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Author: Francis De Vos
The genus Pyracantha is closely related to such genera as Cotoneaster, Crataegus and Mespilus, and has been assigned at different times to one or the other of these genera. The genus is also closely related to Osteomeles, with which it has been hybridized to produce the monotypic bigeneric genus Pyracomeles vilmorini (Pyracantha, crenatoserrata × Osteomeles subrotunda). Despite the closeness of the genus Pyracantha to its related genera we have the most difficulty in determining the true identity of specimens at the species and cultivar level.
Let us take a
Author: John F Sjulin
Our cuttings are collected from a block of plants which are grown just for that purpose. Terminal cuttings, about eight inches in length, are taken when the stock plants have made ten to twelve inches of new growth. This
Author: Robert L. Ticknor
A number of products have come on the market in recent years to meet this problem. We at the Waltham Field Station started testing these products in 1956 for weed control efficiency and to determine how to safely use them
The two products and an untreated check plot used in 1956 were Mylone and Vapam. Mylone was a 85 percent wettable powder formulation used at a rate of ¾ pound per 100 square feet Vapam was a liquid used it a rate of one quart per 100 square feet. These materials were applied in a watering can and were thoroughly watered into the soil.
The object of these trials was to find how soon after the soil was treated on May 24th that plants could be safely set out. Euonymus alatus, Forsythia ovata, Juniperus horizontalis, Rhododendron
Author: L.C. Chadwick
Five herbicides, or combinations of herbicides, Alanap20G, a combination of SES and CMU, a combination of SES and CIPC, and CIPC were applied on November 1, 1957, to 150 square feet plots in a block of Taxus cuspidata intermedia. Control plots were included and all treatments were replicated 10 times. Buffer strips, 2 feet wide
Author: Richard O. Hampton
Investigation of stone-fruit virus diseases began in the early 1880's with the work of Edwin F Smith with peach-yellows. Only five stone-fruit virus diseases, all affecting peach, had been described prior to 1930. Milestones in the development of the present knowledge include the discoveries that certain peach viruses could be eliminated from budwood by heat treatment (7,9), that certain virus diseases which are masked in sweet cherry could be detected by use of index hosts (6, 11) and that some viruses are seed transmitted (1,2,3). Much work must yet be done in the following phases of research with these viruses, host ranges, symptomology, in-host behavior, means of natural transmission, their chemical composition and their control by heat treatment, host resistance and chemotherapy.
In the United States, approximately fifty stone-fruit virus diseases have been described. Since the complete host range of many of these viruses is not known, the number affecting each
Author: W.A. Cumming
The background of the Prunus varieties with which we are working is, for the most part, quite different from that of those which are grown in the more favored areas of this continent. We have problems in common with the States which are situated in the Northern Great Plains area, only ours on the Canadian Prairies are slightly more accentuated. Some of you who know Morden, I expect are ready to challenge that statement. By virtue of the
Author: David B. Paterson
Naturally, this work was started with some preconceived ideas as to what the major problems and the best means of solving them would be. Our first consideration involved the type of cutting and the best time for taking them. For some reason or other it was assumed that the problem of timing would be similar to that of Pink dogwood, and the Japanese red maples. From what we had heard and read of these, and from a little experience with Pink dogwood cuttings, we felt sure that the answer would be to take soft up cuttings in June and place them under mist.
This problem was solved in a rather unique way. Since 1957 was the first year of the existence of the Nursery Department at Longwood Gardens
Author: Phillip W. Worth
The next year we went into it a little more extensively, sticking three or four times as
Author: J. Ravestein
The wood for our viburnum cutting, is taken from plants which have been budded the previous year. One such plant is Viburnum carlesi. Here also we prefer the longer cuttings. If I may go off the subject for a moment I would like to note that we have also in our tests the Japanese maples, Purple beeches, and the Cutleaf red maple.
We take our wood as soon as the dormant stage sets in, that is, in our part of the country, around the beginning of November. In some years we have to
Author: Hans Nienstaedt
Mark Holst of the Petawawa Forest Experiment Station in Ontario was, I believe the first tree breeder on this side of the Atlantic to suggest fall grafting. His initial results and the earlier results reported by Stefansson (4) in Sweden were not very successful and prompted me to try to develop a more satisfactory technique. In the following, I shall discuss the results of my experiments and newer successful experiments by Mark Holst with Spruce, I will also mention some
Author: F.C. Galle
The main plant collections are native plants of the Southern Appalachian region, however, there are on the walking trails, collections of American hollies. Collections have also been started of the Flowering crabapples, Camellia sasanguas, Magnolia species, and Hybrid rhododendrons.
