Volume 61

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Nursery Costing: The ?Easy? Way©

Author: Luise Ehrich

PP: 43

Costing in the nursery industry is a powerful tool to identify the potential profitability of your business. But is it possible to cost each and every one of your product lines down to the last cent? The recording of production activities by the staff on a specific crop during cultivation up to its sale can specify at least a large portion of this crop?s cost. But how to grasp the more difficult-to-determine expenses of a product, such as the running of an administration office, plant protection, or water management/irrigation? Different approaches to this topic are presented as well as the methods used to record production activities using Microsoft Access at New Plant Nursery, situated in George, in the Southern Cape, South Africa. The conclusion remains: product line specific costing involves considerable administrative effort, but is a non-regrettable exercise for every grower to be aware of where profitability begins and ends.
Mother-Stock Management and Control©

Author: Hans Hettasch

PP: 49


At Arnelia we are dealing with a plant that is not that easy to root and that needs special attention to give us the desired results. Growing the vegetative material that is used for cutting production under more controlled circumstances can contribute to improved results. The level of extra effort that you put into your stock plants depends on what outcome is expected. Cutting production from mother-stock does not have to be limited to plants that are difficult to propagate but can also be a tool to get even better rooting percentages, to help schedule cutting production according to your timing requirements, both for an onward production point of view as well as a space point of view (staggered/spread production).

An Overview of the Seedling Growers Association of South Africa Certification Scheme©

Author: Mike Kruger

PP: 52


The Seedling Growers Association of South Africa (SGASA) was started in 1981. This year marks the 30th year for the association. The association is ruled by a code of ethics which can be viewed on our web (). Most of the members’ fees are used for research.

Membership is from most commercial forestry and vegetable seedling nurseries and includes active membership of the larger forestry and seed companies. The committee is run by elected members with a permanent Operations Director Viv Quin. This year our elected Chairperson is Shaun Biggs of Sutherland Seedlings. Each Chairman is allowed to stand for 2 years. Our research coordinator is Damien Naidoo of Sappi Research at Tweedie, KwaZulu-Nata. The Finances are monitored by Ken Leisegang. The financial standing of the association is excellent.

The association produces a magazine "The Leaflet" and runs a website (). Both of these are edited by Mike Kruger.

Nursery Certification©

Author: Marius Langenhoven

PP: 55

Why Certify?
  1. As a means to gain market access.
  2. As a tool to promoting a professional industry.
  3. As a management tool.
  4. To level the playing field in the industry.

Source of Pressure for Certification.

Growing Media: What You Need to Know©

Author: Kevin Handreck

PP: 59


You don?t need to know much about the growing medium you use in your nursery. All you need is a technically competent supplier. Leave it all to them, provide a bit of water, and your plants will do the rest.

I can see that you don’t really believe me; I don?t believe this myself, but I insist that it is important that your media supplier is technically competent. They must have an ability to produce media of consistent quality. And they must have the abil?ity to sort out technical problems should they arise.

A technically competent supplier will be able to suggest a suitable medium for your particular plants in your particular environment. But you need to be able to assess their recommendations and you need to be able to discuss with them possible modifications, based on your past experience. In other words, choosing a growing medium for your plants must be based on a dialog with your supplier, the end result of which is a medium that will consistently perform well.

Cutting Through the Fluff©

Author: Charles Parkerson

PP: 62


I like, no I really love, one liners?such as:

  • "If it ain’t broke?don’t fix it" (Unknown Author)
  • "That’s no deal" ((Nurseryman John Machen)
  • "If you don’t add value?then it’s waste" (Henry Ford)
  • "You haven’t made a dime?till you sell number 12 of a dozen" (JC Penney)
  • "We don’t want to bake any birthday cakes" (Charlie Parkerson)

I use a multitude of one liners every day while conversing with my co-workers and family.

Nursery Footprint — A Carbon Footprinting Tool for the Australian Nursery and Garden Industry©

Author: Anthony G. Kachenko and David Putland

PP: 64

Carbon footprint is a term used to describe the total amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions generated by a business or product. The term is often discussed in conjunction with climate change and variability and is also increasingly being used by consumers to identify more environmentally friendly products. During 2009, Nursery & Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) commissioned Growcom to develop a carbon footprinting tool for the Australian nursery and garden industry. Growcom developed a stand alone, easy to use calculator called NurseryFootprint that was officially launched at the NGIA National Conference in Darwin, 19–22 April 2010. This paper describes the calculator and its application in context with the Australian nursery industry.
What?s Wrong With My Plant?©

Author: Jim Johnson

PP: 70

As an agricultural agent (crop advisor) I am called on to provide a quick and accurate diagnosis of many types of plant problems. This is a review of basic diagnostic protocols that I use to help me determine what the problem is and why it may have occurred. I believe that a diagnosis is only as good as what one learns from it. Knowing "why" the problem occurred is important since it helps avoid or manage future problems.

