Volume 52

Please click on an abstract of your choice to access the relevant downloadable papers. Please note, you will need to be logged in as member in order to access the proceeding abstracts.

The International Plant Propagators’ Society©

Author: Jörgen H. Selchau

PP: 41

The International Plant Propagators Society is organised into eight regions:
  • Eastern Region, North America, which is the mother region of all regions, was founded in 1950;
  • Western Region in 1960;
  • Region of Great Britain and Ireland in 1968;
  • New Zealand Region in 1971;
  • Australian Region in 1972;
  • Southern Region of North America in 1976;
  • Scandinavian Region — initially Denmark Region — was founded in 1992;
  • IPPS Japan Region in 1997;
  • Plus one Potential Region — yours!

A region’s own local committee or board, chaired by its own President, runs each region and each region maintains its own finances. Each region elects an International Director and Alternate, who represent the region on the International Board.

I.P.P.S. members pay their subscription locally, but a proportion of each subscription is paid into an International account which helps cover the cost of the I.P.P.S.

Proceedings and to help fund expansion of I.P.P.S. into other regions. Presently, existing regions individually or in

The ABC of Commercial Plant Propagation©

Author: Edward Bunker

PP: 79


We should go back to basics and look at cost benefits in propagation practices. It is important not only to work smarter but also to get more out of each hour of work performed. We have never lived in a world where so much change is happening and ever so quickly. The world of yesterday and today is not the world of tomorrow, change is upon us, can we ever keep up?

What counts in the world today? What is the global economy all about? Whatever it is, we need to be part of it, we need to join it.

As you think of the world of today, the world around us, where do you see your market? Many would answer that the youth of today have the biggest spending power, they are the ones to target.

A great revolution is nearly upon us with the "baby boomer" generation coming up to retirement age. Already in Australia’s population the over 55s make up more than 21% of the total population. If you look at the over 65s they own more than half of all deposits in our banks and financial institutions

Wetland Plant Propagation: Comparative Growth and Reproduction of Micropropagated Sagittaria latifolia Ecotypes

Author: M.E. Kane, N.L. Philman, C. Emshousen

PP: 453


Selecting and planting of native wetland plant species comprise the major tasks of most wetland habitat restoration/mitigation projects. There has been a shift from field harvesting of plants to increased reliance on nursery-propagated wetland plants (Pategas, 1992; Sutton, 1995). This shift to nursery production has generated concerns regarding the maintenance of genetic diversity and potential negative results following introduction of plant ecotypes genetically "mismatched" to specific wetland site conditions (Kane and Philman, 1997). Consequently, some regulatory agencies have established guidelines to restrict collection of propagules for nursery production only from populations within a limited radial distance from the restoration site. In principle, this policy appears ecologically sound. However, the relationship between geographical distance of source plants and the relevance to successful wetland habitat creation/restoration remains unclear.


Liner Production: Asset or Liability?©

Author: Francois X. Brun-Wibaux

PP: 459


Are we maximizing propagation departments to their fullest potential; or, are we merely satisfied fulfilling our production numbers at a reasonable cost? Can we generate more income from the propagation department?

Since we usually succeed in propagation more than we fail, I would like to share with you how you might consider developing the propagation department to increase your bottom line.

While an extremely high percentage of nurseries have a propagation department, only a handful of these nurseries produce liners for the open market. This somewhat untapped market of selling liners is the potential asset I would like discuss.

At Sarasota Growers, Inc., the concept of selling liners started a few years ago by chance. We had excess liners and took them to a trade show. What happened at the trade show opened our minds to the idea of developing a liner division. Our booth was constantly full of people looking at the liners and placing orders. As a consequence, we also were

I.P.P.S. International Tours: United Kingdom 2002©

Author: Fred W. Garrett

PP: 463


The International Board of the IPPS meets annually on a rotational basis in one of the regions at the invitation of the host region. Each region is encouraged to send a director and an alternate director on the pre-tour prior to the International board meeting. Members at large may participate in the pre-tour by contacting the International Secretary at least 6 months in advance of the scheduled tour dates. Information regarding dates for International pre-tours may be found on the IPPS web site at: <www.ipps.org>. For 2003, the pre-tour is scheduled for May in Australia and for the year 2004 the pre-tour is scheduled for August in Japan.

The International Board represents the concerns of the respective regions and oversees the administration of the IPPS. The host region schedules and makes all arrangements for a pre-tour of representative plant propagation and production techniques in nursery and greenhouse facilities. As a bonus of the tour, several stops are made to visit

Integrating Web Technology with Traditional Teaching of Plant Propagation©

Author: Mack Thetford, Sandy B. Wilson

PP: 467


The University of Florida (UF) has 13 satellite programs where various undergraduate degrees are offered in the agricultural fields. The development of these programs is part of an overall strategy to reach students who are place-bound due to jobs, families, or other community responsibilities. While development of degree programs at off campus research and education centers does pose challenges, it is generally agreed that such programs provide needed education opportunities for place-bound students, while strengthening enrollment in agriculture (Tignor and Wilson, 1999; Klock-Moore et al., 2000; Wirth and Thornsbury, 2001). Advantages to earning a degree off-campus include smaller classes, a personalized mentoring learning environment, and programs located in the heart of major agricultural areas of the state where industry support and field experiences may be more plentiful. The disadvantages to attending class off-campus include limited exposure to campus life, library

Propagating Aquatic Plants©

Author: Kelly Billing

PP: 473


Hardy lilies (Nymphaea) are a tuber-producing plant that has small new plants along the main tuber called "eyes". With a sharp knife or pruners collect the section of the plant that is the strongest and shows the most promise (Fig. 1 and 2). There may be more than one section like this. The remaining old growth (sometimes black) should be discarded since it will not produce a very vigorous new plant. Each plant should receive its own container.

Depending on the species the mature tuber sizes will vary from 2 to 6 inches in length. The eyes will generally be from 1 to 3 inches in length. Small eyes should be planted in 1-qt or 1-gal containers and kept in shallow water (4 to 6 inches) until more mature. The parent tubers can be planted directly into a 16-inch-diameter× 7-inch-deep container and placed 12 to 18 inches below the waters surface. Once established, larger taxa can be moved to a depth of 2 to 3 ft.

  • Never cover the crown with soil.
  • Place the cut end of the
Herbaceous Perennial Plants for Dry Shade©

Author: Ruth Baumgardner

PP: 477


Gardening in the Southern U.S.A. has many challenges. Particularly with the dry weather we have been experiencing this past summer. Because of our intense sun and heat, shade is almost a necessity, so we plant trees that create dry shade. The list of herbaceous perennial plants for dry shade is much shorter than a list for moist shady areas.

The following herbaceous perennial plants not only bloom once established in dry shade, but these plants hold their foliage reliably well throughout the summer.

Propagation of Oak Liners©

Author: Phillip Hart

PP: 478


Oaks are relatively simple to propagate from seed. Problems generally occur with obtaining a uniform finished liner crop with a strong fibrous root system. At Mid Georgia Nursery we start oaks from seed, use air pruning and SpinoutWreg; and utilize multiple top prunings, thus producing a very uniform finished crop of 3-gal oaks in two growing seasons.

Hardwood Cuttings for Erosion Control©

Author: R.E. Bir, J. Calabria, J. Conner

PP: 481


Reducing or preventing erosion in riparian areas requires minimal soil disturbance (Sauer, 1998.). One solution to this problem is to use live stakes which are "…woody plant cuttings capable of quickly rooting in the streamside environment. The cuttings need to be large and long enough to be tamped as stakes" which is usually 0.5 to 2 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 feet long. "Stakes are used on streambanks of moderate slope (4 : 1) in original soil, not on fill." (USDA- Soil Conservation Service, 1984.)

The objectives were: (1) To evaluate the influence of IBA treatments on the percentage of stakes surviving in this challenging environment. (2) Determine which species are locally adapted to this technique. The site was Codorus loam along a spring fed stream located on the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station (MHCRS), Fletcher, North Carolina. (3) Evaluate how far from moist native soil adjacent to a stream that cuttings can be stuck before the soil dries out too much

Use of Computer Imaging to Evaluate the Initial Stages of Germination in Woody Tree Seeds©

Author: Manjul Dutt, Robert L. Geneve

PP: 484


Seed germination begins with the initiation of water uptake by the dry seed and ends with the protrusion of the radicle from the fully imbibed seed. Measurement of initial water uptake is usually by measuring fresh weight gain, which is laborious and requires physical handling of each seed. Such techniques require pooling of seeds to make different samples to estimate average values and submitting to statistical analysis. These methods do not record growth performance and variation on an individual seed basis. Dell Aquilla et al. (2000) and McCormac and Keefe (1990) have described image analysis systems to monitor the imbibition in cabbage and cauliflower seeds. Such techniques, though useful, require the setup of sophisticated and expensive equipment. The computer imaging system developed by Geneve and Kester (2001) uses a simple Petri dish germination system that is inexpensive and amenable to automated capture of sequential digital images in real time.

In this study,

Production of Unique Cultivars Through Budding, Cuttings, and Grafting©

Author: Don Shadow

PP: 489


Shadow nursery is a wholesale nursery located in the southern part of middle Tennessee (Zone 6b) that grows new and useful plants for the industry as well as more common plants. I enjoy obtaining, propagating, and making available to the industry good cultivars of trees, shrubs, vines, perennials, etc. Along with this interest in new cultivars, one must decide the most economical method of propagation.

Germination of Central Australian Plant Seed After Long-term Storage©

Author: Glenis McBurnie

PP: 83

A seed trial was conducted on 31 central Australian plant species to test for germinability and explore dormancy and storage requirements. The seed had been collected up to 35 years ago and has been stored in uncontrolled conditions. Fresh seed of 24 of these species were also tested as a comparison and a variety of dormancy&endash;breaking treatments was used on both "fresh" and "old" seed. Of the 31 species tested, 16 germinated, 13 being leguminous. The remaining 15 species mainly included annual and Poaceae species. Of these, four species did not germinate whether fresh or old. Seed that did not germinate was tested for viability, the result of which suggests further germination trials are required.
Green Roofs And The Ford Rouge Project©

Author: Bradley Rowe

PP: 492


Green roofs have existed in some form for centuries. The earliest known examples were the Hanging Gardens of Babylon which can be traced back to 2100 B.C. (Osmundson, 1999). In Norway, sod roofs were installed as a way of sheltering its inhabitants from seasonal extremes of hot and cold. Similar roofing techniques were used by the settlers of the Great Plains, primarily because the scarcity of lumber and other building materials left them no choice (Osmundson, 1999). In the past 30 years, efforts have been made, primarily in Germany and Switzerland, to identify and improve green roof technologies (Peck et al., 1999).

Ornamental Horticulture of South Africa©

Author: James B. Berry

PP: 496


Last year I was fortunate to be an official guest of the Republic of South Africa, and also a guest of Mr. Keith Kirsten [Horticulture International, Johannesburg, South Africa] for 3 weeks. Mr. Kirsten is a well known public South African personality who has owned several garden centers in Johannesburg. He has been the host of his own television show and a successful author. I went to one of his book signings and during my 3-week tour he was continually approached as a public figure. [His current business is to locate, trial, and promote new cultivars].

My hosts made sure that in 3 weeks I would experience South Africa in their cultural and horticultural setting. As we traveled the country I was privileged to meet many very important people, such as the owner of the DeBeer Diamond Mines, and was a guest at their homes, gardens, stud farms, and dinner parties. The highlight of my trip was attending a banquet hosting President Nelson Mandela given by the South Africa.

The Floriculture and Nursery Crop Research Initiative: A Partnership of Government, Industry, and Universities©

Author: Peter K. Bretting

PP: 501


The floral and nursery industry comprises ca. 11% of U. S. crop agriculture’s farm gate value, and is probably its fastest growing component. Although California, Oregon, Florida, and Texas contain the largest industry concentrations, the "green industry" is an extremely important element of the agricultural economy nationwide. Despite their importance, historically the Federal government has not played as large a role in supporting research on floral and nursery crops as it has with the major food and fiber crops. Producers have relied mainly on research funded by individual companies, industry groups such as the Horticultural Research Institute (HRI) and American Floral Endowment (AFE), land-grant universities, and the relatively modest in-house research of the United States Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service (USDA/ARS) conducted at Washington, D. C., Beltsville (Maryland), Corvallis (Oregon), and elsewhere.

New Plant Forum©

Author: Tomasz Anisko, Darrel Apps, Fred Bauer, Dick Bir, Andy Brand, St

PP: 504


Acer rubrum ‘Sum Red’, Summer Red red maple ‘Sum Red’ is a selection made by Bob Head, Head-Lee Nursery, Seneca, South Carolina. The outstanding ornamental feature is the emerging brick-red foliage evident throughout the growing season. This red new growth contrasts quite nicely with the dark green mature foliage. The habit and growth rate is typical of the species; however the fall color is a nice yellow, which is not typical of the species. ‘Sum Red’ roots readily from summer softwood cuttings. Terminal cuttings are treated with 2500 ppm.

POSTER SESSION PAPERS Mildew Resistant Garden Phlox©

Author: R.E. Bir, J.L. Conner

PP: 513


Garden phlox, from cultivars of the native Phlox species carolina, maculata, and paniculata, is an important herbaceous perennial for the landscape and nursery trade. Powdery mildew is recognized as a major limiting factor when growing garden phlox in warm, humid areas. Resistant cultivars of garden phlox may reduce production costs and increase landscape success.

Evaluations of garden phlox mildew resistance have been conducted in climates unlike that experienced in the humid southeastern United States (Hawke, 1999). Cultivar response is often different when plants considered highly resistant in other areas are exposed to the extended warm, humid growing conditions in the southeast (Bir and Hawke, 1999.).

Erysiphe cichoracearum, a causal organism of powdery mildew in phlox, spores germinate optimally under damp conditions between the temperatures of 59 and 86°F. (Powell and Lindquist,1992.). These temperatures are close to the daily average maximum and minimum

Postharvest Quality Comparison of Canaan Fir and Fraser Fir Christmas Trees©

Author: Ricky M. Bates, James C. Sellmer, David A. Despot

PP: 515


The United States annually utilizes over 35 million live Christmas trees. Postharvest quality of trees is an important concern of growers, wholesalers, retailers, and consumers. Christmas tree postharvest quality deteriorates over time and is a function of water status (Chastagner, 1986). Common postharvest quality problems include premature needle drop, poor foliage color, trunk splitting, loss of fragrance, reduced branch flexibility, and increased susceptibility to fire (Hinesley, 1984).

Conifers used as cut Christmas trees vary in their rate of drying following harvest, and their capacity to maintain freshness during display. Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) loses water slowly, has a high damage threshold, retains its needles well when dry, and is quite durable in the postharvest environment (Mitcham-Butler, et al., 1988). Other species, such as white spruce (Picea glauca) dry quickly, have poor needle retention characteristics, and have limited shelf life.

Because of its

Summer-planting Bare Root Buxus sinica var. insularis ‘Wintergreen’ Shrubs on the University of Missouri Campus from a Missouri Gravel Bed©

Author: Mary Ann Gowdy, Chris Starbuck, Richard Munson

PP: 518


The Missouri Gravel Bed is a method, developed at the University of Missouri, that allows trees and shrubs to be planted any time during the summer with a survival rate greater than those expected for B&B and container-grown plants of comparable size. Over the past 15 years, at least 50 species of trees and shrubs have been successfully field planted in mid– to late summer from gravel beds in Missouri, Iowa, Kansas, Idaho, and Ohio. In 2001, a cooperative project was begun in which a gravel bed was constructed to hold bare-root shrubs for summer planting on the University of Missouri, Columbia (MU) Campus. Landscape Services constructed the bed and purchased the plants and MU students in Greenhouse Production and Home Horticulture classes placed the plants in the bed and managed the system until the end of spring semester. Student employees managed the bed over the summer. Plants were removed from the bed in August and planted by Landscape Services personnel.

