the previous year?s growth is also chopped into 6 to 9 inch lengths
The graft itself is a shallow, simple side veneer about 2 to 3 in long, bound with grafting cotton, and sealed with paraffin wax The grafts when completed are bundled in 25 or 50 with damp moss between and around their roots. These bundles are then placed in polythene bags with their tops left open.
Although different nurseries seem to use different methods for after-treatment of bench grafts, some store their grafts in damp peat and keep
Author: Arie Altman
Author: A.B. Macdonald
A warm welcome was first given to members by Adrian Bloom, and everyone received the new well-designed Anglia Group catalogue which was just ‘hot-off’ the press. The next stage was a tour of the nursery, and three groups were efficiently guided by Adrian Bloom, Maurice Prichard, manager of their herbaceous department, and Lawrence Flatman, manager of alpine and container departments.
The alpine section was very impressive and we were able to see many operations in progress, including some of the propagation techniques used. Plants, such as Lithospermum
Author: D.J. Cook
- It is possible to develop propagation blocks with properties which are reproducible.
- It is possible to develop blocks with known air-water ratios, which wet readily, and which hold their water content.
- It is possible to develop blocks which have been conditioned to stimulate root development, and which contain plant nutrients.
- Once rooting has started in the blocks, it is possible either to transfer them into larger blocks, or to potting-on composts with minimum root disturbance.
A number of manufactured propagation blocks have been marketed. They can be categorized into four main groups:—
- Those based on polyurethane foam:—
- Nutri-Foam was manufactured by the Dow Chemical Co. of America. It contained plant nutrients in the form of ion exchange complexes. It has now been withdrawn from the market because of difficulties experienced in use.
- Baystrat is a development of
G.B. PURCELL: The stocks were H. virginiana which came from the U.S.A. Budded in August with traditional "T" cut with the wood removed from the bud. THe time of budding varies with the availability of the budwood which can be as late as October; you will still get a good take so long as the sap is still rising in the stock. The percentage in 1970 with 250 stocks was about 90%. THe varieties were 'Jelena' Hamamelis x intermedia 'Jelena') H. mollis 'Pallida', 'Gold Crest' and a variety we call 'New Red'. In 1971 we budded about 150 stocks with about the same take, and this year we hope to do about 200. I would like to obtain 20 or so Distylium racemosum stocks in the next month or so to try budding them and to compare the results.
G.B. PURCELL: Is it not true that there is a big demand for stand Japanese maples in variety, but that trade has not
Author: D.N. Whalley
When used for this purpose, modifications are required to the conditions used for fruit rootstocks. These include the use of lower temperature, lower growth regulator concentrations, and more frequent irrigation in the bins.
Author: Richard Bosley
Since many of you are interested in the rhododendron, I must mention that Lake County produces 500,000 new rhododendron plants a year, according to an estimate by Dr. Hoitink of the Ohio Agriculture Research Center. Dr. Hoitink has taken quite a personal interest in the rhododendron and has done a lot of research in the area of disease prevention, for which we are all grateful. He has also been largely responsible for the development of extensive test and display gardens at the Wooster, Ohio, Center.
The Holden Arboretum, also in Lake County, is the largest arboretum in the world by a large margin and they have recently spent
Author: P.D.A. MCMILLAN BROWSE
However the important aspects of the situation revolve around the definition of what is acceptable. In real terms this is represented by the particular quality expected, i.e. the size and grade of the seedlings. Nevertheless, before embarking on a project to grow seedling trees it is important to define, in reasonably exact terms, what is required as an end product in any particular instance. To achieve this aim in the following factors are revelant when raising seedling trees. It is necessary to know from where seed can be obtained, how it should be stored, how it should be dealt with to ensure satisfactory germination and how the seed
Author: Richard G. Maire
Author: James E. Cross
This initial phase of growing cannot and should not be separated from propagation — it should be a continuation, without interruption of the process begun in the propagation bench. Whatever you wish to call this phase, it should be associated in your mind with Growing — for all too often this phase is begun and even continued more as a holding process than as a fully managed growing operation.