Scouting nurseries and landscapes on a regular basis is the best way to catch problems early. Infestations, infections, and physiological problems can be controlled more effectively and with less environmental impact when caught early. Look for off-color foliage, areas of reduced growth, wilting, leaf damage, and weeping. If there is a problem with the foliage, be sure to check both sides of the leaves. If the problem is in the roots, be able to determine what a good and a bad root looks like on the plant in question.

New Pots and Procedures for Propagating Landscape Trees©

Author: Peter Lawton

PP: 76


We can be proud of many landscape tree outcomes, but there are some alarming tree failures in our parks and streets that are costing us millions. Up to six parties are responsible for landscape tree outcomes: the designer, propagator, grower, planter, waterer, and maintenance crew. Too often the grower alone is held to account for any problems.

We are fortunate to have so many excellent participants, but there are weak links in the chain of responsibility. These weak links are exacerbated by price competition in the absence of adequate quality standards.

I noticed the first dead eucalypt in a nearby park early in 2010, about 7 years after it had been planted. I happened to walk past as the contractor was removing it, so asked to have it to take home. "No problem mate! There are plenty more like that. " So I threw it over my shoulder and took it home to dissect. The cross section view of the root ball showed a girdling root that has strangled the tap root.

Propagation Media: Don?t Forget What Is Not Easily Seen©

Author: Kevin Handreck

PP: 83


There are two parts to this talk. The first is about cutting media and the second is about media for seedling production. Within each, I concentrate on physical properties and a few aspects of nutrition. I take it for granted that your media are free from plant pathogens and that your hygiene practices are excellent.


Physical Properties. Root production by cuttings requires that the cuttings remain turgid. Any wilting decreases rooting percentage. Turgidity is maintained in part with water from the medium itself and in part from humidity in the air.

It really does not matter what you use to make cutting media, so long as the physical properties are what your cuttings need in your environment.

Brachychiton Breeding: A Propagator’s Journey ©

Author: Des Boorman

PP: 86


I started collecting Brachychiton in the early to mid 1990s. I had seen flowering Brachychiton bidwillii Hook. while at university and had grown several from seed while working at nurseries in Cairns, Queensland. A mate, Anton Van der Schans, is a plant collector and landscape architect who collected several species off Cape York on various trips including B. garrawayae (Bailey) Guymer, B. velutinosus Kostermans, and B. grandiflorus Guymer. These flowered and grafted readily. Grafted B. velutinosus were planted into landscapes and flowered and performed well. The spectacular and regular flowering of the tropical species inspired me to start a breeding program. I knew B. bidwillii was a precocious, prolific, regular flowerer with a compact habit which would make it ideal as a parent to reduce the size of the tropical tree species.

Vegetative Propagation of Quercus robur©

Author: Nathan Carter

PP: 89


In Australia since the mid 1990s there has been a rapidly developing French black truffle growing industry. Truffles are the fruiting body of a mycorrhizal fungus that lives in a symbiotic relationship with the roots of oak trees (Quercus).

About the Propagator. Nathan Carter is the director of Trufficulture Pty Ltd. Trufficulture is a family business operating in Gembrook, Victoria. The primary business for the company is propagating oak seedlings and inoculating these with the French black truffle. Infection usually takes 12 to 18 months and after this the trees are ready for planting out.

Water Management in Propagation©

Author: Paul Fisher

PP: 97

For many plant nurseries, water restrictions are impacting both our landscape customers and also production. Limited access to high quality water has been exacerbated by population growth and climate change, in some cases leading to bankruptcy for growers and retailers who cannot compete for access with other water users. Regulations increasingly require growers to retain and re-use nutrients, pesticides, and storm water rather than allowing contaminants to run off into the environment.

All of these pressures mean that growers should consider how to conserve water by only applying irrigation as needed by the crop. This article provides some rules of thumb to know if you may be over-applying water in propagation. Efficient watering during propagation involves both management and technology such as climate-controlled mist timing, but we will concentrate here just on monitoring steps that cost very little.