Recovery, Propagation, and Evaluation of the Box Huckleberry (Gaylussacia brachycera)©

Author: Margaret Pooler, Ruth Dix, Rob Griesbach

PP: 519

The box huckleberry (Gaylussacia brachycera [Michx] Gray) is a slow-growing, dwarf evergreen woody groundcover that is native to both the mountains and coastal plains of Pennsylvania, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia, Delaware, and Maryland (USDA, NRCS, 2002). It has glossy, dark green, fine-textured foliage, with new growth often red to maroon colored. The box huckleberry’s global conservation status is listed as G3 (NatureServe Explorer, 2001), and the state listing for Delaware, Maryland, and Pennsylvania is S1 (critically imperiled). In Maryland, there is only one very small plant left of the known wild population. In Delaware, only three wild populations have been found. In the seven states in which it is native, there are less than 20 known populations of this species.

Propagation of plants from Maryland will safeguard this rare germplasm from extinction. Although the Center for Plant Conservation currently has no recovery plans for G. brachycera, a Memorandum of

Plant Propagation for Horticulture Therapy Programs©

Author: Laurie Meyers, C. Frank Williams

PP: 521

Plants are living things and they encourage individuals to respond to them. For this reason, gardening has been used for healing throughout the ages. Even though the healing art of gardening has been recognized historically, it is still relatively new among therapeutic professions. This use of plants and gardening for therapeutic purposes defines modern day horticulture therapy.

Ever since horticulture therapy became recognized as a discipline, many groups have profited from horticultural therapy, including the elderly, mentally, physically, and developmentally disabled, substance abusers, socially disadvantaged, and public offenders. Programs utilizing horticulture therapy are taking place in senior centers, nursing homes, correctional facilities, hospitals, schools, greenhouses, and nurseries. Horticultural therapy can be adapted and applied to individuals of all ages and abilities.

A common element in horticulture therapy programs is plant propagation. Taking cuttings and planting

Propagating Selected Submerged Aquatic Species of the Chesapeake Bay©

Author: Jennifer Kujawski

PP: 522

Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), is critical to maintaining coastal ecosystems around the world. It filters water by trapping sediments and nutrients, provides habitat and food for commercially important animal species, and reduces shoreline erosion by slowing wave energy. In areas such as the Chesapeake Bay, declining SAV populations have challenged restoration groups to use transplant sources that do not, or only minimally, disturb existing SAV beds. To support this effort, we investigated simple propagation methods for six SAV species native to the Chesapeake Bay. Our goals were to (1) determine ways to generate a source of transplants appropriate to a commercial nursery-type setting, (2) examine time and effort to produce transplant-ready material, and (3) create stock plants to supply propagules to local volunteer restoration groups.

We grew our SAV in 5130-liter (1350-gal) freshwater tanks in a greenhouse. The tank water was approximately 0.45 m (18 inches) deep and its

Fifty Years of Change in the Nursery Industry©

Author: Brian Smith

PP: 89

On 13 January 1956 I started work. I was employed by the Master Gardener, Mr. Paul Sorensen, of Sorensen’s Nursery in Leura as an apprentice for 5 years on a handshake and stayed for 14 years. During this time I did the Horticultural Certifi cate course at Ultimo in Sydney, now the Ryde School of Horticulture. I had no inkling then of the roller coaster ride I would have through horticulture up to the present day.

When I started my career, propagation was mainly hardwood cuttings under constant misting, using brass nozzles, outside under the shade of some high canopy trees. When the misting was left on in the winter there were times of the mist freezing and some quite spectacular displays created. The cuttings were stuck in community terracotta pots using a sand and peat mixture as the medium. Results were never very encouraging.

At this stage cold frames were built which consisted of a frame base of 16 ft long and 8 ft wide with a height of 18 inches. This was constructed of hardwood

Remontant Hydrangeas?©

Author: R.E. Bir, J.L. Conner

PP: 524


Most gardening texts state that bigleaf hydrangeas, Hydrangea macrophylla hortensia types (syn. var. macrophylla), H. macrophylla lacecap types (syn. var. normalis), H. serrata (syn. macrophylla var. serrata), and their hybrids form flower buds the year before flowering. If those buds are destroyed by pruning or freeze injury then plants will not flower because new flower buds will not be formed then develop and open during the current growing season.

Recent research has demonstrated that bigleaf hydrangea cultivars exist that are truly remontant as well as others that will flower in autumn even if they have already flowered earlier in the year. Speculation exists concerning whether the flowers are from lateral buds that were not removed or freeze damaged; or whether new flower buds form during favorable conditions in late summer and early fall then open during an extended period of short days and nonfreezing autumn temperatures (Adkins, 2002; Adkins et al., 2002). To

Does Wulpak Have Fertilizer Value?©

Author: Dick Bir, Joe Conner

PP: 526


Wulpak is a processed wool fiber product that has been used as mulch in container nursery production. In studies conducted at MHCREC, Fletcher, North Carolina in 2000, when Wulpak was applied at rates calculated to provide the same amount of nitrogen as the standard fertilizer products, controlled-release fertilized plants produced from 200% to 400% more growth during the experiment than those receiving only Wulpak. Data indicated that available nitrogen from Wulpak was released during the first 2 weeks of the experiment. For some, but not all, species a superior root system seemed to develop where Wulpak was top-dressed, possibly because of temperature and water stress modification by Wulpak as a mulch.

The objective of the test was to determine whether Wulpak as a fertilizer source can be a benefit to plant growth when standard controlled-release fertilizers are used. To evaluate this, Wulpak was applied at label recommended rate of 45 g per 1- gal pot. The

Nonchemical Weed Control in Nursery Containers©

Author: Calvin Chong, Peter Purvis

PP: 528


In a previous Easter Region I.P.P.S. poster, we described and commented on various types of weed discs and other nonchemical methods of container weed control (Chong and Purvis, 1999). We herein present results from two experiments which compared selected "new generation" weed discs [Tex-R Geodisc (fabric) and Enviro LID (plastic)], "old generation" weed discs [ITML Weed Guard (plastic) and Mori- Guard (fabric)], and a weed sleeve [Mori Weed Bag (plastic)] with mulches (2.5-cm thick sawdust and paper mill sludge) and/or herbicides (Devrinol and Ronstar).

Bark Versus Municipal Compost in Paper Mill Waste Substrates for Container Culture©

Author: Calvin Chong

PP: 531

Paper mill biosolids (Tripepi et al., 1996) and municipal waste composts (Maynard, 1999) are increasingly being advocated for use in container nursery substrates. Previously, I used paper mill biosolids mixed with bark, peat, and/or sand (Chong, 1999).

Results of another study (Chong, 2002), herein summarized in part, compared the response of dogwood (Cornus alba ‘Sibirica’), forsythia [Forsythia ×intermedia ‘Lynwood’ (syn. ‘Lynwood Gold’)], common ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), and weigela [Weigela florida ‘Nana Variegata’ (syn. ‘Variegata Nana’)] grown from liners through one season in #2 containers filled with one of 16 waste-derived substrates, classified into four groups. Each group had 0%, 20%, 40%, or 60% (by vol) paper mill biosolids in binary mixtures with municipal leaf and yard waste compost (PC group) or pine bark (PB group), and quaternary mixtures with compost, topsoil, and sand (PCTS group) or bark, topsoil, and sand (PBTS group). There was a control mix of bark, peat, and

Mycorrhizal Fungi, and Organic and Inorganic Slow Release (Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa)©

Author: Lucila Amaya de Carpio, Fred T. Davies Jr, Michael A. Arnold

PP: 534


This study investigated the utilization of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) to enhance the efficiency of slow-release organic and inorganic fertilizers during container production of bush morning glory (Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa). Uniform rooted liners of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa were planted into 9.6-liter (2-gal) pots containing a pasteurized soilless medium [pine bark to sand (3 : 1, v/v)]. The mycorrhizal treatments consisted of two commercial AMF inocula: Bioterra Plus and Mycorise Pro, and a noninoculated control [NonAMF]. Fertilizer treatments included an organic slow-release fertilizer (SRF) (Nitrell; 5N-3P-4K) and an inorganic SRF (Osmocote; 18N-7P-10K). Nitrell was tested a three levels: 8.4 kg m-3 (14 lb per yd3), 12 kg m-3 (20 lb per yd3), and 16.8 kg m-3 (28 lb per yd3), which were, respectively, 70%, 100%, and 140% of the manufacturer’s recommended rate. Osmocote was tested at two levels: 3.5 kg m?3 (6 lb yd?3) and 7.0 kg m?3 (12 lb per yd3) which

Mycorrhiza Influence Potato Crop Productivity in the Altiplano of Peru©

Author: Fred T. Davies Jr, Constantino M. Calderón, Zosimo Huaman

PP: 537

Mycorrhizal fungi serve as biofertilizers, reduce plant stress, and can increase plant productivity. It is highly desirable to utilize native mycorrhiza in sustainable agriculture systems. Since the potato originated from the altiplano of Peru and Bolivia — a goal of this research was to utilize indigenous Peruvian mycorrhizal populations to enhance crop productivity in a subsistence production site. The field study was also conducted to test the effectiveness of the flavonoid, formononetin, to stimulate native mycorrhizal activity and subsequent yield of six Andean potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) selections. The site was located at an altitude of 3900 meters (12,800 ft) in San Jose de Aymara (Department of Huancavelica), in the central Altiplano of Peru. This is approaching the highest altitude in the world that potatoes are grown. The site had a sandy-loam soil with pH 3.6, with low phosphorus (P) availability and high aluminum (Al). Prior to planting, the site had been fallow for 15 years. Tubers were planted in November 1999, just before the rainy season. Minimal organic fertilizer was applied and the potato crop received no supplementary irrigation. Formononetin was applied as a soil drench when shoots began to emerge. At the end of the 6-month study, four of the six cultivars had either increased potato tuber dry mass and/or greater no. 1 and 2 grade tubers. Formononetin increased soil sporulation of indigenous mycorrhizae. There were differences in mycorrhizal colonization among the six cultivars.
Micropropagation of Native North American Lilium Species©

Author: Nathaniel D. Petley, Mark Bridgen

PP: 540

Three native North American Lilium species were studied for their ability to be micropropagated. These species were: L. canadense L., L. michauxii Poir., and L. philadelphicum L. Currently, there is no literature published on the in vitro culture of these native lily species. As natural habitats decline, the populations of native plants also decline. Micropropagation is a tool to produce and conserve native plants for use in the horticulture industry and to lessen the effects of collecting in the wild.

Past in vitro research with L. japonicum Thunb. and L. speciosum Thunb. bulbs demonstrated that their bulbs respond well to tissue culture. According to their research, the addition of growth regulators to lily tissue cultures is not required for micropropagation. However, for commercial use, the balance between low quantities of cytokinins and lower quantities of auxins has been beneficial for increased production. Protocols for the micropropagation of L. canadense, L. michauxii, and

Techniques for the in vitro propagation of Rhodophiala species©

Author: Eduardo Olate, Mark Bridgen

PP: 541

Rhodophiala species are close relatives of Hippeastrum (amaryllis) in the Amarillidaceae and endogenous geophytes from Chile and Argentina. They have attractive flower colors of red, orange, or yellow. Their novel yellow colors and easy growth habit make them a potential new ornamental that can be used as a cut flower or potted plant. Traditional propagation techniques that have been used for other bulbous plants were attempted under in vitro conditions to increase the number of bulbs. The mechanical treatments that were applied to the basal plate were scooping, scoring with only one basal incision, scoring with two incisions, sectioning into two pieces, sectioning into four pieces, and a control with no mechanical intervention. Initial plant material was collected in Chile and placed in vitro. The cultured bulbs that were used for these experiments weighed an average of 200 mg each. Basal Murashige and Skoog medium plus vitamins was used for all experiments. The cultures were grown
Effects of in Vitro Basal Plate Cuttage Systems on Bulblet Production of Leucocoryne coquimbensis©

Author: Eduardo Olate, Mark Bridgen

PP: 542

Leucocoryne coquimbensis of the Alliaceae is an endogenous geophyte from Chile, and a new bulbous crop that can be used as a cut flower. Different mechanical treatments were used in vitro to determine the optimum method to increase bulb production rates. Leucocoryne coquimbensis bulbs were collected in Chile in Oct. 2000 and were placed in vitro. The bulbs were cultured on basal Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with vitamins. Growing conditions for the cultures were constant fluorescent lighting at an average temperature of 23°C. Bulbs were transferred onto fresh medium every 4 weeks. Basal plates were subjected to treatments of scooping, scoring with one incision, scoring with two incisions, sectioning into two pieces, sectioning into four pieces, and a control with no mechanical incision. Data that were collected included total and bulb fresh weight, number of bulblets produced, and production of shoots and roots. After 12 weeks of culture, bulbs that were treated with either
Comparative Studies on the Rooting of Betula Species©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 543


This study was undertaken over period of 5 years. The intent was to look at the rooting of Betula species over a long period of time with variations in timing, rooting hormones, and type of cuttings. This was influenced by the availability of different species none of which were available at any one time. A particular species was chosen because it was available for experimentation from a range of sources.

Controlling Insect Pests with Entomopathogenic Nematodes©

Author: Robin Bedding

PP: 92


Apart from insects, nematodes are the next most common animals on earth with nearly a million different species likely. They are found almost everywhere from the tops of the highest mountains to the depths of the deepest seas. It has been said that if all the rest of the world was removed the ghostly shape of everything would remain as nematodes! Most nematodes are completely harmless but the roundworms that affect our domestic animals and the eel worms that cause billions of dollars damage to crops worldwide are all nematodes. Three of the ten most common diseases of man are caused by nematodes. The largest nematode Placentanema gigantissima from the placenta of sperm whales is 8 m long and 2 cm thick and the smallest, Greeffiella minutum is only 0.08 mm long and lives free in the sea (Poinar, 1983). However, the nematodes that we use to control insects are about as different from these as human beings are from goldfish.

The first nematode to be used successfully in the control of an

Potential for Grafting Evergreen Ilex: A Preliminary Investigation©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 547

On a visit to the Rutgers University Horticultural Farm Dr. Elwin Orton showed me some Ilex grafts using Ilex ×meserveae cv., Blue Princess® as an understock. This stirred up more than a bit of interest as I wanted to try grafting an experimental hybrid on to I. ×meserveae ‘Blue Princess’ as Dr. Orton had showed me. That combination was successful and allowed for further growing on the hybrid. Encouraged by those results this study was undertaken to see what possible graft combinations might work and were there differences in grafting to I. ×meserveae cv., ‘Blue Princess’® or I. ‘Nellie R. Stevens’. This was further encouraged by comments from Mr. Jim Berry from Plant Development Services, Loxley, Alabama who suggested that both I. aquifolium and the "Blue Hollies" are poor performers in the Southeastern portions of the U.S.A. He thought a suitable rootstock might make those plants more available to the Southern nursery trade.
Preliminary Rooting Evaluation of North American Stewartia, Symplocos, and Persea©

Author: H. William Barnes, Phil Oyerly, Rick J. Lewandowski

PP: 551


While there is an ever-increasing interest and demand for native plants by consumers, many of our more choice and intriguing native species defy most attempts at propagation. The mission of the Mt. Cuba Center is to study and develop methods of reliable production for native plants, particularly species of the Piedmont of eastern North America.

Three plants currently of interest to both Mt. Cuba Center and Lorax Farms for wider landscape use include silky camellia (Stewartia malacodendron), swamp bay (Persea borbonia var. pubesans), and horsesugar (Symplocos tinctoria).

Silky camellia is an attractive shrub to small tree native throughout the southeastern U.S.A. and beloved for its showy camellia-like flowers in early summer. Although selections are being made for improved flower quality and hardiness, asexual propagation and survival of plants remains a limiting factor in its success.