We put in all that effort to get new plants started, so why lose the momentum achieved in the propagation house. I assure you that there is a form of momentum
Author: Hudson T. Hartmann
The bulk of the deciduous fruit acreage in California is in the Central Valley — the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys — where considerable emphasis is on the stone fruits — peaches and nectarines (110,000 acres); almonds (254,000 acres); apricots (35,000 acres); prunes (100,000 acres); and plums (27,000 acres). The English walnut is also grown in the Central Valley with smaller amounts in coastal valleys and Southern California, giving a total acreage of 198,000. The vinifera grape is a major and dramatically increasing crop in the San Joaquin valley with lesser amounts in the coastal valleys, making a total of almost 500,000 acres now planted. The San Joaquin valley and, to a lesser extent, Southern California, is
Author: Makoto Kawase
According to our results, exposure of willow cuttings to ethylene gas stimulated root formation within an exposure time ranging from 0 to 30 min Treatment for longer than 30 min. was less effective (Fig. 1).
Ethephon, recently developed by Amchem Co., has been used in many fields of agriculture. After being absorbed by the plants, the compound undergoes decomposition and releases ethylene gas to the plant tissues. Figure 2 indicates the root-forming effect of Ethephon on willow cuttings. The most effective concentration was 880 ppm. The effect of Ethephon on root formation of tomato plant
Author: David F. Hamilton
Soaking seeds in Ethrel increased germination of most species, although the effective concentration and length of treatment varied among species. A cold treatment in addition to the soak in Ethrel did not further increase germination.
Author: John F. Ahrens
Author: Donald T. Krizek
Author: Elton M. Smith
At The Ohio State University a preliminary study was initiated to produce salable 1 gallon container grown plants in the shortest possible time in heated plastic covered structures.
Author: Jan L. Jansen
Nurseries growing ornamental crops on organic soils have long been established in the various areas of Europe, with perhaps the most well-known area being the Boskoop region in The Netherlands. In the United States, many of our cutflower production areas in Florida are on muck. Greenhouse forcing azaleas are also grown in Florida muck and are subsequently shipped throughout the country.
Most research and production work, however, seems to have been concentrated primarily on edible crops, principally vegetables. In recent years, work has been done with the growth of blueberries and with turfgrass production on organic soils. Work done with ornamental shrubs and trees, however, has largely been limited to their use as windbreaks or hedgerows with limited information being available as to the possibility of commercial production of
Author: Douglas J. Phillips
Trimmed, uncallused cuttings, freshly harvested from fields in San Diego County, California were treated in water at 122° F for 90 seconds, then cooled in air or in cool chlorinated water (50 ppm C10). Control cuttings were not treated. Following treatment, cuttings were packed in fiberboard shipping boxes and held 2–4 days at room temperature before they were evaluated for disease.
Author: Sidney Waxman
Mortality of rooted ‘Cornell Pink’ rhododendron cuttings is associated with anthesis. The greater the numbers of flowers blossoming on the cuttings, the greater the losses. Removal of the flower buds, at any time before blossoming, will enhance survival.
Cuttings taken early in the season had the lowest number of flower buds and, as a consequence, had the highest rate of survival. Eight-hour photoperiodic treatments inhibited flower bud initiation.
Author: John R. Donnelly, Harry W. Yawney
This report summarizes some of our findings and points out areas in which information is still lacking. The paper is divided into three major parts: 1) factors associated with development of adventitious roots; 2) methods of overwintering rooted cuttings; and 3) current propagation procedures.
Author: Ray E. Halward
Author: Robert W. Langhans, L.A. Spomer
Author: David L. Morrison
Greenleaf Nursery Co. is headquartered approximately 70 miles southeast of Tulsa and has a new division in Texas about 70 miles southwest of Houston. Both nurseries are exclusively producing container grown ornamentals, growing both conifer and broadleaved evergreens, trees and shrubs. The practical aspects of overhead watering presented in this paper will be those gained from past experience at the Oklahoma site but will to an extent apply to both areas.
There are a number of factors affecting our particular situation that should be kept in mind when considering our method of irrigation. First, there is as much as 125° variation in our temperature, ranging from -15° F to 110° F. This forces us to use two differing overhead systems from season to season since we must overwinter our stock. Secondly, our growing season lasts from April to mid-October. Third, there are approximately 100 acres of container stock that is exclusively overhead watered unless problem areas arise.
Author: James S. Wells
Our main crop, of course, is rhododendrons, and we have always been aware of the need to control the frequency and quantity of water and to provide growing conditions which would allow surplus water to be removed as quickly as possible. This is true in field culture and even more important in container culture. The need for controlling the growing medium, whether it be in the field or in a can, to as close to field capacity as possible under wet conditions is, of course, based upon the effect of surplus water on the development of the rhododendron wilt disease, Phytopthora cinnamomi.