Everything You Wanted to Know About Fog: But Were Afraid to Ask©

Author: Mark Stanley

PP: 104


Mist nozzles generally produce large droplets in excess of 200 µm from low pressure (20–100 psi / 2–7 bar) nozzles and provide irrigation and water to plants.


Fog is defined as a water droplet around 10 micron (µm) in diameter (1/10th diameter of a human hair). High pressure water at 1,000 psi / 70 Bar is used to create the fog. Nozzle output is around 5 gph (U.S.A.) / 5 lph, this quantity of water is not intended to irrigate the crops below.

Making Use of Past, Current, and Future Climate Information Available From National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research — An Overview©

Author: Andrew Tait

PP: 106

As it is with growing anything (including propagating plants), there are decisions being made by the grower at all times of the year which impact (hopefully positively) the health of the plants, their susceptibility to harmful elements, and their productivity. Many of these decisions are related to the weather and climate, and in some instances (for example frost protection measures) a decision can be of critical importance. Other decisions are more strategic, involving planning for next season or 1, 2, or even 20 years into the future.

Decision-making (or "good decision making" at least) is all about weighing up pros and cons based on the information you have at hand. If your information is poor, then the impact of your decision has a higher likelihood of being less than optimum (or even completely opposite to what you intended — e.g., the plant dies). If your information is good and useful, then your rational decision is likely to result in the effect you intended.

Commercial Floriculture Liner Production in the United States of America©

Author: Paul Fisher

PP: 108


Production of liners (rooted cuttings( of floricultural crops in the United States of America (U.S.A. ( is characterized by global movement of plant material, rapid adaptation to market trends, and consolidation into a few large and highly competitive players. Although some factors shaping U.S. production differ from New Zealand nurseries, there are concepts that can be applied to improve efficiency and crop quality.

Rose Viruses and Virus-like Diseases: Why Bother?©

Author: Hayden Foulds

PP: 116


Over the past 15 years outside my educational and then working lives, I have developed a passion for roses. This has lead me on many interesting journeys and experiences in New Zealand and around the world to observe and learn more about the world’s favourite flower. At the same time, there has been an alarming decline in the popularity of roses. Not only has this occurred in New Zealand, but right around the world. Fewer nurseries are growing roses commercially as a response to fewer people growing them. Consequently, the range of cultivars sold is decreasing and specialist rose societies are rapidly losing members. Where will it all stop?

One of the aspects of growing roses I am passionate about is for everyone with an interest and appreciation in roses to grow quality plants that are free of rose viruses and virus-like diseases. It is a difficult and sometimes controversial subject for many involved with roses but maybe there is a simple answer to get everyone behind the concept of virus-free roses: more flowers? (Editor’s note: in this paper a "virus-free rose" refers to the cultivar being free from the viruses mentioned in this paper and not all viruses.)

Propagation of Ilex aquifolium©

Author: Denis Hughes

PP: 127


The genus Ilex has more than 800 species, including both deciduous and evergreen (Galle, 1997); Huxley (2002) notes in the New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening that there are more than 400 species. My discussion is confined to the English holly and its allies, I. aquifolium and I. × altaclerensis. English holly (I. aquifolium) has many uses. The most obvious is as a colourful ornamental where the female forms have attractive, brilliant berries through winter. These are used by florists in their winter decorations and may last for many weeks. The English have a heritage for using these at Christmas time. The fruit in the garden is relished by wildlife, while most gardeners would like them left for their own enjoyment. Holly, when established, will tolerate even dry shade, thus making it an ideal choice for hedging and specimen planting.

Mollis Azaleas, a Window of Opportunity©

Author: Jim Rumbal

PP: 129


The azalea mollis group of deciduous Rhododendron hybrids have generally been derived from several species, and were introduced into cultivation as follows:

  • Rhododendron molle subsp. japonicum from Japan in 1861
  • Rhododendron luteum from Eastern Europe and Asia Minor in 1793
  • Rhododendron molle from China in 1824
  • Rhododendron occidentale from North America in 1851
  • Rhododendron flammeum (syn. R. speciosum) from North America in 1789

From Belgium and Holland the Ghent and Rustica forms were hybridised with single and hose-in-hose forms. English nurserymen produced the Exbury and Knap Hill hybrids. All these forms have been hybridised and re-crossed in Western Europe and England with many beautiful hybrids being produced.

Magnolia grandiflora Cutting Production©

Author: Ian Fankhauser

PP: 132

I am going to talk to you this afternoon on our experiences with cutting production of Magnolia grandiflora cultivars from stock plant management, cutting making, and care and potting on through to the saleable liner.