The area of the Garden is normally considered in Zone 7, although there are many plants that are normally considered to be for Zone 8 and 9, which can be grown in protected locations in the Gardens and, equally as well, many of the plants from colder regions of the country that are very satisfactory in this location.
There is one main function of the Gardens, which should be explained
Author: Judson P. Germany Jr
The firethorns have long been an important group of ornamental plants to commercial nurserymen in almost every section of the country. There are few plants available today which combine evergreen or semi-evergreen foliage with a showy display of white flowers in the spring, followed by a massive array of deep red or bright orange berries in the fall, While most people are attracted to firethorns because of their heavy berry production, many are discovering that they are also good subjects for training as espaliers, into tree forms and other exotic shapes. They can be used as screens, foundation plants, or in mass plantings. There are dwarf forms and prostrate forms. For those who appreciate variegated plants, there is at least one very interesting variegated variety
Just as the flowers and fruit of this group of plants have made them extremely popular in the past, the versatility of old varieties put to new uses and the introduction of new forms almost yearly is certain
Author: Walter H. Hodge
When long-range plans and goals for the future of Longwood Gardens were being formulated, we wondered how the Gardens could initiate a plant introduction program which would benefit its own displays as well as ornamental horticulture elsewhere in the United States. The result was a cooperative program of plant exploration in which the parties concerned were Longwood Gardens and the U S. Department of Agriculture. It seemed logical that, since the Federal Government through its New Crops Branch (USDA) already had the ‘know-how,’ the staff and facilities for plant exploration, Longwood should work cooperatively with it.
Author: A.R. Buckley
Work started on the garden in 1887 under the direction of Dr. James Flecther, botanist and entomologist of the Dominion Experimental Farms who, two years later, planted the first trees and shrubs. During the initial year of planting, about 200 species were set out, two specimens of each, placed in their individual generic groups. Quite a number of these first trees are still to be seen in the Arboretum in good state of health. Among these were the Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Siebold's Walnut
Author: Karl Sax
Some knowledge of genetics and cytology can be helpful. The plant breeder should have some knowledge of the breeding behavior of heterozygous and homozygous varieties, the inheritance of dominant and recessive characters and the cytological basis of hybrid sterility. In past years plant breeders wasted considerable time and effort in crossing commercial double forms of carnations to get new types not realizing that these types are hybrids between worthless "bullhead" doubles and single flowered forms. As a result they obtained only fifty per cent commercial doubles, whereas if they had crossed "bullheads" with singles they would have
Author: Lela V. Barton
Davis in 1926 (1) observed two stages of germination of the high-bush cranberry. The first was the growth of the radicle at a temperature of 68 F or higher, the second the development of the cotyledons, still covered by the seed coat at a cold temperature of
Author: L.L. Baumgartner
Author: John C. Brown
Several thousand observations of chlorosis have been made in the southern Great Plains
Author: F.L S. O'Rourke
An analysis of the factors affecting the source plant from which the cuttings are taken shows the extreme importance of this consideration. It includes a study of the particular clone involved, its genetic
Author: Sylvester G. March
In addition to eucalyptus leaves being an essential part of the diet of the Koala, eucalypts play all important role in the economy of Australia Its wood is used for paper pulp, fibreboard, commercial lumber, firewood and. charcoal. From its bark comes tannin and from its leaves, essential oils. These essential oils are used in disinfectants, perfumes and medicines.
At the turn of the century a good deal of effort was expended to establish plantations of this rapid-growing tree in California, New Mexico, Arizona, and Florida, but land proved to be of greater value for farming and therefore most of the eucalypt plantations have disappeared. Today, in California the eucalypt is best known as an ornamental tree for street planting. So intensively have they been
Author: J. P. Mahlstede
r since man first began grafting plants there have been failures. In some years a nurseryman might have unusual success and have a 80 or 90 per cent take Other years, with the same understock and the same scion variety, handled under what the propagator considered identical conditions, stands of 50 or 60 per cent might be realized.
The essential aspects of understock culture of the common red cedar have received particular attention in recent years, since this material is the most commonly used stock for junipers and has given the most trouble to propagators of evergreens. Frequent transplanting to promote the formation of a fiberous root system, and a good sanitation program are considered requisite to an acceptable, commercial stand Melhus and Maney (1921), working on the control of crown gall in apple grafts, suggested the feasibility of dipping the grafts in a Bordeaux mixture of an 8–8–50 composition. It is quite apparent that sanitation is quite important to
Author: J.C. McDaniel
Author: Toru Arisumi
Author: Richard H. Zimmerman
A series of experiments was conducted with cuttings of several species of woody ornamental plants to determine the effect of fertilizer applications during the rooting period on the rooting, root growth and shoot growth of the cuttings.