Swamp bay is a small evergreen tree or large shrub of the southeastern U.S.A. and is

Influence of Environmental Factors on Parthenolide and Abscisic Acid in Feverfew©

Author: Jorge M. Fonseca, James W. Rushing, Nihal C. Rajapakse, Ronald L

PP: 556

Accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) and parthenolide (PRT) in feverfew plants exposed to different light and water conditions was investigated. The effect of light was studied by harvesting plants at different times of the day and harvesting plants exposed to either dark or light environments. PRT was found to have a maximum peak at late afternoon whereas ABA had its peak during morning hours. Light withdrawal during the afternoon resulted in reduced PRT and increased ABA. Water stress response was monitored in potted plants exposed to continuous dehydration-rehydration cycles. PRT content was higher in water-stressed plants, but only after second dehydration. In contrast, ABA was higher at first soil drying and did not increase as much in subsequent cycles. ABA inhibitors such as norflurazon and sodium bisulfite also inhibited PRT accumulation in cut feverfew flowers, indicating a connection between ABA pathway and the PRT catabolic site. Our results demonstrate that higher medicinal quality of feverfew may be obtained when harvest is during hours immediately prior to dusk and when plants have been under intermittent water stress. We provide novel evidence for understanding the physiology of the PRT accumulation in feverfew.
Feeding Preferences of Agraulis vanillae (Gulf Fritillary) for Pentas lanceolata cultivars©

Author: L.L. Bruner, D.J. Eakes, G.J. Keever, J.W. Baier, C. Stuart-Whit

PP: 562

A study conducted in 2002 determined feeding preferences of Agraulis vanillae L. (gulf fritillary butterfly) for Pentas lanceolata (Forssk.) Deflers cultivars. P. lanceolata (pentas) are herbaceous annuals in the majority of the United States and commonly recommended nectar sources for attracting butterflies. Through hybridization P. lanceolata are produced in a wide range of flower colors and growth habits. One cultivar, ‘Lilac Mist’, attracted a greater number of total inflorescence visits, feeding visits, total plant trips, and longer visit duration by the gulf fritillary butterfly than the remaining five cultivars evaluated. Differences in morphology and color characteristics were found among cultivars. However, these differences did not correlate with the observed feeding preference.
Time of Pruning Effects on Cold Hardiness of Butterfly Bush©

Author: Jennifer Warr, Gary Keever, Doug Findley, Raymond Kessler

PP: 566

A study was conducted at Auburn University to determine how time of pruning affects cold hardiness in Buddleja davidii ‘Royal Red’ (Franchet). Buddleia, or butterfly bush, were pruned in November, January, and March, and frozen at six target temperatures 2 weeks later. Both January and March sampling periods included plants pruned at the previous sampling dates. After each freeze event, plants were rated weekly for injury, and at 6 weeks after treatment (WAT) percent mortality was determined. Injury ratings at 2 WAT and percent mortality data are presented. Only fall pruning affect injury rating and percent mortality. There was a greater injury rating in pruned plants than in nonpruned plants at the highest temperature tested, -6°C (21.2°F). At lower temperatures, injury ratings were high, regardless of pruning treatment. Also in fall, percent mortality was greater in pruned (87%) than in nonpruned (67%) plants. There were no significant differences among pruning treatments in injury rating or percent mortality when plants were frozen in January or March. Injury rating and percent mortality increased as freeze temperature decreased, regardless of when pruned.
Impact of Chilling on Ginkgo biloba©

Author: Jeffrey C. Wilson, Jeff L. Sibley, James E. Altland, Ken M. Tilt

PP: 571

Ginkgo biloba L. seedlings were evaluated in studies initiated on 1 Oct. 1999 and terminated on 20 Sept. 2002. Forty-six-centimeter (18 inch) tall liners were potted in 3.8-liter (1-gal) containers using a standard nursery medium. Thirteen levels of chilling were applied to trees in increments of 100 h, with 12 replications per treatment. Measurements were taken on total percent budbreak, new shoot extension, number of limbs, average length of each limb, and total height. Total percent budbreak increased linearly and quadratically with increasing chill hours. All other measurements increased linearly with increasing chill hours. Optimum chilling was determined to begin at 800 chill hours. Determining optimum chilling range for G. biloba could potentially decrease production costs and time, supplying a product for market more efficiently and more affordably.
Initial Shoot Growth and Development of Micropropagated Blueberry Plants Following Inoculation with an Ericoid Mycorrhizal Isolate©

Author: Mark C. Starrett

PP: 575


Hymenoscyphus ericae (Read) Korf and Kernan is a widespread ericoid mycorrhizal fungus found on North American and European continents. Hymenoscyphus ericae has demonstrated mycorrhizal associations with many ericaceous species including Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. (lowbush blueberry) and V. corymbosum L. (highbush blueberry).

Inoculation of species of Vaccinium with isolates of H. ericae have resulted in mixed responses. In several studies, in vitro inoculation of V. corymbosum, with H. ericae resulted in positive effects on shoot growth. However, in some instances, mycorrhizal colonization has had a negative impact on shoot growth.

In the field, seasonal conditions can dramatically effect the intensity of root colonization. To avoid the influence of seasonal fluctuations on mycorrhizal activity in the host plant, this study used controlled environmental conditions in a greenhouse to investigate the effects of isolates of H. ericae on shoot growth of V. corymbosum

The Role of Smoke in Dormancy Release for Horticultural Plants©

Author: Kingsley Dixon

PP: 581

Smoke plays a key role in the release of deep seed dormancy for a wide variety of plant species from a wide variety of ecological systems. Predominantly a feature of species from mediterranean-type vegetation in the mediterranean basin, chapparal from California, fynbos of South Africa, and the mediterranean and related vegetation types from Chile and Australia, smoke has proven to be critical for the germination of many deeply dormant species. Previous studies reported that heat and ash were thought to be the primary cues for release of dormancy and subsequent germination. However smoke, applied as an aerosol to unburnt bushland soil containing seeds of geosporous species or to seeds under nursery conditions can result in remarkable germination outcomes.
Plant Collection and Importation©

Author: William R. Feldman

PP: 585

Refugee French Huguenots started nurseries on Long Island fairly early in the colonial period, concentrating on tree fruits. John Bartram started the first North American botanical garden in pre-revolutionary times near Philadelphia. The international exchange of new plants for horticulture has classically been considered an unmitigated good. Many Old World crops, ornamentals, and weeds were brought to Arizona and the Southwest, first by the Spanish: e.g., olives, wheat, pomegranate, red brome grass, and later by the Anglo-Americans: e.g., eucalyptus, mulberry, citrus, cotton, and tamarisk. Arizona’s nurseries, botanical gardens, and arboreta were instrumental in the introduction of non-native species into Arizona’s ornamental horticulture: e.g., my institution, the Boyce Thompson Arboretum near Superior, was deeply involved in the introduction of species such as numerous Eucalyptus species, African sumac, various Australian Acacia species, Aloe species, etc.

Plant collection and

Limiting Your Losses on Hard-to-Root California Natives©

Author: Michelle Truscott

PP: 590


Cornflower Farms started business in 1981 adopting a philosophy of "grow what everyone else will not or can not grow" and that philosophy continues today. Our primary focus is California natives; however, we do grow many other drought-tolerant plants, general ornamentals, perennials, and grasses; approximately 700 species in all. Cornflower Farms is located in California’s Central Valley where the climate can be foggy and rainy in the winter and hot and dry in the summer. We have learned that to understand growing California natives we need to have an understanding of the plant’s native habitat — observing the native soils, drainage, which side of the slope it grows on, sun or shade, elevation, and temperature ranges. We bring this information back to the nursery and implement changes to approximate these conditions as necessary. We currently have a 20-acre site of which approximately one-third is under production. Our main propagation greenhouse is 3000 ft2 with a bottom-heat

The Evolution of Container Design©

Author: Peter B. May

PP: 100


While plants have been grown in containers for many thousands of years, formal design of plant containers is more recent. The most rapid developments in container design occurred in association with the rapid development of container production that occurred after WW II. Changes in nursery practice, increased research into plant growth, and plastics manufacturing technology all contributed to the changes in design that have occurred in the past 50 years. In this paper, most emphasis will be placed on containers for woody plant production because of the well-documented deleterious effects that poor practice can have on root system quality in trees and shrubs.

An Insight Into Biochemical Basis of Root Formation on Cuttings: A Review©

Author: Sheila Bhattacharya

PP: 594


A proper balance between auxin and nutrition is required for the production of adventitious roots on stem and the hypocotyl cuttings (Nanda et at., 1971; Nanda, 1975). The seasonal variation in rooting of cuttings has been associated with changes in levels of endogenous growth regulators and metabolites in cuttings; such regulatory processes are controlled through qualitative and quantitative changes in macromolecules, proteins, and enzymes. These macromolecular changes in the rooting zone of the cuttings may provide some of the answers of assessing cellular differentiation into roots. In the present review, I have described some of my past research results with emphasis on the biochemical and molecular changes that have been associated with adventitious rooting in hypocotyl cuttings of plants.

The Use and Propagation of Wingnut (Pterocarya spp.) as a Phytophthora-Resistant Rootstock for Walnut (Juglans spp.)©

Author: Thomas W. Burchell

PP: 599

Walnut (Juglans spp.) is a widely grown nut crop in California. Many of the plantings of walnut are on marginal soils in California that are plagued by various types of Phytophthora root rot. Once established, Phytophthora can weaken a tree and reduce its productive life. It can also eventually kill the tree. The current commercial rootstocks used for walnuts are Northern California black (J. hindsii) and paradox walnut (J. hindsii ×J. regia). Both of these rootstocks are susceptible to Phytophthora. The use of wingnut (Pterocarya stenoptera) as a rootstock for walnut was investigated beginning in 1998 because it is resistant to Phytophthora.

Wingnut seeds were planted and sprouted and eventually grafted to various walnut varieties. Six different sources of wingnut seed were collected at the University of California, Davis campus and germinated. Under a controlled stratification procedure, germination ranged from 80% to 95% for the different sources. This was compared to field germination without stratification that ranged from 2% to 10%.

The seedlings were grafted in the following spring to six different commercial walnut varieties. The grafting success ranged from 57% to 100%. The grafted trees were then dug and planted in an orchard to study the long-term compatibility of wingnut rootstock.

Effect of Bifentrhin (Talstar®) on Mycorrhizal Colonization of California Native Plants in Containers©

Author: Lea Corkidi, Jeff Bohn, Mike Evans

PP: 604

The insecticide bifenthrin (Talstarsup>®) is a synthetic pyrethroid required by regulation for the production of nursery crops to suppress the red imported fire ant in Orange and Riverside Counties in California. However, there are no published studies on the consequences of the application of this chemical on the mycorrhizal symbiosis.

We’ve initiated research to determine the effects of bifenthrin on mycorrhizal colonization by Glomus intraradices, a vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi used to inoculate California native plant hosts at the Tree of Life Nursery. Greenhouse experiments were conducted with Apium graveolens, Encelia californica, and Salvia apiana. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization was compared in plants grown without bifenthrin and with bifenthrin at different concentrations.

This study showed that the application of bifenthrin had no detrimental effects on root colonization by Glomus intraradices in the nursery practices at the Tree of Life Nursery.

Photoautotrophic Micropropagation: Importance of Controlled Environment in Plant Tissue Culture©

Author: Chieri Kubota

PP: 609

Micropropagation is a method to produce genetically identical plantlets by using tissue culture techniques. Photoautotrophic micropropagation refers to micropropagation with no exogenous organic components (sugar, vitamins, etc.) added to the medium, and it has been developed along with the development of techniques of in vitro environmental control. CO2 concentration, photosynthetic photon flux, relative humidity, and air speed in the vessel are some of the most important environmental factors affecting plantlet growth and development; controlling these factors requires knowledge and techniques of greenhouse and horticultural engineering as well as the knowledge of physiology of in vitro plantlets. Photoautotrophic micropropagation has many advantages with respect to improvement of plantlet physiology (biological aspect) and operation/management in the production process (engineering aspect), and it results in reduction of production costs and improvement in quality of plantlets.
Biogeography of Mycorrhizal Fungi and Their Use in Ornamental Container Production©

Author: Chris A. Martin

PP: 613

Mycorrhizae — from the Latin words myco and rhizi, meaning fungus and roots — refers to a partnership association between plants and soil-dwelling fungi. Horticulturists consider mycorrhizae as beneficial when both partners realize a net gain from the association. Sometimes colonization of plant roots by mycorrhizal fungi results in an enhancement of plant growth. Mycorrhizae play an important role in plant nutrition and the stability of plant communities. Three types of mycorrhizae are most common: ectomycorrhizae, ectendomycorrhizae, and endomycorrhizae. Our research focuses exclusively on a class of endomycorrhizae called arbuscular mycorrhizal or AM fungi.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have unique vegetative and reproductive life stages. During their vegetative stage, they develop a hyphal matrix (or mycelium) comprised of runner, penetration, or absorbing hyphae that extend out from the surface of colonized fine lateral roots. Runner hyphae follow growth of fine lateral roots as

Evaluating the Application Uniformity of a Sprinkler System for Containerized Plants©

Author: Bruce C. Lane

PP: 616


One way to significantly reduce the water volume applied by a fixed-grid of sprinklers to container-grown plants is to make certain the sprinkler system spreads water uniformly across the growing area. When non-uniform water application occurs, the irrigation duration must be increased, sometimes excessively, to ensure that all plants receive the required minimum water volume. However, increasing the duration applies additional water to plants that are already sufficiently wet and increases water and/or pumping costs. If the irrigation duration is not increased, then crop growth patterns in the form of taller and shorter plants usually occur with time.

Plants in containers are particularly affected by non-uniform water application since lateral water movement among containers does not occur. The factors most responsible for non-uniform water application include wind speed, wind direction, water pressure, sprinkler spacing, sprinkler height, nozzle selection, and slope.


Boom Growing at a Dutch-tray Facility©

Author: Ted Ardans

PP: 622

I’ve worked as a grower, head grower, and manager of large greenhouse bedding plant operations for over 20 years. Only in the last 4 years have I dealt with Dutch trays and boom irrigation equipment. At Hines Horticulture Chino Valley, we produce plugs for our own production, bedding plants, perennials, geraniums, vegetative annuals, and poinsettias. Using booms, while maintaining high quality production was a welcome challenge to our team of growers, resulting in many innovations. Many growers fear that machinery in the greenhouse will reduce quality, and take away the human touch. We definitely want to reject that notion. Our facility in Chino Valley has more than 56 booms in operation, each traveling over approximately 2500 flats.

Some of the pros to growing with booms were offered by the salespeople for the company supplying the equipment. Other benefits we discovered along the way. That we would save labor over other methods never made sense to me, because sprinkler watering was

Growing Agaves©

Author: Mary Irish

PP: 624

Agaves are semi-succulent perennials that are generally stemless with firm, fibrous leaves arranged in a rosette pattern. Although agaves occur in a wide range of habitats they exhibit many of the adaptations that mark desert plants — tough, waxy leaf surfaces; succulence; wide, spreading root systems; and the ability to withstand amazingly high temperatures. These properties make them excellent garden plants and growing them can be interesting — sometimes challenging, but always highly rewarding.

I fall squarely into the camp of those who believe that the more you know about the plants you are trying to grow the more successful you will be. But I will admit right now that there is more about the physiology, pollination biology, growth determinators, and general natural history of agaves that are unknown than are known. Lots of what we do know is not the result of controlled experimental work, but has come through the long and consistent experience of many people who delight in these

The Effect of Invasive Plants on Native Ecosystems — How We Can Help©

Author: Betty L. Young

PP: 626

We all do the best we can to help create sustainable landscapes. But when that hot new bestseller comes along that’s sure to perk up the bottom line, what do we do?

Invasive plants do not mean simply the loss of some pretty wildflowers in our nearest natural area. The eradication of invasive plants costs us, the taxpayer, $13 billion per year (National Invasive Species Council, 2001). Total wholesale nursery receipts were $13.3 billion in 2001 (USDA, 2002).

Forty-two percent of the species on the Threatened or Endangered lists are at risk primarily because of invasive plants (Pimemtel et al., 1999). These plants alter natural landscapes, exclude native plants, cause species extinctions, reduce bird, game animal, and fish populations, alter water courses, are toxic to cattle and horses, and increase wildfire danger and intensity.

What can we do to ensure beautiful natural areas for our grandchildren to enjoy, in which there are abundant animals for recreation? We can:

  • Check with our
Propagation of the Genus Eremophila©

Author: Kathleen Echols

PP: 634

The genus Eremophila is an endemic plant found in Australia. The genus consists of approximately 180 species, many of which are outstanding ornamental candidates for the garden. They grow as undershrubs in low woodland settings or in open sunny areas. Eremophilas are a member of the Myoporaceae family.