We produce mainly M. grandiflora ‘D.D. Blanchard’ and ‘Little Gem’, with smaller quantities of ‘Ferruginea’, ‘Mainstreet’, ‘Russet’, ‘Saint Mary’, and ‘Samuel Sommer’. The success rate ranges from 55% for ‘Russet’ to 86% for ‘Little Gem’.

Firstly I’ll discuss stock plant care and maintenance. Before planting we do soil tests and add required fertilisers while ground preparation is being done. Black polythene mulch beds are formed and the young stockplants are planted out from 1-L pots for ease of handling. They are planted 1 m apart and 2 m between rows. This is fairly high density but it works well with our pruning methods.

Techniques to Modify Plant Form for Ornamental Crops©

Author: K.A. Funnell

PP: 135


Growers and exporters tell us that to compete in domestic and export markets, we must deliver high-value product into niche markets. To achieve this, within my experience, I interpret this to mean each of us needs to focus on five key components, i.e., delivering plant products that are:

  1. Novel and innovative: To me this highlights the ongoing need for breeding of new crops and selections.
  2. Of a suitable quality: This refers to the product meeting the market specifications for height, colour, size, form, post-harvest performance, etc.
  3. "Clean": For example, free of known viruses and free of pests and disease.
  4. On time for particular market windows such as Christmas, Mother’s Day, etc.
  5. Targeting a solid market: This requires good market knowledge and contacts.

This is a long list of topics to deal with. In this presentation I have chosen to focus upon just one of these, "quality,"

Controlling Damping-off in Seeds and Seedlings Using Trichoderma Seed Coating©

Author: Maree Debenham, Andrew McLachlan, and Craig McGill

PP: 139

Trichoderma spp. are beneficial fungi that have long been associated with disease control in many crops. Many Trichoderma can establish on plant roots and form a symbiotic relationship with the plant. They produce various compounds such as antibiotics and toxic metabolites, or have evolved various techniques such as coiling and parasitism to control plant disease. In addition, the root-fungal association induces a systemic resistance within the plant that can guard against pathogen attack, enhance root development and growth, increase crop productivity, and enhance nutrient uptake (Harman et al., 2004). Trichoderma are now widely used in horticulture, particularly the strains that are rhizosphere competent and can colonise plant roots. With increasing concern about the use of fungicides, resistance issues, and environmental and worker safety associated with their use, the desire to use biocontrol agents could well increase. New strains of Trichoderma are being categorised each year and several research groups in New Zealand and worldwide are working on biological control using Trichoderma. The research involves incorporating Trichoderma into various aspects of the production chain from propagation right through to postharvest.
Interspecific Hybridisation and Polyploidy for Creating Novel Genetic Combinations©

Author: Ed Morgan, Maree Debenham, Ranjith Pathirana, and Mary Christey

PP: 147


Interspecific hybridisation provides a valuable tool that creates exciting new opportunities for breeding of new plants. In crosses between closely related species there usually will be little or no difficulty in producing hybrids. In this paper we focus on interspecific hybridisation in parental combinations where outcomes may not be as expected for conventional crosses. Interspecific hybridisation differs from conventional crosses in that we are developing novel plant genotypes by overcoming the barriers that separate species. We also discuss the use of chromosome doubling to produce polyploids as a method to restore fertility in sterile hybrids, and a number of techniques used to verify the outcomes of hybridization and chromosome doubling will be described. Not all attempts to hybridise between species will be successful, but if barriers to success can be identified, in many instances there are solutions that will enable the production of a fertile hybrid or the transfer of a desired trait into a backcross hybrid. This paper provides a brief introduction to this topic; a more comprehensive review was recently published by Morgan et al. (2011).

Horticulture in the Land of the Rising Sun©

Author: Brett Harris

PP: 156


On 10 Oct. 2010, I departed Auckland Airport for Japan as part of the IPPS Reciprocal exchange. In preparation for this exchange I had spent time speaking with IPPS members in New Zealand who had been to Japan for the IPPS in the past, and I also brushed up on my Japanese language and cultural skills. As part of my exchange I was required to give a presentation at their conference, so I spent some time taking photos of Christchurch and of the nursery operations at Oderings Nurseries.

Costs and Benefits of Renewable Energy for U.K. Nurseries©

Author: Joe Fergusson

PP: 163

Heating fuel is one of the biggest single outgoings for nursery businesses so the importance of minimising the cost cannot be over-estimated. The price of heating fuel has trebled over the past decade and this trend shows no sign of slowing. Even without the other pressures from various quarters on the nursery industry, taking control of energy costs is likely to be crucial to the economic sustainability of many businesses.