It was found that soaking greenwood cuttings of California Privet (Ligustrum ovalifolium) for 24 hours in a liquid fertilizer had no effect on rooting or root growth and a very slight effect on shoot growth. After the cuttings were inserted in the rooting medium
Author: Frank Turner
On several occasions at these meetings we have been reminded of the influence of position on the plant and the influence of the age and variety of plant on the rooting of yew cuttings. These reports have been confined almost universally to the speed, percentage, and quality of rooting. In some reports the plant Subjects have been of types usually
Author: Harvey Gray
The following rooting media used straight or in mixtures as indicated in the table were: medium sand from a local sand pit, sphagnum peat and two grades of styrofoam, irregular pea size pieces and coarse dust. All media were placed in flats and moistened to an even consistency. The cuttings were inserted and the flats were placed in a polyethylene vapor proof case. All of our polyethylene cases are
Author: Martin Van Hof
I would like to start by trying to tell you how our propagating beds are prepared. Each bed is six feet wide and up to 100 feet long, of course the length does not matter. We use 8 or 10 inch boards for the sides of the bed. Of course, a 1" × 2" furring raised to about 10 inches is much cheaper and will do practically as well.
It is important to thoroughly prepare the soil in your bed. I prefer a Rotohoe to a tiller as the mechanical hoe will not pulverize the soil as much as the tiller will, which means less compaction after watering. Of course, a digging fork and a strong back will do a good job also. Next, the bed is raked as level as possible and the soil is pressed down with a wooden tamper or a roller. At night the prepared bed is covered with tar paper or discarded plastic to protect it
Author: Robert J. Eshleman
The principle of using plastic to plant through is much like any other mulch but with many features that are far superior to the average material used for mulching. By plastic I am referring to sheets .002 to .004 inches in thickness and preferably black in color.
The plastic is waterproof except where it is punctured to insert the cutting or plant. Rain enters at these points and spreads under the plastic. It cannot leave except through the foliage of the plant. The plastic maintains a uniform soil moisture content even through dry spells. This makes the perfect environment for rooting hardwood cuttings.
The plastic acts as a greenhouse to help retain heat in the soil. This is very beneficial for root growth in the early spring.
The plastic makes in effective weed control barrier, and if black plastic is used, many weed seeds will fail
Author: Waren Baldsiefen
Outlined herein is the method used at Rochelle Park, New Jersey which has performed with consistent success these many years. Each step is described in full and in the exact sequence it occurs.
The rooting takes place in a modified Nearing frame. As many of you know this frame is an outdoor Wardian type enclosure the approximate size of two hotbed sashes
Author: E. Stroombeek
When reading the title of my paper I hope you did not become confused by the word, foghouse. The only reason I used it was to distinguish between the intermittent mist system and the use of a new type of humidifier which I am going to discuss.
During the last 6 years, the use of intermittent mist devices, in the field of plant propagation has become common practice. Through the years we have seen steady improvement and greater efficiency, especially in the use of outdoor mist frames. However, for many nurseries, greenhouse propagation had been the established pattern of operation with the accent on fall and winter propagation. The intermittent mist setup made it possible to make more efficient use of these greenhouses during the summertime. The big problem had been how to keep the humidity up and at the same time the temperature below extreme levels. Intermittent mist seemed to be the solution. We at Warner Nursery are already using an outdoor mist frame with good results
Author: Henry A. Weller
Although propagation has been practiced since almost the beginning of time, and procedures have been basically the same, there are ways of modifying these that will result in a better plant, greater yields, and an actual decrease in cost of production.
The two words, dollars, and sense, have a direct bearing upon each other. Using common sense when producing plant material does result in a greater profit, dollar-wise. We are all vitally interested in propagation, or we wouldn't be here today, but I wonder how many of us are aware of, or know how much a given item costs us to propagate and grow. Do we know if it is profitable to keep certain items in our line?
Since I have been keeping accurate cost figures
Author: Harvey Gray
We are led to believe that when all other factors are favorable total food manufacture is in direct proportion to light intensity and duration With this thought in mind it might be wise to attempt rooting all of our cuttings in long and strong sunlight What happens to temperature in this strong and long light? It is here where we must
Author: J.B. Hill
The reason for practicing sanitation is simple. First, it will reduce cost, and second it may permit the production of a plant which could not be economically undertaken otherwise. This condition of cleanliness is armed at production without interference from diseases and harmful insects. Last but not least, it is aimed at producing an operation which is free from too many cull plants.
All experts on industrial relations stress the
Author: L.J. Enright
This investigation was carried out for two consecutive 12 month periods to determine the proper time for taking the cuttings, the position on the plant from which the cutting wood should be selected, the timing interval which should be used with
Author: C.W. M Hess Jr