The name Eremophila comes from the Greek word eremos, which means desert or lonely places, and phileo, to love. These plants are truly desert loving as they are mainly located in the dryer areas of Western Australia. The common name for the genus is Emu-bush or poverty bush. The name emu-bush comes from the fact that emus eat the fruit off some of the eremophilas. Poverty bush refers to the harsh environmental conditions that the Eremophila thrives in.

Eremophilas come in a range of sizes. They can be prostrate, rounded, upright, tall, or almost tree-like in their form. The branches can be glabrous, hairy, or scaly. Their leaves can be alternate, opposite, or (rarely) whorled.


Some New Research Into Container Design©

Author: Derek G. Moore

PP: 105


In Australia the vast proportion of nursery-grown trees spend some part of their life containerised, usually in a rigid plastic pot of some type (Lawry and Gardner, 2001). The challenge facing nursery growers producing these trees is to not only optimise canopy growth but to ensure that the root system has been managed to ensure that it doesn’t have a negative impact on long-term growth and even survival.

Historically, container production systems in Australia have been quite successful (May, 2002) but nevertheless there are serious concerns about the quality of the root systems of many trees that are being produced by some container nurseries that use smooth (or almost smooth) sided plastic, frustum-shaped containers. This is despite a substantial body of research related to this issue and the many products and techniques that have been developed to improve root systems, e.g., Harris (1967); Whitcomb (1988); Appleton (1995); Struve et al. (1994); Arnold and MacDonald (1999).

Propagation of Phoenix dactylifera Cultivars©

Author: Richard Harris

PP: 637

Date palms are one the world’s oldest cultivated crops, literally going back for several millennia. Two methods have traditionally been used for propagation; one sexual and one asexual. Sexual propagation from seeds has value for production of landscape palms and for breeding purposes for new cultivars. However, being dioecious in nature and due to the great genetic diversity of this plant when grown as a fruit crop asexual propagation from offshoots (small shoots growing from the trunk of the mother palm) has proven to be the most reliable method to keep fruit cultivars true to variety. As a woody monocotyledon date palms cannot be propagated by grafting.

A newer method of asexual propagation of date palms is tissue culture. This is still a controversial procedure as there are two distinct schools of thought regarding this procedure. One school being that it is a viable procedure greatly reducing the time required to come into fruit production as well as keeping the cultivar true to

Vegetative Propagation of Southwestern Plants: Ambrosia deltoidea, Buddleja marrubifolia, Vauquelinia californica, and Vauquelinia corymbosa©

Author: Ursula K. Schuch, Elizabeth Davison, Jack Kelly

PP: 637


Vegetative propagation of four species native to the Southwestern United States is described in the following experiments. Buddleja marrubifolia is a dependable shrub for the arid landscape because it tolerates poor soil, drought, and heat. The wooly butterfly bush is known to root from softwood cuttings during springtime when treated with IBA at 5000 ppm and in summer when treated with IBA at 3000 ppm (Nokes, 2001). Hardwood cuttings of some Buddleja species have been reported to root when taken in winter. Vauquelinia californica is a popular landscape shrub with evergreen, leathery leaves. Propagation by cutting is preferred, but rooting of cuttings has proven recalcitrant (Charles, 1961; Dehgan et al., 1977). Differences in rooting were found in response to season, clone, and IBA treatments, with no one treatment consistently superior (Smith, 1982). Vauquelinia corymbosa, an evergreen shrub with leaves narrower than those of V. californica, is currently underutilized

Using Reclaimed Water in Production of Containerized Nursery Stock©

Author: Marcus G. White

PP: 643

Civano Nursery, located in the far-east side of Tucson, Arizona, has significantly reduced its water costs by converting from city potable water to city reclaimed water. In addition to the reduced water costs, the nursery is beginning to evaluate the potential nutritional benefits in hopes of further savings. The nursery is established within the community of Civano, a special community that has incorporated many self-sustaining concepts including the use of reclaimed water on common area and residential landscapes. The nursery was established within the community of Civano because the opportunities connected to the community and the future demand for a nursery/garden center in this expanding area of town.

Ground broke for the nursery in Fall 1997. Although the nursery was originally irrigated with potable water, the irrigation system was designed and installed in anticipation of the arrival of reclaimed water to the community. During Summer 1999, the reclaimed water meter was

Texas Superstars, the Plant Introduction and Marketing Assistance Program in Texas©

Author: Wayne A. Mackay, Cynthia McKenney, Steve W. George, Tim D. Davis

PP: 644

The Texas Superstar program identifies outstanding landscape plants for Texas and provides support for the nursery industry, thereby making superior plants available to Texans. Funding comes directly from industry and from consumers through the sale of plant tags bearing the Texas Superstar logo. Additionally, the Texas Nursery and Landscape Association and Texas Department of Agriculture have conducted Texas Superstar publicity campaigns. An estimated $10 million in new plant sales have been generated during the first 10 years of this program. Because plants are chosen based on their performance under minimal input conditions, Texas SuperStars greatly reduce their impact on the urban environment.

Author: Ramon M. Alaniz

PP: 648


Safety is one of the most important activities of any kind in business. If a safety program is not implemented in your work place, your company is risking its profit margin and at the same time putting their employees in a danger. Also, insurance rates will increase, employees will stay out of work for longer periods of time, productivity will decrease, and the worst of all, employees will suffer economic loss, pain, and feel frustrated for not being able to work.

Root Deformation in Plantations of Container-grown Stock:

Author: Asbjørn Strømberg

PP: 108


During the 1970s many forestry nurseries in Scandinavia changed from bareroot to containerised plant production. In the late 1970s we received the first alarming reports about poor stability and root development in plantations of containergrown plants. Since then several different types of container systems have been introduced to the market, and a number of these systems cause more or less strong root deformation.

The consequences of root deformities are complex and can in the long term lead to significant economic losses. Root deformities can affect the growth, stability, and stem straightness of young stands. Poorer tensile strength and internal deformities increase the risk of fibre breakage, which increases the risk of fungal attacks, primarily on the root system. Once the trees vitality is reduced, the risk of fungal attacks on stems or shoots also increases.

The ultimate result of root deformities is that the tree falls over and dies because impeded root

Rocketpot Technology©

Author: Peter Lawton

PP: 113

RocketPot Technology helps to grow and transplant advanced trees. The RocketPot Tree Growing System (RPTGS) helps manage roots — and roots "manage" trees. The RPTGS is a modular container system with a set of recommendations for use. Together, the containers and the set of recommendations make up a better practice for growing trees. It is a candidate for "best practice".
The Role of Micronutrients and How They Affect Plant Growth©

Author: David Nichols, Yibing Ma

PP: 116


It is generally recognised that there are 16 nutrients that are essential to plant growth. Three of them carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are obtained from water and the atmosphere and comprise most of the dry matter of the plant. The remaining nutrients are classed as fertiliser nutrients, which are chiefly obtained from the growing medium but can be supplied by foliage application. Six of these are categorised as major or macro-nutrients and the remaining seven as minor, micro- or trace nutrients. The essentiality of micronutrients was established in hydroponic studies over a period of 94 years beginning with iron in 1860 to chlorine in 1954. The remainder were proven to be essential in a period from 1922 to 1939.

Other nutrients that may have benefits for some plants but are not, at this stage, regarded as essential, are silicon, cobalt for soil-grown legumes, nickel, sodium, and vanadium.

The term "micro" refers to the fact that they are needed by plants in much

Optimising Moisture Retention in Growing Media©

Author: Robert B Reynolds

PP: 121

Why do we need to get better use out of applied water to our plants? Look around at the headlines of most papers, periodicals, and news reports and what do you see? An ever increasing warning that water is becoming a major issue, not just to us in the plant industry, but to many activities of life on the planet. At the recent NGIA conference in Adelaide we were told that the once mighty Murray River will not be able to be used for Human consumption by the year 2020 unless radical and rapid changes are made. On the flight from Adelaide returning home to Sydney, major areas covered in saltpans were clearly evident along the Murray River system and surrounding lands.

In South East Queensland unseasonal weather patterns are having a major impact on growers, with no rain falling to assist applied water in plant growth and to replenish dam and other reservoir systems. One major nursery, which had traditionally pumped from the Coomera River, now has to use town water. Another nursery, whose

Plant Breeders’ Rights and Trademarks©

Author: J&oumlrgen H. Selchau

PP: 42

The conference organisers have outlined some headings, which I will try to follow in my presentation:

Question: Why and How a Breeder Would Obtain Plant Breeders Rights.

Briefly, what is a plant novelty? It should be:

  • Distinct: In at least one essential characteristic differ from any known variety of the same species;
  • Uniform: Homogenous within the specific generation;
  • Stable: The variety should — by continued propagation — maintain the characteristics claimed for this variety, when propagated in accordance with the methods prescribed by the variety owner, and naturally,
  • New: At the date of application, variety constituents or harvested material of the variety have not been sold or otherwise disposed of to others within the Territory, by or with the consent of the breeder earlier than 1 year before the above mentioned date or 4 years outside the Territory. For trees and vines, however, this
Nutrient Analysis for the Nursery Industry©

Author: Ross Hall, Kirsten Raynor

PP: 126


A limiting factor in the production of container-grown plants is the inability of nursery production managers to regularly, and accurately, monitor plant nutrient levels. To obtain the most competitive production rates all components of the production system need to be optimised. One of the most significant components is the level, and balance, of nutrients. Throughout the nursery industry electrical conductivity (EC) is used as a guide to the salt concentration within the growing medium. In normal circumstances the source of most of the salt in the medium will be from the added fertilizers. The EC then provides the production manager with an indication of the need for supplementary fertilizer application or, conversely, the need to leach excess salts from the medium. The EC does not, however, identify individual fertilizer salts nor does it provide any indication of the relative proportions of the various salts present. By using EC as a guide for the need to add

Plant Quarantine Protocols©

Author: John Field

PP: 132


The risks of introducing exotic pests and diseases with nursery stock varies according to the species, country or area of origin, the conditions under which it has been grown and maintained, and the form and quantity in which it is imported.

Consequently, all nursery stock is subject to inspection on arrival in Australia. Most are subject to treatment and post-entry quarantine growth with diseases screening. Depending on their quarantine risk, nursery stock are housed either at Government nurseries or within secure private post entry quarantine facilities. Currently the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) have approved: 78 open quarantine facilities for approved bulbs, 35 closed quarantine facilities for medium risk nursery stock, and four open quarantine facilities for rose scion wood for budding.

Importing Plants at Government Plant Quarantine Stations©

Author: Jane Urquhart

PP: 135


The Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) operates two post-entry quarantine facilities, which allows the safe introduction of high-risk plant material while protecting Australia from exotic pests and diseases. Access to high-risk material from overseas is essential for Australia’s agricultural and horticultural industries to develop and remain competitive.

The Federal Government funds the post-entry quarantine program at the two stations in the form of an "anti-smuggling" subsidy. It is recognised by the Federal Parliament that a full cost recovery program would be prohibitive to plant importers who would otherwise be tempted to smuggle plants into the country.

High health facilities also operate in Brisbane, Hobart, Perth, and Adelaide. They are facilities managed by the state governments under a formal agreement with AQIS. Some of the genetic resource centres also have quarantine arrangements, which allow the introduction of specialist crops, e.g., winter

Plant Importation©

Author: Clive Larkman

PP: 138

The papers by Australian Quarantine and Inspection Services (AQIS) staff outlined many of the legal and formal issues covering importation, as well as what happens to the plants when they come into the country. I am going to cover the actual importation of the plants from a growers perspective.

Plants can either be bought in by person as accompanying baggage or by mail/ freight. It is much better to accompany the plants as life will be easier if you are present when the plants are inspected. It is also cheaper.

AQIS is charged with protecting our environment. They will look at plants as a possible disease host and as a potential weed. With the recent discoveries of fire ants, the problems with foot and mouth in the U.K. and the threats of terrorism, AQIS has increased its level and intensity of inspection. Whereas in the past some parcels may have come through the postal system without inspection, it is unlikely this will occur now.

There are three ways that a plant can be imported:

Plant Diagnostics Can Save Money In The Propagation Nursery©

Author: Ron Barrow

PP: 141

The process of propagation in a nursery is an expensive one. Plant losses at this stage cost the nursery more than just the money initially invested in the propagation process. When unplanned losses occur, the extra cost of re-propagation effectively doubles the propagation cost of that plant.

Part of a good propagator’s job is to get to know the common problems that affect the plants they grow, to be able to identify and recognise their symptoms, to control them if necessary, and most importantly of all to eliminate the cause. Some of the most common problems found in the propagation house are shown in Table 1.

These problems probably cause the vast majority of plant losses in the propagation area. There are many more pests and diseases that infest stock and should be considered, but unless procedures are carried out to minimise these then plant losses will continue.

Results of a Corymbia maculata Provenance Trial Using Street Tree Selection Criteria©

Author: Sarah Bone

PP: 144

A quality urban tree is the product of a good genotype, suitable conditions for growth, and sensitive management. A study was undertaken to determine the appropriate mix of these for the widely planted Corymbia maculata (syn.Eucalyptus maculata Hook.). This paper presents some results of experimental research in which provenances of spotted gum were compared for differences in heritable traits relevant to urban planting situations.

Eight spotted gum types (six provenances of C. maculata and one each of the species C. variegata and C. henryi) were assessed in field- and container-grown provenance experiments undertaken in the grounds and nursery of Burnley College, The University of Melbourne. Differences in growth rate, stem structure, tree form and health of the provenances were recorded. Provenances of C. maculata from Bodalla, NSW, and the Mottle Range, Victoria, were identified as the superior provenances for urban tree development. These can be recommended to the

Mycorrhizal Inoculum for Propagation of Epacris impressa©

Author: M.R. Conomikes, C.B. McLean, M.C. Starrett, A.C. Lawrie

PP: 151

Members of the Epacridaceae are traditionally difficult to propagate and are in decline in parts of Australia. Infection by Phytophthora cinnamomi has led to some species of Epacridaceae in Western Australia being listed as endangered. Propogation by seed is usually unsuccessful and cuttings often have a strike rate as low as 10%. Previous studies have demonstrated that introduction of soil collected from beneath adult plants improved the health and survival of cuttings of several epacrid species. In this study cuttings were grown in potting mix, potting mix containing mycorrhizal inoculum, or potting mix containing soil from beneath adult plants collected in the wild. Plants were grown under glasshouse conditions for 20 weeks and monitored for health and development before harvesting. Strike rate and mycorrhizal status were then determined. Statistical analysis of results indicated no significant difference between treatments and no mycorrhizas present in the roots of any cutting in
Domestication and Improvement of Kunzea pomifera©

Author: Tony Page, Greg Moore, James Will, Gerald Halloran

PP: 155

The Australian native shrub species Kunzea pomifera F.Muell. (muntries) occurs in south-eastern South Australia and far western Victoria on sandy calcareous soils and is generally of prostrate habit. It produces edible berries of commercial potential, which are borne on the apical meristems of the plant in clusters of 3 to 9. The berries are succulent and range in size from 5 to 13 mm in diameter. They are mottled in colour from green, red to purple and possess a unique apple-like flavour.

Kunzea pomifera was sampled across the area of its natural distribution as cuttings, which were then grown in replication in the outdoor production area at Burnley College, University of Melbourne. Variation in plant habit, leaf and fruit traits, flowering time, and the nature of the breeding system were examined. Variation in plant and fruit traits are discussed in terms of the scope for breeding muntries for commercial production. Characters considered important in muntries improvement are,

Seed Germination and Propagation of Arachnorchis formosa©

Author: T.T. Huynh, C.B. McLean, A.C. Lawrie

PP: 161

Symbiotic and asymbiotic seed germination methods were investigated to maximise the production of the endangered orchid Archnorchis formosa (G. W. Carr) D.L. Jones et M.A. Clem. (Orchidaceae) for the re-establishment phase of its recovery plan. Mycorrhizal fungi were isolated from adult plants in the wild at various stages in the orchid life cycle (budding, leafing, flowering, capsule production, and senescence). Seed was germinated on minimal (oatmeal agar) and complex (PA5 containing coconut water) media with and without mycorrhizal fungi under axenic conditions. Germination and subsequent growth was recorded at monthly intervals for a period of 12 months. Mycorrhizal status of seedlings was determined by microscopic examination using SEM. Seed grown on minimal media inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi from the leafing, budding, and flowering stages gave fastest (within 1 month) and highest (>50%) germination rates. Seed grown on the complex media did not germinate in the 1st month, however those seeds that did germinate later achieved higher rates (>95%) than those on minimal media.