In the U.K., government policy to encourage investment in renewable energy sources, such as wind or solar, has resulted in the introduction of the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI), which offers payments for businesses for using renewable energy for heating. This, under certain circumstances, offers the exciting possibility of a business?s heating requirements switching from being a cost to a new source of revenue.

Opportunities for Improving Energy Efficiency and Using Renewable Energy at British Wild Flower Plants©

Author: Mike Milner

PP: 168


In June 2011, as part of the planning and decision-making process for proposed new office accommodation, an energy audit was undertaken for the British Wild Flower Plants nursery business, which reviewed the quantity and costs associated with energy consumption at the site and assessed the initial feasibility for and costs associated with investment in small scale renewable energy technologies.

A range of no, low, and medium cost recommendations were made. These included analysis of energy meter readings against climate and occupation, adjusting time controls on irrigation and abstraction pumps, and use of night storage heaters to ensure that overnight (cheap) rate electricity was used whenever possible. Low cost recommendations included repair of the rain sensor feedback control on the irrigation system. The greatest energy savings would be realised by fitting insulation to the office area, or ensuring that the proposed new office meets, or exceeds current building standards for insulation.

Propagating Tropical Trees With Suitable Root Systems for Display Greenhouses©

Author: Maureen Newton and Tim Grigg

PP: 175


Historically, Eden Project has had a number of larger species, mainly trees that have either fallen or have been removed from our rain forest biome because they were unstable. There is a whole list of factors that have contributed to this instability but poor root systems rank high on this list. The growing container shape could still clearly be seen in the root systems of a number of the fallen or removed plants; often they had not put out good extension growth into the soil and tangled roots and poor root architecture were common.

Achieving good active root systems, particularly on our tree species, therefore became an important aim of the Eden Project nursery. Many of the rain forest trees for the biome are grown from seed at the nursery, so we decided to examine and compare propagation systems traditionally used at our nursery with some newer innovations.

Improving the Quality of Wildflower Seeds for Commercial Users©

Author: Natasha Ryan

PP: 179


Over the past 25 years or so there has been a great increase in the use of seeds of native wildflower species in the United Kingdom, as in other European countries and North America. Wildflowers have been increasingly sown in urban regeneration and civil engineering projects for their attractive appearance and low maintenance requirements. Wildflowers also attract wildlife so are used in habitat restoration, community biodiversity projects and individual gardens and estates. The use of wildflower species in agri-environment schemes is also popular.

The increased use of wildflowers has been followed by an increase in commercial production and trade of approximately 200 species of plants, most of which are new to commercial trading. In many cases seeds are not sold directly to the end users but may be sold to commercial growers to be raised as plants before being sold on.

Air-Layering Techniques for Conservation of Rhododendrons and Azaleas©

Author: John M. Hammond

PP: 183

Over the past 50 years or so many commentators have noted that air layering is not a viable method of propagation for rhododendrons and azaleas, or at best the results are generally poor. This paper describes a more practical approach developed from tests over the past 10 years, using basic tools and materials, which has achieved a success rate of around 90% in the author?s garden and in field trials. In the past 3 years the methodology has been adapted to deal with conservation aspects relating to propagating plants that have been wind-blown and cannot be righted, plants damaged by falling trees, plants that are over-mature or dying back, and regenerating nursery stock plants. To date the results have been successful, including getting roots on air-layers where the plant itself is in poor condition or dying back.
Current Recommendations for Use of Rhizopon® Rooting Hormones©

Author: Kees Eigenraam

PP: 187


Production of Rhizopon rooting hormones began in 1939 following research by the ACF Chemiefarma Company, originally the Amsterdam Quinine Factory, into propagation of quinine plants. The first Rhizopon rooting hormone products were introduced to nursery stock growers in the Boskoop area in 1940. Following a reorganization of ACF, Rhizopon was established as an independent company in 1987.

For the U.K. professional market Rhizopon offers several rooting hormone products based on the active ingredient, indole-3-butyric acid.

The formulated products are available as ready-for-use powders and water-soluble tablets in various packing sizes.

A New Propagation Guide for United Kingdom Nurseries©

Author: David Talbot

PP: 192

The Horticultural Development Company (HDC), the U.K. industry-levy-funded R&D provider, has been working on a project (HNS 183) which will result in a new comprehensive guide to propagation techniques which will be available free of charge to all HDC levy-paying nurseries.