With the high temperatures which are almost inevitable in the
Author: Ralph N. Freeman
If a water supply is contaminated with a large supply of dissolved chemicals, there is usually a method to counteract this problem. This paper has been prepared to acquaint plant growers with some to the problems that could and have been experienced by many people and to describe, in some cases, remedial action. Finally an orderly sequence of steps is suggested to help correct a suspected water quality problem.
Author: Richard T. Vanderbilt
Cuttings are stuck in peat pots, 2½" extra deep. When we transplant we are very careful to remove this pot completely. We have found that peat pots can cause a lot of grief later on if we do not do this. Even when the rhododendrons appear to be aggressively rooting out of the peat pot, they are making a circular root system that causes them to be pot bound and most reluctant to go into a new medium. The reason we stick with peat pots is to do away with hauling medium in and out of the houses.
We transplant in December or January into 48 fluid ounce plastic container. It
Author: Jeremy Wells
- The plants must be alive, healthy and in good salable condition at the end of the growing season.
- The crops must be sold at a variety of ages and sizes.
- Management must carefully plan to see that the first two criteria are met with the least amount of expenditure in labor, time and money.
The control of disease has become very important throughout every phase of rhododendron production, especially propagation. Strict sanitary procedures, plus the use of certain chemicals, has produced a great reduction of disease incidence. Our propagation takes place between May and December. When the propagation houses are empty in April, we wash them down with a solution of chlorine granules in water. The houses are then fumigated with
Author: Michael D. Johnson
Our rhododendrons are sold as three basic size crops — 1 gal containers, 2 gal containers and half-bushel baskets. It all starts, of course, with propagation. We do not have a stock block but take our cuttings from 1 and 2 year old plants that are in production. We feel this gives us a far superior cutting to cuttings taken from old stock plants. They usually root readily and we shape our plants that are in production when we
Author: Howard C. Brown
At Cal Poly our students in Ornamental Horticulture operate a commercial nursery and flower shop as part of their educational experience. It gives them an opportunity to propagate plants, grow them on, and market them while participating in the profits from the crops that they grow. Many of our alumni claim that production and management experience gained through our Agricultural Enterprise Program was the most valuable experience that they received in college. I know, too, that the dollar incentive is much
Author: Bruce A. Briggs
As members of the I.P.P.S., we can go back to our motto "To seek and to share". We can start by seeking more knowledge, better techniques, additional applications and new fields of endeavor. We can share this knowledge, the materials with which we work, and our own enthusiasm for horticulture. We can use the current interest in ecology to advantage and share our knowledge with those from other fields who have just recently jumped on the ecology bandwagon. By serving on planning boards for parks, cemeteries, highways and cities, we can help create beautiful
Author: John A. Wott
Author: Alfred Fordham
MODERATOR SNYDER: Good evening, ladies and gentlemen; since you are all familiar with the Question Box session we will not waste time with formalities but we will begin with the first question. What is the background and history of Taxus ‘Taunteni’?
CASE HOOGENDOORN: It came from Taunten, but I believe it originally came from the Arnold Arboretum.
MODERATOR SNYDER: Mike Johnson, while at your nursery, I noticed that the roots on your azaleas only went down about halfway in the can, what is your explanation?
MIKE JOHNSON: I am nor sure. Most varieties do tend to go down but we have noticed that on Rhodendron vaseyi roots rarely go down very deep in the ca. For some reason the roots stay rather shallow; it may need more aeration and this may be one which we should grow in Swiss cheese cans.
MODERATOR SNYDER: Would Quercus palustris grow better if inoculated with mycorrhiza, given an
Author: Hudson T. Hartmann
Author: Edward J. Jelenfy
At the Central Facility Ornamental Horticulture and Floral Work, along with landscape and general garden maintenance is taught. Seed sowing and cuttings for propagation are planted in a greenhouse under mist systems. In general, the inmate students work very much like any other plant growing establishment would operate. A number of aspects of propagation are taught, such as grafting and budding. The floral students learn various aspects one should know to enter the floral trade.
The North Facility student enrolled in Landscape Gardening is taught to properly use garden tools, along with techniques on how to grow plants, prune, bud, graft, plant bedding plants, trees and shrubs, and general garden maintenance, along with lawn care and planting.
The teaching techniques of the Department of Corrections in general is the same as in any other