Symbiotic seedlings grown on minimal medium were able to be deflasked and survived to produce tubers nursery conditions. Although seedlings produced on complex media had higher germination percentages than their counterparts on minimal media, none survived the deflasking process.

This study has shown that minimal media and mycorrhizal fungi isolated from actively growing adult plants (i.e., budding, leafing, and flowering stages) can enhance the germination and subsequent growth of seedlings of the endangered spider orchid A. formosa. This information can now be used to produced plants for re-introduction in the wild.

The Relevance of the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (HSNO) Act to Plant Propagators©

Author: Suzanne Lambie

PP: 169


I will be talking to you today about the relevance of the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (HSNO) Act to plant propagators. I have been with Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA) for just under a year and my job is to manage applications under the HSNO Act and to advise people on information requirements when making an application. My recreational interests include gardening and botanising while tramping.

Growing Indigenous Bulbs in the Eastern Cape©

Author: J.C. McMaster

PP: 48

The richness of the Eastern Cape as a repository of biodiversity, the experiences in discovering the wealth of flora, the threats to the preservation of this flora, and role of plant propagators in preserving threatened species are dealt with as well as a brief description of the methods employed to grow wild bulbs under nursery conditions.
Occupational Health And Safety: Description of How to Manage Health and Safety in the Workplace©

Author: Peter Verwey

PP: 173


The Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992 (HSE Act) was passed in October 1992 and became law on 1 April 1993. The HSE Acts principal objective is to prevent harm to employees while at work. The HSE Act promotes excellence in safety and health management and requires people in places of work to perform specific duties to ensure that people are not harmed as a result of work activities. Everyone in the place of work has a responsibility for health and safety.

Edible Mycorrhizal Mushrooms in New Zealand — An Update©

Author: I.R. Hall, Y. Wang

PP: 175

Few of the edible mycorrhizal mushrooms have ever been cultivated and so supplies of most are dependent on those that can be collected from their natural habitats. However, the size of the harvests of many have fallen dramatically over the past century. Also few of the edible mycorrhizal mushrooms of commerce have found their way to the Southern Hemisphere and out-of-season chefs and gourmets must rely on inferior preserved product. There is, therefore, considerable potential for producing these mushrooms in the Southern Hemisphere for the off-season Northern Hemisphere market and, at the same time, helping stem declines in production.

The Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) was introduced into New Zealand in 1985, the first truffière established in 1987 and the first commercial crop produced in 1997. There are now six productive Périgord black truffle truffi&egraveres between the Bay of Plenty and North Canterbury. The Japanese delicacy shoro (Rhizopogon rubescens) and the saffron milk cap (Lactarius deliciosus) have also been produced in experimental plantations of specially infected Pinus radiata. Experimental plantations have also been established with plants infected with the Burgundy truffle (T. uncinatum) and bianchetto white truffle (T. borchii) while progress has been made in the development of techniques for cultivating porcini (Boletus edulis), matsutake (Tricholoma matsutake), and the Italian white truffle (T. magnatum).

Practical Workshop: How to Make a Hormone©

Author: Jeff Elliot

PP: 181


Pretty good sounding topic, shame to spoil it by talking about a good root system. This is a real back to basics talk. At Elliott’s wholesale nursery we have made up our own hormones for the last 21 years, it was an old recipe I found in Plant Propagation: Principles and Practises (Hartmann and Kester, 1975) and made myself at various strengths and formulae. I have generally tackled more difficult plant taxa such as rhododendron. Initially I tried to get all sorts of hormones and used them with some degree of luck and/or good management. Some of the first cuttings were leaf bud cuttings of some new American rhododendrons. I used some of my own mixings with these and had some fantastic results, but in hindsite that was probably more to do with environment than it was to do with hormones.

My first propagation house was made from my brother’s old parakeet cage which I lifted the roof off and covered with polythene. I them mounted fibrolite boards on top of old sewage pipes with

A Talk on Compost©

Author: David Prosser, Helen Prosser

PP: 183


"Compost is the highest achievement of Man on Earth" … Well, that’s what I think anyway. Where would we be without compost? What sort of a mess would everything be in?

You’ll know, probably, more than I do about compost. At least I hope so as you are professional plant propagators. I am not an academic, neither am I an expert in anything. I am just a gardener, but if I can remind those of you, even one of you, of the incredible value of compost then I have done my job.

May I first, please, "get a grouse off my chest", "have a beef about something"? I’m the end user, the consumer or one of them, of the products of your business. I buy the plant! I hope to suggest to you that compost can be the ideal base for a first class potting mix.

They can, of course, be individually prepared for separate crops and plant needs, more or less drainage, lime or not, leaf-mould and so on. The usual potting material mix is crushed bark or peat … with more than liberal quantities of Osmocote® (Scotts

Konjac: Production in Japan and Potential for New Zealand©

Author: J.M. Follett, J.A. Douglas, P. Cave

PP: 186


Konjac (Amorphophallus konjac syn. A. rivieri), devil’s tongue, snake palm, umbrella arum, or konnyaku, as it is known in Japan, is a member of the Araceae (aroid) family which contains ninety or so species of cormous perennial, deciduous herbs. Konjac is a native of Asia from Indonesia to Japan. In Japan it is grown for its large edible corms which are traditionally made into noodles. Now almost the entire crop grown in Japan is processed to extract gluco mannan, a carbohydrate which is used as a thickening and gelling agent, and as a fat replacement in a wide range of food preparations in the fast food industry. In Japan konjac is regarded as a health food because it is high in dietary fibre and can be used in food preparations suitable for diabetics. It is also often incorporated into slimming preparations because it is low in calories. Eleven to twelve thousand tonnes of konjac are produced annually in Japan with 80% produced in Gumma Prefecture, north west of Tokyo.

An Overview of Bio-dynamics©

Author: John Guthrie, Dominique Davaux

PP: 191


The Bio-dynamic (BD) system of agriculture and movement was founded on a series of eight lectures given by Dr. Rudolf Steiner at Koberwitz (in Silesia, now part of Poland), in 1924. These lectures were given over a period of several days to a group of farmers and scientists, and were prompted by requests. This course of eight lectures, published under the name of "Agriculture", is part of Steiner’s wider work known as Anthroposophy.

Bio-dynamic methods have their basis in a sound farming (or gardening) regime, and are an added practice. They work towards the development of the farm or garden as a balanced and sustainable unit. Each farm or garden is seen as a unique living organism. Within this organism, cattle have an important role for soil fertility. Even in a horticultural unit, the ideal is to fit some animals into the system. On a farm, or small-holding, trees and plant diversity play an essential role as well. For example, legumes are used extensively in green manures.

Progress in Forest Nursery Practice©

Author: Eric J. Appleton

PP: 198

Methods from yesteryear are outlined, the big changes brought about by hydraulic and power-take-off (PTO)-equipped tractors, the weed control possible with mineral oils, the triazines, and more recent herbicides. The change from densely sown seedbeds to precision-spaced seeds, the mechanical methods for controlling root growth and hardening stock ready for planting. The old "puddling" technique has been replaced with fast transfer of stock to the forest in designer planting systems.
Sophora — The Kowhais of New Zealand©

Author: Denis Hughes

PP: 201


A genus of over 50 species (The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary, 1992) found throughout the world of which I am only going to mention those which are associated with our New Zealand species. It is interesting to note, the kowhais (Sophora species) mentioned in this paper originated from a geographical area making a Pacific triangle formed by New Zealand, South America, and Hawaii. For many years only two species names were used but the new nomenclature changes of recent years does help to clarify the different groups found up and down the country (Heenan et al., 2001).

Sophora microphylla in the past has been all encompassing covering all the native forms and those which don’t fit into the more defined categories of S. tetraptera. For the ease of botany, perhaps we have only one very diverse species that graduates from the large-flowered, coarse-leaved, nondivaricating types of the north to the fine-leaved, heavily divaricating (particularly in the juvenile phase

Cutting Propagation of Leyland Cypress (XCupressocyparis leylandii)©

Author: Heike De Silva

PP: 206


Leyland cypress (XCupressocyparis leylandii Jacks. & Dallim.) is an inter-generic hybrid between macrocarpa cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa Hartw.) and Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D.Don) (Franklin, 1997). Leyland cypress has become a popular tree species mainly because it is easy to establish and grow. It tolerates a wide range of sites and soils (from acid to alkaline, from clay to sand) as well as salt-laden winds, which makes it suitable for planting in coastal areas. The species is frost hardy and has survived frosts of up to -20°C in the Southwest of the United States. Growth rates are relatively high especially in moist, fertile soils and the plants respond well to trimming (Dirr, 1983; Ovens, 1968).

Historical Background. In 1888 six unusual seedlings were noticed by Mr. C. J. Leyland at Leighton Hall, Welshpool in Wales, United Kingdom, where a number of trees from all over the world had been planted in an arboretum. These new hybrids were later

Tissue Culture Techniques with New Zealand Blueberry Selections©

Author: Shirley A. Miller, Emma K. Rawnsley

PP: 211


Techniques for propagation of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) through tissue culture have been well documented (Cohen, 1980; Eck, 1988; Lyrene, 1980; Zimmerman and Broome, 1979). The plant breeding and improvement programme for blueberries at HortResearch uses tissue culture (micropropagation) alongside conventional propagation techniques to provide clones of elite germplasm for experimentation. We are constantly refining the techniques, as new methodology becomes available and believe that micropropagation can be readily applied to commercial operations and used for the dispersion of new cultivars. At the present time we have 19 blueberry selections in culture, most of which are ornamental cultivars, suitable for the home garden.

How We Market Our Bedding Plants©

Author: Hans Sittig

PP: 52

Our marketing activities are guided by the needs of our garden centre customers and those of the end consumer. Our aim is to provide a quality, colourful product, presented in an exciting and eye–catching way, adding to an enjoyable shopping experience for the consumer.
  1. The Market and Product.
  • We grow colourful plants for patios and gardens which are sold mainly through garden centres.
  • Product mix.
  • Branding.
    • GARDEN FUN Colourful Patio and Garden Plants.
    • SITTIGS Colourful Bedding Plants.
  • Delivery Service Includes.
    • Delivery up to point of sale.
    • Labeled plants with a bar code and price.
    • Regular deliveries.
  • Packaging.
    • All our plants are sold in packs or pots and labelled with the plant name and planting guidelines.
  • At Point of Sale.
    • "Silent sales man" and banner.
    • Show plants.
  • Guaranteed Sales and Merchandising Service.
    • For selected customers only.
    • A service fee is charged.
    • We get an allocated area which we stock and merchandise.
    • Unsold stock is
    Where Have All the New Plants Gone?©

    Author: Richard Ware

    PP: 214


    Over the years I have collected, raised, discovered, and introduced many new plants. Some have proved themselves as very desirable for ornamental use while others did not make the grade. Today I would like to bring alive the memories of these plants that were new and give a little history of who and what made them new and desirable.

    Biological Plant Protection — Mechanisms and Systems for Nurseries Using Beneficial Trichoderma Fungi©

    Author: John S. Hunt, David S.J. Gale

    PP: 217


    Nursery plants are vulnerable to fungal infection, which may occur at any stage of their life span on foliage or roots. The use of bark- or peat-based growing media has many advantages over soil in the attempt to produce a near perfect environment to establish and maintain a healthy root structure. However, the often initially sterile nature of this type of medium creates a microbiological vacuum ideally suited to becoming occupied by opportunistic disease-causing fungi. Augmentation of media with beneficial microorganisms offers a sustainable management tool for growers of commercial plants, which affords protection against disease and has the potential to minimize reliance on chemical pesticides.

    Biological control agents have been the subject of extensive research for many years and have shown good potential for the control of some plant diseases, especially those caused by soil-borne fungal pathogens (Harman and Bjorkman, 1998). However, few are yet available as proven

    The Climate of the South West Peninsula of England©

    Author: Michael Pollock

    PP: 225


    The peninsula of south west England may strictly be regarded as land south west of a line drawn from Bristol to Southampton, a distance of some 97 km (60 miles). In the context of horticulture it is more usually considered to largely comprise the county of Cornwall, west of a line from Bude on the north coast to Plymouth on the south coast, a distance of some 56 km (35 miles) (see Fig. 1). The land is rich in horticultural history, opportunity, and expertise.

    Opportunities for and Constraints on Horticulture in the South West of England©

    Author: Andrew Tompsett

    PP: 229


    Horticulture in the south west is inextricably linked to the climate which provides both opportunities and constraints regarding what is possible and what is economic. While the more easterly parts of the region tend to reflect national patterns, the peninsula of Devon and Cornwall, and the Isles of Scilly, are characterised by enterprises which seek to exploit the conditions. Horticulturally, the diversity of plants capable of being grown in the peninsula is remarkable and many horticultural businesses, including farms, nurseries, and gardens capitalise on this and see it as a pointer to future development and prosperity. The climate of Devon and Cornwall is characterised by mild winters, cool summers, moderate rainfall at all seasons, humidity, winds, good light, and a long growing season, all of which can tilt the balance in assessing the viability or potential for horticultural enterprise. When one considers the vast range of plants which can be grown in the far south

    Trees and Large Shrubs for Shelter: A Guide to Suitable Species and an Outline of Production Practice©

    Author: Marshall Hutchens

    PP: 235


    The problems caused to the horticultural industry by wind-run are well known. In maritime climates the effects are compounded by the inclusion of blown salt particles in the air. The effects range from visible and physiological damage to plants, to financial costs associated with extra labour for standing up blown-over pots, the value of additional fuel used to heat greenhouses and polythene tunnels, and increased irrigation costs due to evaporation. Wind also causes erosion of soil and aids the spread of harmful pathogens.

    Work carried out at Rosewarne Experimental Horticultural Station (now Duchy College, Rosewarne) during the 1960s and 1970s demonstrated the benefits of hedges and shelterbelts and set standards for species selection and planting design still followed today. Many shelterbelts planted in the 1960s are coming to the end of their useful life and work is under way on the best means of replacing them. This paper aims to assist anyone planning a new or

    Maintaining and Developing Abbotsbury Sub-tropical Garden©

    Author: Stephen Griffith

    PP: 241


    This eighteenth century jewel of a garden once boasted a collection of more than 4000 plant species. The neglected and semi-wild woodland and historic walled garden date back to 1765 when Elizabeth Fox-Strangways had a castle built overlooking Chesil Beach. The walled garden was originally built to protect culinary crops from the salt-laden winds blowing from the coast just a quarter of a mile away. During the following century the shelter-belt trees and woodland were planted while the plant collection was developed by Stephen Fox-Strangways, a diplomat and amateur botanist who brought many plants back to Abbotsbury from his travels. John Lindley coined the generic name Stransvasia in his honour.

    The present owner of Abbotsbury, The Hon. Mrs Townshend DL, is a direct descendent from Elizabeth Fox-Strangways, the family having maintained the estate since 1541. Unfortunately two world wars took away the labour force from the land and that is when the gardens became overgrown

    Arduaine and West Coast Scotland©

    Author: Maurice Wilkins

    PP: 244


    Arduaine Garden, an 8-ha coastal property in Argyll, was laid out in 1898 and continued in private ownership until 1992 when it was presented to the National Trust for Scotland. The maritime influence makes it possible to grow a wide range of plants, in particular those which appreciate a relatively mild climate and a moist atmosphere, and are adapted to cooler summers and lower light levels than are to be expected further south. The situation on the Atlantic coast necessitates the careful selection of shelter planting to protect the plant collection from severe gales and salt damage, and the often shallow soil sometimes makes for difficult planting conditions.

    The Role of the Veitch Nursery of Exeter in 19th Century Plant Introductions©

    Author: Mike Squires

    PP: 247

    The story of the Veitch family of Exeter is more than the story of the British love of plants. It is about adventure, guts, and single-minded determination. John Veitch was born in Jedburgh, Scotland, in 1752 and at age 19 travelled to London to seek a career and his fortune. Veitch first worked at a nursery in London. However he was soon offered a job as land agent by the Baronet Sir Thomas Acland to look after his estate of 35,000 acres in Devon.

    In 1808, in return for his labours, Veitch was rewarded with a lifetime lease on land at Budlake, a few miles east of Exeter, to start a nursery business selling trees and shrubs. The nursery flourished and by 1832, already in partnership with his son James, he moved to larger premises at Mount Radford, Exeter, thus starting the famous Exeter Nursery.

    In the second half of the 19th century, the U.K. was a confident country, largely at peace with its Empire and dominant in industries such as iron, coal, and cotton. Much of the population had

    The Shetland Isles in the Nordic Context: A Tree Grower’s Perspective©

    Author: James Mackenzie

    PP: 249

    Geographically and climatically, as well as historically and culturally, The Shetland Islands have much in common with their Nordic neighbours, in particular the Faroe Islands, southern Iceland, western Norway, and Denmark. The Orkney Isles also lie within this Nordic context. Until recently, however, horticulture in Shetland has been largely derived from the U.K. mainland, which did not always suit the islands’ extremely oceanic climate. Links made with the Faroese Forestry Service, then with the Nordic Arboretum Committee, resulted in more attention being paid to provenance selection, especially for shelterbelt trees, and enabled the introduction of several species of trees and shrubs, originating from both northern and southern hemispheres.
    Propagation Methods and Policy for the National Collection of Betula©

    Author: Kenneth Ashburner

    PP: 253


    Nurserymen everywhere have developed their own high degree of propagation skill. The following are the author?s own experiences which may prove useful to others.

    Seed Propagation. The method described may not be the most efficient for commercial propagation but has proved adequate for a collection of a number of species. Seeds are sown in trays in sterile compost, mostly in March and April under glass rather than overwintered out of doors. This avoids the hazard of "seed rain"&mdash the contamination of sown compost with naturally dispersed seed from surrounding birches growing in the nursery or arboretum. It is very demoralising to rejoice over the germination of some rarity, only to discover sooner or later that the seedlings are nothing more than the offspring of local Betula pendula or B. pubescens leaning over the garden boundary.

    After tamping the compost lightly with a small board, and then sowing, sieved compost is sprinkled over until the seeds just disappear from

    The Art of Germinating Seeds©

    Author: Jac Duif

    PP: 53

    We take it all for granted that seeds are obtainable from a seed merchant or that they can even be collected by ourselves in gardens and in the field. Very few of us think of how seeds are grown and what it all entails to be able to sow good and viable seeds. It is made easy for us by the seed breeders and seed distributors. We just have to go to the seed merchant and obtain what we require, be it vegetables or flowers, annuals or perennials.

    In nature plants have to do their utmost to attract insects, birds, and bees to pollinate the flowers born on the plants. Brightly coloured and heavily scented, they display their flowers, just like our ladies do, to get the pollen onto their styles so that seeds can be produced to ensure survival.

    Humankind has interfered with the process of seed production and started producing hybrids by means of a sort of artificial insemination, emasculating the flowers by taking the stamen away and artificially put pollen of other selected plants onto the

    Dogwoods and Willows for Winter Stem Colour©

    Author: Chris Lane

    PP: 257


    In recent years in the U.K. there has been an increasing interest in winter gardening. Various gardens and arboreta have constructed and developed areas for winter interest to attract visitors and so improve their cash flow. Articles have also appeared in gardening magazines, extolling the virtues of winter gardens. Besides the use of winter flowering shrubs and bulbs, plants with winter stem/bark colour can create wonderful effects with the low winter sun shining through them. The annual coppicing of certain dogwoods and willows can create this effect. This paper aims to evaluate the best selections to use.

    The Role of Rhododendrons in Cornish Gardens©

    Author: Rachel Martin

    PP: 259


    For gardeners and horticulturists the words "Cornish Garden" conjure up images of places lush, green, moist, mossy, shady, mature, and dramatic. They are extraordinary collections of exotic plants flourishing in the midst of a rich native flora. The fundamental achievement of this type of West Country garden is that the planting mix is often now accepted as being natural and the intervention of the gardener is barely appreciated. But Gertrude Jekyll was always quick to point out, regarding her successful naturalistic plantings, that "they are more hap than hazard".

    The most prominent, ubiquitous, and striking plant in this "natural exotic mix" has to be Rhododendron. The flowering of mature specimens is expected in a spring garden and the size and splendour of many has earned them the name "lilies of the sky". In fact, so used are we to the idea of the Cornish Garden with its integral rhododendrons that it is hard to imagine that up until the latter half of the nineteenth century

    Camellia Propagation and Cultivation in the South West of England©

    Author: Jennifer Trehane

    PP: 263


    From Cornwall in the far west to Dorset in central southern England, the climate seems to be ideal for growing camellias, including some of the more tender subtropical species such as Camellia transnokoensis and even, in some very sheltered gardens, the difficult and tender Hong Kong species C. granthamiana. Camellia sinensis, originally known as "tcha", and of considerable economic importance as the source of tea leaves, clones of which are not particularly tender, seems to thrive in some gardens provided there is enough air circulation in winter. A tea plantation is even being established at Tregothnan near Truro.

    Flower bud formation is generally prolific as, with a relatively low incidence of damaging spring frosts (but this is by no means a frost-free area), growth starts early enough for shoots to be sufficiently mature to initiate buds at the ideal time &mdash a couple of weeks around midsummer’s day. Both the spring flowering taxa and the autumn flowering sasanqua types

    Breeding and Cultivating Grevillea in Queensland©

    Author: John Bunker

    PP: 266


    The genus Grevillea is native to New Caledonia and Australia, has over 200 species, and belongs to the family Proteaceae. They are named after Charles Francis Greville, a former Vice President of the Royal Society of London who was a patron of horticulture and botany died in 1809. The classification of Grevillea was originally carried out by a botanist named Robert Brown.

    In Australia, Grevillea taxa have captivated the attention of native plant collectors and enthusiasts because of the diversity of the genus. Species range from G. robusta, a large tree which can grow to 50 m and inhabits the coastal rainforests of tropical Queensland and Northern NSW; to a range of prostrate forms which are excellent ground covers for landscape and garden use. Grevillea robusta is sought after for furniture making and wood turning because of its unusual grain and patterns.

    Characteristics include needle-like foliage on freely branching shoots and a winter-flowering habit with flowers that

    Propagation and Cultivation of Pittosporum for the National Collection©

    Author: Benedict Murrell

    PP: 270


    The U.K. National Collections are administered by the National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens (NCCPG). The gardens at Bicton College, Devon, hold two National Collections, Agapanthus and Pittosporum, both of which are favoured by the local climate with a January mean temperature of 7°C and annual rainfall of 1000 mm. The soil is slightly acidic, free draining sand and silt.

    Currently the National Pittosporum Collection is maintained by the college’s gardens staff (manager Paul Champion and curator Ghislane Silvers). The college nursery is run by two propagators with most of the Pittosporum work being carried out by Chris Nevitt.

    Hybridisation and Cultivation of Phygelius©

    Author: Peter Moore

    PP: 272


    Almost all Phygelius are garden worthy and, in a sunny aspect in a well drained but not dry soil, they will grow in most parts of the British Isles. Phygelius taxa are one of the few South African plants to be hardy in the British Isles. For a full botanical description of the taxa see Coombes (Coombes, 1988a; 1998b; 1990) and Wisley trial notes (Royal Horticultural Society, 2000).

    In the early 1970s one would find only two taxa listed in nursery catalogues: Phygelius aequalis (a small shrub up to 1 m with four-angled stems, flowers pale-dusky- pink to red, with a yellow throat) and P. capensis ‘Coccineus’ (a form having rich red flowers, possibly no longer in commercial cultivation and not listed as a true cultivar). In the latest U.K. Plant Finder (Royal Horticultural Society, 2002), 27 taxa are listed as being offered by nurseries although trials at the Royal Horticultural Society Garden, Wisley, suggest that several are synonyms.

    The first recorded cross was

    Dierama: The Harebells of Africa©

    Author: Diane L. Rowe

    PP: 274


    To see a mass of Dierama prancing and bobbing in the breeze, or languidly leaning over a pool, staring at their own reflection on a still evening, is food for the soul. One becomes captivated — a slave to their every need (and there are many). They are among the prima donnas of the plant world and in the last few years have finally received some of the attention they deserve.

    Recommendations for Propagation and Cultivation of Agapanthus©

    Author: Richard Fulcher

    PP: 278


    The blue African lily, sometimes called lily of the Nile, was introduced to Europe from the Cape of South Africa in the 17th century. It was the evergreen, more tender species that were cultivated first, grown in containers and placed outside on the terrace from May onwards, or plunged into the flower beds for the duration of the summer and returned indoors for the winter. This gave the whole genus a reputation for being tender, or hardy only in the very warmest gardens near the sea. In fact it is in the warm coastal gardens of Britain where Agapanthus thrive and can be seen at their best from the Scilly Isles and Cornwall, to as far north on the west coast as Inverewe, the National Trust for Scotland’s garden in Wester Ross.

    During the 1970s, Agapanthus featured in garden trials conducted by the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) at Wisley, Surrey (Bond 1978), helped to promote wider interest in the genus. Today most garden centres will stock at least the commonly grown

    Notes From Four Visits to Japanese Nurseries©

    Author: Peter Waugh

    PP: 283


    On my first trip to Japan some 8 or 9 years ago I attended the second IPPS Japan regional conference. The New Zealand IPPS Region had sponsored Japan joining the IPPS in 1993.

    During the conference we visited Seagaia, a massive indoor tropical ocean park complete with white sand, surfable waves and young Japanese dressed in Hawaiian clothes. It was stunningly tropical; plants such as hibiscus, palms of all descriptions, and anthurriums filled the gardens. Further visits included a Mexican Cactus Garden. Members visiting Japan should include places such as these together with the Japanese Disneyland and historic temples and palaces — as well as the nurseries of course — to gain a full flavour of both historic and modern Japanese culture.

    The Japanese plant use is outstanding. One nursery we visited grew large 15 to 20 m trees, mainly conifers. These are grown in the ground for a number of years and sold for major developments 2 to 3 years in advance. Once the trees have been

    The Potential for Chilean Plants in Cultivation©

    Author: Martin F. Gardner

    PP: 285


    There is little doubt that the introduction of Chilean native plants has made an enormous contribution to British and Irish amenity horticulture. Although the collectors responsible for these introductions are well documented, the precise locations from where they made many of their collections, are very sketchy. The vast majority of plants were introduced during the early to mid part of the 19th century by William Lobb and Richard Pearce, who were employees of the celebrated nursery firm, Veitch and Sons. In the 1920s there was a revival of interest in Chilean plants when Harold Comber and Clarence Elliott made further notable introductions. Much of their collecting was carried out in the Valdivian Rainforests of southern central Chile and in the case of Harold Comber, the neighbouring forested and alpine regions of Argentina. The legacy left by these dedicated collectors has meant that gardeners throughout the world have been left with a rich and diverse range of Chilean

    Optimising Productivity in a Bedding Plant Nursery in South Africa©

    Author: Hans Sittig

    PP: 56


    Productivity is the ratio of output to input and the key determinant of value. Productivity is closely related to all the factors that influence value, quality, service, price, and so on.

    Productivity improvement increases value and the well being of an organisation. The effectiveness of an organisation as a whole determines its level of productivity.

    Exploring Chile for Plants with Cultivation Potential©

    Author: Sue Inkster

    PP: 291


    Working at Inverewe Garden for 6 years as propagator has given me experience of dealing with an extraordinary range of plants, a large number of which originate from the Southern Hemisphere. To develop my propagation skills I wanted to understand the environmental conditions some of these plants are adapted to and I planned an expedition to Chile to observe some of its native plants in their natural habitat. The expedition also offered the exciting prospect of discovering new taxa that could be grown at Inverewe, where the maritime climate favours many southern hemisphere plants.

    Chile is a ribbon of land situated between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes, approximately 180 km wide at its widest and 4,329 km long. It has a land area of 756,626 sq km of which 22 per cent is forested, 18.2% pasture and 5.7 % cultivated, the rest being ice, desert or mountains. The length and climatic variety of the country are reflected in the diversity of its flora. To gain a good measure of

    New Fertilisers for Herbaceous and Bedding Propagation©

    Author: Richard H. Williams

    PP: 293

    STIMUL-81 and PROPAG-82 are novel patent-pending fertilisers with biostimulant benefits and are in commercial use on a range of horticultural crops, including strawberries and chrysanthemums. In trials conducted over a 2-year period in crops of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa, botanically a herbaceous perennial) the fertilisers resulted in large and statistically significant (p<0.05) increases in the amount of rooting, plant biomass, and number of crowns by the end of the propagation phase compared with the control treatments using standard proprietary fertilisers. Trials were also conducted on a selection of ornamental herbaceous and bedding species during propagation, and these showed that across the seven species investigated, repeat applications of STIMUL-8 (both at 7-day and 10– to 14-day intervals) resulted in the following mean benefits over the equivalent N : P : K : S fertiliser control treatment: rooting: +13.7% (7-day); +11.9% (10–14 day); vigour: +6.7%; +7.1%; plant biomass: +7.0%; +7.9%; number of crowns or apical meristems: +18.0%; +23.6%; number of flower stems: +16.0%; +26.1%. Many of these results were statistically significant (p<0.05) for each attribute within each species.

    Species investigated: Viola (pansy), Helichrysum petiolare, Begonia F1 Hybrid ‘Nonstop Rose Petticoat’, Sedum spectabile, Geranium ×cantabrigiense ‘Cambridge’, Pelargonium ‘Red Mini Cascade’ and Plectranthus variegatus.

    Summary of Meeting in Scandinavian I.P.P.S.: Recruitment of Horticultural Growers and Propagators in Scandinavia©

    Author: Arne Skytt Andersen

    PP: 309

    The IPPS Scandinavia meeting in Malling, Denmark had as themes:
    1. The problems surrounding the recruitment of young people to the horticultural profession.
    2. Propagation media and new hormonal aids.

    For the first part a number of professionals from several organisations throughout the Scandinavian countries were invited as speakers as well as some of the young people who recently have been through the educational programmes learning to be employed in horticultural enterprises. That part of the meeting was thus not solely focused on the propagating field per se and it has, therefore, been decided by the board that the papers should not be translated in full since they mainly are addressing local problems. A comprehensive summary of the papers of the first session follows, while the papers of the second session will be published separately.

    Jesper Graves Pedersen from the vocational agricultural education committee in Denmark gave a clear overview of the educational programs for

    Plant Protection in Danish Nurseries©

    Author: Henrik Sivertsen

    PP: 313

    During the last 10 years a great number of changes have taken place within the plant protection sector. Previously the growers viewed plant protection as something one did routinely with chemicals when the crops needed it, i.e., when pests of any sort attacked the crops. Caution was exercised but often uncritically. Sprays were carried out as prophylactic measures and the question of real need for the treatments were not evaluated beforehand.

    Today both owners and workers in the nurseries and the consumers who buy the plants produced have become much more cognisant of the use and potential dangers of the chemical plant protection measures. It is undesirable that the chemicals are used uncritically; some even go as far as rejecting chemical plant protection entirely and support movements such as "organic horticulture" or at least reduced usage of dangerous chemicals. Dangerous, taken in its broadest sense, also includes the use of inorganic fertilizers and chemicals that may accumulate in

    Organic Substrates: Are They a Realistic Alternative?©

    Author: Kai Lønne Nielsen

    PP: 316

    Choice of growing medium and nutritional strategy are the greatest challenges when a grower considers changing to organic ornamental production. Potted plants need continued access to plant nutrients during their development. Thus, production routines allowing both functional input of nutrients before start of plant production and supplemental nutrition with water-soluble organic nutrients during production are needed. The first steps in making an organic potted plant production system possible could be to test the available and certified organic growing media on the market and integrating the know how on mycorrhiza, composting technology, and the use of nutrient buffers (e.g., Hansen and Nielsen, 1999; Jensen and Leth, 1998; Nielsen and Rasmussen, 2000). The aim should be to develop uniform, heterogeneous, and high quality organic substrates. At the same time water and nutrition technologies should be adapted to the special demands of an organic production, since organically bound
    Increased Cation Content in Recirculating Nutrient Solutions as a Means for Controlling Dissemination and Attack of Root Rot in Glasshouse Crops©

    Author: Brita Toppe

    PP: 318


    The use of recirculating nutrient solutions for irrigation and fertilization of greenhouse crops has been gaining importance for Scandinavian potted plant production. The systems utilize the "ebb-flood" principle and they are economically as well as environmentally advantageous, but they introduce a risk for spreading of root pathogens. Pathogenic soil-dwelling organisms, predominantly fungi can be disseminated with zoospores and cause infections in many greenhouse plants. Therefore alternative control measures are needed.

    Previous experiments have shown that infections by Phytophthora cryptogea in Gerbera jamesonii grown in ebb-flood systems could be reduced by increasing salt concentration (EC) in the water (Thinggaard and Andersen, 1995; Toppe and Thinggaard, 1998). Copper ions (Cu) are generally known to act as fungicides toward Phytophthora and the purpose of the experiments presented here was to examine the effects of different concentrations of Cu in the recirculating

    The Propagation of Spiranthes cernua, Ladies’ Tresses Orchid©

    Author: Rod R. Ackerman

    PP: 321


    Spiranthes cernua is a widely dispersed, but rarely seen terrestrial orchid whose range runs from Eastern North Dakota south to Texas and East to the Atlantic Ocean. They are most frequently found in damp meadows, road ditches, and near streams. Their preference is for nearly full to full sun as long as sufficient moisture and organic soils are available. In nature, Spiranthes are most often found in the fall as a single inflorescence in widely dispersed colonies. The inflorescence is up to 60 cm tall with the top half to third covered with up to 70 small, porcelain white, fragrant flowers.

    During most of the year, the plant is only 5 to 10 cm tall, stretching up to 25 cm under ideal conditions just before initiation of its terminal inflorescence. About this same time one to several buds (eyes) will begin to swell at the base of the plant, eventually forming next years plant(s). Under greenhouse conditions (probably in nature as well), S. cernua has the unusual ability to

    Scandinavia 2002, Observations from the Exchange Propagator©

    Author: Rod R. Ackerman

    PP: 323

    I would like to start by thanking the members of the Scandinavian Region and all of the other plants-persons that I had the fortunate opportunity to meet while traveling across Denmark. Their openness and willingness to share information was exemplary, as well as their hospitality to a foreign visitor.

    My first taste of horticulture in Denmark was obtained while walking through a residential area in Copenhagen, a chance to stretch the legs after a long flight. Knowing little of Denmark upon my arrival I was amazed by the small, but meticulous gardens kept by the residents of Copenhagen. Every yard was surrounded by a hedge (I later found out that the tradition had ancient roots, first used to control livestock, later a law to mark property lines, and now an everyday tradition), past the hedges you would expect to see lawn/grass, maybe a few shrubs, but instead a wealth of plant material was found, only in the largest of "yards" could you find grass. If there wasn’t room for a garden,

    An Overview of Studies on Plant Chimeras: Progress in the Development of New Chimerical Plants©

    Author: Takumi Wakizuka

    PP: 329

    Plant chimeras were first noted in the middle of the 19th century. These unusual plants appeared by chance in gardens from grafted fruit trees and ornamental trees. The "Bizzarria" orange, [Citrus ‘Bizzarria’ (C. sinensis + C. unshiu)], a chimera between the citron and the sour orange, and "Adam’s laburnum", (+ Laburnocytisus), a chimera between a laburnum and a broom, are historically famous. In the early 20th century, H. Winkler, a German botanist, created a new plant that was composed of two genetically different tissues &mdash the tomato and the nightshade. He named it "chimera" from Greek mythology, according to which, the word "chimaera" describes a creature that is a combination of the lion, the goat, and the dragon. Until recently, various plant chimeras were created with experimental species of herbaceous plants, i.e., from the family Solanaceae, to produce new composites with the desirable characteristics of both plants for the purpose of studying chimerical structures.

    In recent years,

    Micropropagation of Daimonjiso (Saxifraga fortunei var. incisolobata)©

    Author: Yoshinori Ochi

    PP: 330


    Daimonjiso [Saxifraga fortunei Hook. var. incisolobata (Engl. et Irmsch.) Nakai] (Saxifragaceae) is a perennial herb native to northeast China, Korean peninsula, and Japan. It has numerous cultivars two of which are ‘Urabeni-Daimonjiso’ and ‘Miyama-Daimonjiso’. There are several related species, including echizen-daimonjiso (S. acerifolia Wakabayashi et Satomi), izunosima-daimonjiso (S. fortunei var. crassifolia), yakushima-daimonjiso (S. fortunei f. minima), and kaede-daimonjiso (S. fortunei var. suwoensis).

    Manipulation of Flowering in Clivia©

    Author: P.J. Robbertse

    PP: 57


    The genus Clivia Lindl. belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae and comprises four species, all endemic to Southern Africa. Three of the species, C. caulescens R. A. Deyer, C. gardenii Hook., and C. nobilis Lindl. have tubular, pendulous flowers, while C. miniata Lindl. Regel have erect, trumpet-like flowers. The latter species is the most widely cultivated as a garden or pot plant and is, therefore, also the most researched of the four species. In this talk I will concentrate on the flowering of C. miniata.

    The flowering period of C. miniata is in early spring and under South African conditions peaks in August–September although it is possible to manipulate the flowering period to some extent by regulating the growing temperature (Mori and Sakanishi, 1974; De Smedt et al., 1996; Honball, 2001) and lighting (Vissers and Haleydt, 1994). Before attempting to manipulate flowering in any plant, however, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the growth model of the

    The Cytokinin Preference for Immature Embryo Culture of Some Terrestrial Orchids©

    Author: Masanori Tomita

    PP: 331

    Cytokinin preference and optimum levels were investigated for in vitro germination and protocorm growth of both Cypripedium macranthos and Dactylorhiza aristata on ½-strength Norstog medium. Cytokinins, BA, and zeatin, in low concentrations enhanced germination and protocorm growth in comparison to control without cytokinins. Kinetin did not enhance germination.
    Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on in Vitro Propagation of Trifoliate Orange?

    Author: Ram Chandra Bhusal, Fusao Mizutani, Hiroaki Ohashi, Kipkoriony L

    PP: 335

    The rate of shoot multiplication and rooting capacity in the course of subculture and the effects of auxin and cytokinin combinations on shoot proliferation and rooting in vitro were determined by using trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata [L] Raf.). Shoot development was high in second, third, and fourth generations, and gradually decreased after the fifth generation. The rooting percentage was highest in the second generation after 30 days of culture. Rooting gradually decreased from the third generation shoots and there was no rooting in the sixth generation shoots. Shoot and root number and length were higher in the second and third generations. Shoot number, shoot length, and callus formation were increased by BA, but BA did not induce rooting. For root and shoot development, the group of treatments where IAA or NAA was used alone or IBA and IAA were used in combinations gave the best results among the various groups.
    Somatic Embryos Produced From Aseptic Seedlings of Wild Cyclamen Species©

    Author: Kazumi Furukawa, Fumika Kakihara, Masahiro Kato

    PP: 341

    Somatic embryos were produced using aseptic seedlings of wild Cyclamen species. The seeds of 18 wild Cyclamen species were cultured in the dark at 15 to 20°C until germination, and then maintained under a 16/8-light/dark photoperiod at 24°C. Modified Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 30 g · liter-1 sucrose and 3.0 g · liter-1 Gellan gum was used for culture of aseptic seedlings. The seeds of C. balearicum, C. creticum, C. intaminatum, and C. repandum did not germinate. Aseptic seedlings were obtained from 14 Cyclamen species: C. africanum, C. cilicium, C. coum, C. cyprium, C. graecum, C. hederifolium f. album, C. libanoticum, C. mirabile, C. parviflorum, C. persicum, C. pseudibericum, C. purpurascens, C. rohlfsianum, and C. trochopteranthum. Sectioned petioles and leaves from the seedlings were inoculated on two types of induction media. The induction was carried out in the dark at 24°C. Among the 14 species, only C. creticum, C. libanoticum, and C. parviflorum did not produce
    Breeding Diploid New Variety from Tetraploid Cyclamen persicum Victoria Through Anther Culture©

    Author: Noritoshi Fuwa, Keiko Ohkawa-Takahashi, Atsushi Kuboki, Yoshihir

    PP: 343

    Recently in Japan market demand for cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum) has shown a preference for plants in small pots (under 12 cm) over large (over 18 cm) pots.

    In cyclamen, most of the fl ower characteristics such as bicolor, stripe, and fringe are restricted to tetraploid cultivars. Currently, the suitable cultivars for small-pot production are not tetraploids but diploids because of plant size. In addition, it is reported that the cross between tetraploid and diploid forms is very difficult in Cyclamen; even if it is successful at setting seeds, all of them are triploid. We have confirmed this by our experience and hybridization tests also.

    Since 1994, we, Snow Brand Seed, have been breeding and developing micropropagation techniques for Cyclamen. We use anther culture in Cyclamen breeding, especially to produce diploid from tetraploid cultivars such as ‘Victoria’. In addition, we are breeding F1 cultivars using such diploids. Here, we illustrate two diploid clonal cultivars which we

    Synthesis and Utilization of in Vitro Artificially Synthesized Chimeras©

    Author: Gloria T. Nozawa, Yutaka Hirata

    PP: 346


    A plant chimera consists of atleast two genotypes in the same meristem, organ, or tissues in one plant. In the past, chimeras were used mainly for ornamental plants such as variegations (chlorophyll chimera) that were induced by natural and artificial mutations (Tilney-Basett, 1986).

    Plant chimera utilization and research is a very old but innovative field. The idea to combining different cells, tissues, and organs is very mysterious and especially creative thought. In 1907, Winkler developed a graft-chimera using black nightshade and tomato (Winkler, 1907), obtaining "Burdo", a graft hybrid. However, application for breeding has not been performed although chimeras have been used for morphogenetical studies.

    Little is known about potential graft-induced genetic change or gene transfer that occurs in graft chimeras. In our studies to examine the mechanism of interaction between different cells and tissues, Winkler’s graft method (Winkler, 1907) was applied to obtain Brassica

    Characters of Melastoma tetramerum and the Differences Between the Two Lines©

    Author: Hiroaki Ohashi, Toshihiko Yuasa

    PP: 354


    Melastoma tetramerum Hayata is endemic species of Chichi-jima Island included in Ogasawara Islands. This species is ranked in the category of Critically Endangered in Threatened Wildlife of Japan, Vascular Plants (2000) with native plants remaining only at Higashi-daira area (1 plant) and Higashi-kaigan area (40 to 50 plants). We think that ornamental use is one of the means for increasing the number of individuals under culture and investigated these potential characters of M. tetramerum and related species (including cultivars) classified to Melastoma, Osbeckia, and Tibouchiana.

    Prominent Characters of Melastoma tetramerum and Related Species. When considering leaf length and length/width values of leaves, T. urvilleana showed the largest value, O. nepalensis ‘Himalayan Opal’ showed the smallest value, and M. tetramerum occupied the middle position between the previous species. With flowering time, M. candidum var. alessandrense was earliest (May– June), T. ‘Côte d’Azur’ was

    New Functional Photo-selective Sheets: N.S. Blue and N.S. Red©

    Author: Yasuo Kamuro, Takafumi Tohyama, Katsumi Okabe

    PP: 356

    In Japan, day length is longer than 12 h during the summer season, and shorter than 12 h during winter season. There are larger differences in high latitudes. This seasonal alteration of day length is accompanied by the ratio of the three spectral regions of sunlight that are effective for photosynthesis. The ratio of red light reaches the maximum at the winter solstice day and reaches the minimum at the summer solstice day. On the other hand, the ratio of blue light reaches the maximum at the summer solstice day. The ratio of green light is unchanged throughout the year. So, the red/blue ratio exhibits a characteristic pattern throughout the year (Fig. 1) (Tohyama et al., 2001).

    We presumed that plant morphogenesis is affected by the seasonal change of the red/blue ratio and manufactured two types of new functional photo-selective sheets. The name of one type is N.S. Blue reduces the ratio, and the other is N.S. Red that enhances the ratio. Many different types of plants were covered

    Designing a Brand-New Agriculture: Producing Consistent Quality Vegetable Seedlings©

    Author: Naoko Nagai, Kazuhiko Yamaguchi

    PP: 357

    Yamaguchi-Engei Co. Ltd. was established in 1996 and our main product line, vegetable seedlings, is increased by market requirements. Last year, Yamaguchi- Eengei established a new company, named BERG-EARTH. This company’s main purpose is to find new markets and to develop new products.

    Currently, these two companies are developing together — trying to develop a stable product system of quality vegetable seedlings. Current production systems for vegetable seedlings have many production problems including: difficult to propagation cultivars, expensive human labor, it can be affected by weather and season, it is affected by disease and insect pests, and physical impediment. Because of the many problems associated with current production systems, we have tried to introduce new technology at every production step to improve the total production system and develop a stable production system.

    The Changing Greenhouse Environment During the Seasons for Grafted Vegetable Nursery Plants©

    Author: Shinya Kawaguchi, Kazuhiko Yamaguchi

    PP: 360


    At Yamaguchi-Engei grafted vegetable nursery plants [e.g., cucumber (Cucumis sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon), eggplant (Solanum melongena), etc.] are produced and sold all year. Berg Earth Co. Ltd. supports Yamaguchi-Engei Co. Ltd. with research and development. It is very difficult to maintain nursery-plant quality through the year because environmental factors, such as air temperature, humidity, and light, change with the season and weather. To solve these problems we use heaters, shield-curtains, and plastic tunnels to control the environment in greenhouses. The object of this study was to investigate the environmental changes during the seasons and to improve culture techniques for each season.


    PP: 367


    The 1st Combined Meeting of the International Plant Propagators’ Society Eastern Region and Southern Region of North America convened at 8:00 AM at the Marriott Hunt Valley Inn, Baltimore, Maryland, with Eastern Region President Dick Bir and Southern Region of North America Stewart Chandler presiding.

    Mulch a Growth Control Mechanism©

    Author: Gail Andrews

    PP: 63


    Mulch creates distinctive microclimates. Understanding these aspects enables us to use mulch as a growth control mechanism. A historical account by Jacks et al. (1955) notes that the practice of mulching is as old as agriculture itself. The English word mulch, which has been used as a noun since the 17th century, and is probably, derived from the German vernacular molsch, meaning soft, beginning to decay. This no doubt referred to a mixture of wet straw, leaves, and lose earth spread on top of the ground to protect the roots of newly planted trees and shrubs. Since 1802 the practice of spreading mulch on the soil has been referred to in English as mulching. Flint’s (1928) definition of a mulch as " an artificial modification of the soil surface " is not a good one as this could also refer to a tillage operation and erosion by man made processes. Phillips and Phillips (1984) defined mulch as any material on the soil surface through which a continuous liquid water film from the

    History and Impact of the US Government in New Plant Research©

    Author: R.J. Griesbach

    PP: 368

    The Commissioner of Patents, Henry Ellsworth, secured funds in 1839 from Congress to establish an Agricultural Division in the Patent Office for the free distribution of seeds and cuttings, prosecuting agricultural investigations, and the collection of agricultural statistics (Eisenhower and Chew, 1930; Moore, 1968). Additional funds were obtained in 1856 to construct the U.S. Propagation Garden on 5 acres of land on the corner of Sixth Street and Missouri Avenue in the District of Columbia. The Agricultural Division of the Patent Office was very successful importing and distributing improved cultivars from all over the world. However by 1860, complaints were being raised that the plant material being distributed was not being tested for either diseases or growing conditions within the U.S.A. Inadvertently, new diseases and pests were also introduced. In addition, the information being disseminated was neither tested for accuracy or based upon experimentation. Many influential farmers
    A Grower’s Perspective on Plants, Profitability and Propagation©

    Author: R. Denny Blew

    PP: 372


    "Good morning, Centerton Nursery. Yes, ma’am. Dead? We just shipped them to you this morning: they haven’t had time to die! Well, what seems to be the problem? Undersized? How small are they? Oh, you don’t have a microscope that powerful. Yes that was a good funny. Look, here’s what you do … Go get yourself some 36N-12P-17K, mix it up to 142 ppm, spray it on them three times a day for 6 to 8 weeks. Yep. Size ‘em right up. I’m sorry, I didn’t catch that … the other plants? … you’re pleased? Oh, they’re diseased. Well, you know, we in this industry can’t expect everything to be perfect. Why not? Uh, well, if everything was perfect then you wouldn’t have anything to complain about; you couldn’t vent your anger; that wouldn’t be healthy, now, would it? Look, here’s what to do … Grab any of the half dozen fungicides you have on the shelf, mix them up into a cocktail, apply it twice a week for 2 weeks … clean ‘em right up. What’s that? Would we take them back? You are a

    HRI: Your Research Dollars At Work©

    Author: James Berry

    PP: 377


    Given the topic of my presentation this morning and the composition of this audience, I feel a little bit like Elizabeth Taylor’s eighth husband on their wedding night: "The challenge has little to do with what’s new, and a lot to do with making what’s old, more interesting!"

    I asked the Horticulture Research Institute’s (HRI) staff to give me some background information about the institution that, if not particularly interesting, would at least be new to most of you.

    • The HRI is an important industry organization to all of us in this room.
    • It is an organization to which some of you have donated substantial amounts of personal and company money.
    • It is an organization that has been the recipient of noteworthy sums of money donated from 20 state and regional industry organizations, of which many of you are members.
    • It is also an organization that has dispensed several millions of dollars to the industry research community, including some of you in this room.
    Improving Vegetative Propagation Techniques of Sweet Fern (Comptonia peregrina)©

    Author: Stacy L. Ruchala, Donglin Zhang, William Mitchell, Jianhua Li

    PP: 381


    With increased interest in growing and selling native plants (Dreyer, 1993; Niemeyer, 2000) and the need to find native alternatives to non-native species being used in landscaping and restoration work (Maine Department of Conservation, 2001; Reichard and White 2001), comes the need for updated information on propagation techniques for native plants. While sweet fern, Comptonia peregrina (L.) J.M. Coulter., is not a challenging plant to propagate, new information is needed for growers, particularly in the north, to find optimum propagation conditions and take advantage of short growing seasons.

    Sweet fern is a low-growing shrub native to eastern North America. Its bright, glossy green, aromatic foliage turns deep red in the fall. Growing from 2 to 4 feet, it is an ideal groundcover for gardens, parking lots, and naturalized areas. In addition, it can be used in erosion control along roadsides and in disturbed areas (Zak and Bredakis, 1967). In fact, it favors poor, sandy

    Cotton Gin Compost as an Alternative Substrate for Propagation1

    Author: David M. Cole, Jeff L. Sibley, Eugene K. Blythe, D. Joseph Eakes

    PP: 388

    Selection of substrates for use in propagation is often based on cost, availability, ease of handling, and reproducibility. Peat (P) and pine bark (PB) are common substrate components for propagators in the Southeastern United States. Availability and cost of P and PB can be inconsistent or unpredictable with forecast for restrictions on future supply of these materials. Cotton gin compost (CGC) is readily available in the Southeastern U.S.A. and may hold potential as a substrate substitute or extender suitable for propagation. In May of 2002, cuttings of Solenostemon ‘Defiance’, Lagerstroemia ‘Natchez’, and Nandina domestica ‘Atropurpurea Nana’ were stuck in six substrate blends. Cuttings were evaluated for root initiation and development. In all three species, cuttings rooted in CGC and perlite ( 1 : 1, v/v) were equal to or greater than those that were stuck in an industry standard peat and perlite (1 : 1, v/v) substrate in all categories of root evaluation. CGC could be used as a substrate and substitute for peat in the propagation of coleus, crapemyrtle, and dwarf nandina.
    Evaluation of an Alternative Method of Rooting Hormone Application in Cutting Propagation

    Author: Eugene K. Blythe, Jeff L. Sibley, Ken M. Tilt, John M. Ruter

    PP: 393

    Trials were conducted to determine whether a foliar spray application of the auxins indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) as a dilution of Dip ‘N Grow® rooting hormone would be as effective as a basal quick-dip application, which is the standard industry practice for rooting cuttings. Terminal cuttings of Ajania pacifica (syn. Chrysanthemum pacificum and Dendranthema pacificum), two-node cuttings of Forsythia ×intermedia ‘Lynwood’, and singlenode cuttings of Rosa ‘Red Cascade’ were dipped for 1 sec in a solution of 1000 ppm IBA + 500 ppm NAA or sprayed to the drip point with IBA + NAA concentrations of 0 + 0, 0.5 + 0.25, 1.0 + 0.5, 2.5 + 1.25, 5.0 + 2.5, 10.0 + 5.0, or 50.0 + 25.0 ppm, respectively. A foliar spray application of 50 ppm IBA + 25 ppm NAA after sticking was as effective as the basal quick-dip for cuttings of A. pacifica, while other spray treatments were less effective. Cuttings of Forsythia rooted well using a basal quick-dip, however subsequent shoot
    Propagation of Ornamental Grasses in Liners©

    Author: Ron Strasko

    PP: 400

    We are propagators of cell pack liners that we ship to other growers. Therefore, I will be speaking about propagation of small liner-sized material. We produce grass liners three different ways; division, seed, and cuttings (Table 1.).
    Small Batch Seed Propagation of Various Pinus Species©

    Author: Steven D. Kirk, Mark V. Coggeshall

    PP: 402


    Work on this project began in 1996. The focus of this research is centered on establishing a "pine straw" (pine needle mulch) industry in Missouri. Pine straw, an excellent mulching material used extensively in the southern United States in the landscape industry, is not widely used in the Midwest. Many sites in Missouri are capable of growing pines for commercial pine straw production if suitable species are identified. The University of Missouri Dept. of Horticulture and the Center for Agroforestry are currently investigating the feasibility of establishing a pine-straw industry in the state of Missouri. Impedance for this protocol arose from this researcher.

    The focus of this project has been to test various Pinus species for hardiness, vigor, and suitability for producing pine straw. Seed of a variety of native, exotic, and hybrid Pinus species have been acquired for testing. Because of the nature of this research, only small quantities of seed were propagated at one

    A Grower’s Solution to Nutrient and Water Management©

    Author: Ed Overdevest

    PP: 406

    All of us in the nursery industry have become acutely aware of the importance of water and nutrient management. Whether because of regulatory pressure, environmental concern, liability risks, or drought restrictions, this matter is coming at us from a variety of fronts.

    In 1993, with the expansion of our container operation to a new location, we had a sense of these looming issues from our own experiences and those of nurseries in other states. We had a decision to make: ignore the problem, which was the standard practice at the time, or try to deal with it up front. As is our preference, we decided to be proactive so that we could deal with this issue on our own terms and timing.

    With design assistance from the Natural Resource Conservation Service we installed a "tailwater recovery" system. Since most of the land at this new location drains to one point before passing offsite, only one recovery pond was necessary to serve our needs.

    During the excavation phase, we were careful to

    Use of Waste and Compost in Propagation: Challenges and Constraints©

    Author: Calvin Chong

    PP: 410


    Organic wastes and composts have been gaining support for use as amendments in potting substrates (Chong, 1999a; Shiralipour et al., 1994; Warman and Taylor, 2000), but there has been little or no examination of these materials for use in propagation. This presentation compares the characteristics of selected wastes and composts and highlights the challenges and constraints in relationship to their potential for use in propagation.

    Buckawayo Research Project©

    Author: Steve Trollip

    PP: 71


    In August 1998 I planted my very first cycad in the ground at Buckawayo. With this very first planting I had assumed a very major responsibility towards the conservation of cycads. My aims with this venture were fourfold:

    Firstly the totally hedonistic experience, cycads give me lots of pleasure.

    Secondly, the very important job of trying to become involved with the conservation of cycads.

    Thirdly this facility would be available for the training of University and Technikon students in the conservation and cultivation of cycads.

    Lastly the venture would not succeed if the commercial aspect were not part of the entire conservation ethic.

    Propagating Hydrangeas Year-Round©

    Author: Michael P. Corbett

    PP: 415


    Hydrangea arborescens, H. macrophylla, H. paniculata, H. quercifolia, and H. serrata are rooted at Zelenka Michigan Division as both hardwood and softwood cuttings. I will be sharing the timing and techniques used in this paper. We have two main focuses, one is to provide grade-spec liners that achieve or improve propagation yields. The other focus is to meet potting schedules for our container-grown program at different potting times throughout the year.

    Forcing Epicormic Sprouts on Branch Segments of Adult Hardwoods for Softwood Cuttings©

    Author: J.W. Van Sambeek, John E. Preece, Mark V. Coggeshall

    PP: 417

    Branch segments cut from basal limbs of transitional or adult hardwood trees were forced in the greenhouse to initiate shoot growth from latent buds for the production of softwood cuttings. Forcing in February, March, and April produced 10 to 15 visible buds or elongating shoots per meter of branch wood, which was more than twice the number during any other month. On average from January through August, two to four shoots per meter of branch wood exceeded 4 cm in length and could be harvested as softwood or greenwood cuttings. During this period, the red and white oaks, white ash, and honeylocust yielded more sprouts than did black walnut, several walnut hybrids, hickory, pecan, and chestnut. Sugar maple was the least productive of the twelve hardwood species evaluated. Number of sprouts declined with increasing age of the trees. Manually watering trays daily or maintaining trays under intermittent mist throughout the day yielded more sprouts than continuous mist for 30 min each day or use of humidity domes. All four moisture regimes resulted in the production of more shoots than treatments with continuous bottom flooding.
    Micropropagation of Trillium Species©

    Author: Sherry Kitto

    PP: 425


    I work on native herbaceous perennials that I believe are garden worthy. Garden worthy, for me, describes a plant that is easy to establish and maintain in a garden. I think trilliums are garden worthy. Based on personal experience with trilliums in my own garden, I think of trilliums as being very forgiving garden plants as they are easy to establish, easy to maintain, and are tolerant of neglect. Most of the trilliums that are presently on the market do not begin to tap the available diversity in foliage variation, flower color, flower form, or plant form found in the genus or the individual species. There is an abundance of variation present in Trillium discolor leaf variegation (Fig. 1) and in T. grandiflorum flower form (Fig. 2) and color (Fig. 3). This is one reason why I decided to work with trilliums a few years ago. I am interested in being able to develop micropropagation protocols so that superior trilliums can be made generally available. Tissue culture of

    Developing Techniques to Produce Native Warm and Cool Season Grasses and Forbs in Missouri©

    Author: Nadia Navarrete-Tindall, Becky Erickson

    PP: 429


    There is a vast source of native plants in prairies and other natural areas with landscaping potential that could be planted for beautification in backyards, land restoration projects, and roadsides. Native plants maintain biological diversity necessary to provide food and cover for wildlife. Diversity also increases tolerance to diseases, pests, and climate extremes.

    Interest in including native plants in landscaping has increased during the last decade (Diboll, 1997); however, commercially available prairie mixes usually include wildflowers and warm-season grasses. Very few include native cool-season grasses. Ideally, a prairie seed mix should contain both cool- and warm-season grasses for soil protection and to provide adequate conditions for biological activity throughout the year. Also the addition of native cool-season grasses to a selected seed mix would extend the planting period of seed mixes from fall to spring (Shirley 1994).

    Some warm-season grasses recommended

    Ground Cover Production on Plastic Mulch©

    Author: Ross Elsberry, Hugh Gramling

    PP: 435


    Sometimes you run across a good idea and just have to take advantage of it. That is what we have done to get a very efficient system to rapidly produce groundcover plants in the Florida climate. During the 1950s, the University of Florida developed a system at its Bradenton Gulf Coast Research Center to grow vegetables in Florida’s sandy soils. This system concentrates fertilizer, holds moisture, and minimizes weed growth, plus it allows the grower to mechanize many functions. It is known as the plastic mulch system.

    The soils in central Florida often are sandy and devoid of organic matter. In fact, when people see our soils, they want to know how we grow a crop in "that stuff." With that in mind, producers grow in an environment that mimics hydroponics. All the nutritional elements are added at some time during the process.

    Grafting Versus Rooting of Fruit and Flowering Trees©

    Author: Carl Sherman

    PP: 439


    The progress in plant improvement would have been of little significance without the process of invention and development of plant propagation techniques (Hartmann et al., 2002). It is our challenge to seek and learn new techniques for propagation of plants.

    Chestnut Hill Tree Farm propagates its own plants for nursery production. We currently propagate seedlings, rooted cuttings, as well as graft many fruit and flowering trees. We have trialed and developed many new cultivars of flowering and fruit trees for the low chill environment of the U.S. Gulf Coast and southeast Atlantic Coast. We have tried propagating many different species. Some examples are chestnuts, persimmon, live oak, and magnolia. Sometimes there have been established methods but in most cases we have tried many different methods.

    The Feasibility of Utilizing Tobacco Greenhouses Propagation Facilities for Ornamental Plants©

    Author: Gregory K. Eaton

    PP: 440


    Cash receipts for tobacco statewide have decreased from $190.8 million in 1997 to $132.1 million in 2000, and fallen in percentage of all agricultural commodities in Virginia from 8% to 6% over the same period. During the same period from 1997 to 2000, cash receipts for greenhouse, nursery, and forest products in Virginia have increased from $160.2 million to $179.4 million and increased as a percentage of all commodities from 7% to 8%. Consequently, ornamental horticultural crops have displaced tobacco as the most valuable cash crop in Virginia, accounting for 24.5% of all crop cash receipts, compared to 18% for tobacco in 2000 (VASS, 2000).

    Farmers in southern Virginia are highly dependent on tobacco income, which accounted for nearly 90% of total value of agricultural production in 1996 (Gale et al., 1997). It would be desirable to establish supplemental and/or alternative agricultural opportunities that would keep Virginia family farms in operation, allowing them to

    Rooting of Pittosporum tobira ‘Variegata’ Cuttings as Influenced by Pre-Plant Treatments of Contrast (Flutalonil) and Post-Plant Fungicide Treatment Combinations©

    Author: Brian Savage, Jim Newman

    PP: 444


    The effective control of fungal pathogens begins with early preventive measures ensuring disease-free propagating materials. This investigation sought to examine differences in percentage rooting of Pittosporum tobira ‘Variegata’ within a block of Contrast pre-plant treated (minimum of 24 h prior to cutting) cuttings and nontreated cuttings. Additionally, six various post-plant fungicide treatment combinations were periodically applied to pre-plant treated and nontreated cuttings. Treatments were laid out in a randomized split-block design.

    Propagation of Quercus virginiana by Cuttings©

    Author: Brent Reeves

    PP: 448


    Live oak, Quercus virginiana, is an important ornamental tree in the southeastern United States. They are used extensively along the U.S. Gulf Coast and East Coast, and as far north as the outer banks of North Carolina.

    Due to the great variability in growth habits of individual seedling trees, clonal selections are needed for nurseries and the urban landscape. Selections need to be made for trees that have a strong central leader, dense growth, dark green foliage, evergreen foliage, and growth habits suitable for the urban forest.

    Air Layering: A Rooting Alternative©

    Author: Bob Byrnes

    PP: 450


    Air layering is an old method of vegetatively propagating plants that is seldom taught in schools today. This method receives little or no mention in newer propagation manuals and, other than in south Florida where it is used for ficus propagation, it does not seem to be widely used for any major commercial ornamental plant production. During the past 20 years, Trail Ridge Nursery has used air layering as the method of choice for Magnolia grandiflora propagation. Air layering is also used to propagate other "difficult to root" plants. Under certain circumstances the procedure deserves more consideration as an alternative to cutting propagation under mist.