The principal aim of the project is to critically review and collate key nursery stock research findings into a single publication which meets the needs of today’s propagator. The guide, which is due for publication in 2012, draws on a considerable "back catalogue" of information and covers such key areas as stock-plant management, rooting media, post-rooting nutrition, rooting hormones, and propagation environments. Also covered are soft cuttings, hardwood cuttings, bench grafting, and propagation by chip budding.

A lot of useful information on propagation is tucked away in research papers and although widely dispersed still remains unused.

A Propagator?s Reflection: Thoughts on the Past and Future for the IPPS Western Region©

Author: Mike Anderson

PP: 195

I’d like to spend a few minutes with you talking about aging gracefully and responding to change. I?m hoping to inspire and challenge you (and myself as well). My goal is to make this relevant to us as professionals and Western Region members, so bear with me.

In one of my favorite books, A Tale of Two Cities, Charles Dickens begins with an observation of the contemporary history of the day:
"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times,
it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness,
it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity,
it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness,
it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair,
we had everything before us, we had nothing before us,
we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct
the other way — in short, the period was so far like the present
period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its
being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree
of comparison only. "

California Native Plants: Easier to Promote than to Propagate©

Author: Mike Evans

PP: 202

Through the years, California’s native plants have enjoyed alternating periods of attention and neglect, depending mostly on the current water supply for landscape irrigation. During periods of drought, when reservoir levels are low and it behooves the water industry to promote conservation, there is often a promotional push for plants that require less supplemental water and natives easily step into the limelight. Eventually though, the rains return, along with the old habits of planting and maintaining thirsty exotic plants. It becomes quite easy to forget about all water crises — past, present, and future. This is the fickle nature of promoting a line of plants based principally on water supply emergencies.
Seed Propagation of Several High-Elevation California Natives©

Author: Neal Funston

PP: 204


Cornflower Farms propagates a wide array of California native plants ranging from desert to wetland and coastal to alpine species. Propagation is done from cuttings, seed, and division. Here, we?ll address seed propagation of several high-elevation California natives including: Artemisia tridentata, Ceanothus cordulatus, C. integerrimus, C. prostratus, C. velutinus, Eriogonum umbellatum, Linum lewisii, Lupinus grayi, Penstemon newberryi, Potentilla glandulosa, Prunus andersonii, P. emarginata, P. virginiana, Purshia tridentata, Ribes nevadense, Rosa woodsii, Sambucus nigra subsp. caerulea, and S. racemosa.

Multi-Budded Fruit Trees©

Author: Tom Spellman

PP: 207


Backyard fruit trees have always been popular in the residential landscape. Grocery store fruit can be lackluster, to say the least. The health-conscious consumer has become more demanding than ever. Residential fruit tree, vegetable, and herb gardening has become more popular than ever, and it’s not just a trend, but a lifestyle change.

With the reality of residential properties becoming smaller and smaller, the popularity of multi-budded fruit trees have increased dramatically. It’s common sense; grow three or four successive ripening varieties in the space of one orchard size tree. Home orchardists are not looking for the same yield as commercial growers. In fact, it’s just the opposite. They want a little fruit all the time, as opposed to farmers looking to harvest large crops all at once. The multi-budded fruit tree fills this niche.

Effect of Container Type on the Nursery Growth of Two Palms©

Author: Donald R. Hodel, A. James Downer, and Maren Mochizuki

PP: 211

Palms have a fibrous, adventitious root system where all primary roots arise independently from one another from the base of the stem in an area called the root initiation zone. Because of the nature of this root system, palms are especially amenable to container culture. Commercial growers, collectors, and hobbyists grow palms in containers for potting up, sale, and/or placement in the landscape. Palms are typically grown in traditional, straight-sided, solid-wall containers. Several nontraditional containers with perforated side walls that allow air pruning of roots reportedly to enhance growth of shrubs and trees through development of a stronger denser root system have been introduced to the nursery trade. Fitzpatrick et al. (1994) found that mahogany [Swietenia mahagoni (L. ) Jacq. ] grown in air-root-pruning containers had lower root mass and higher shoot-to-root ratios compared to trees grown in standard black plastic containers
Induction of Bud-Break at a Specific Node in Cut-Flower Rose Production©

Author: Jennifer Orsi and Heiner Lieth

PP: 213


It has been shown that apical dominance inhibits axillary bud break and lateral shoot branching in some plant species due to the effects of auxin (IAA) which is biosynthesized in the shoot apex and polarly transported within the plant (Sachs and Thimann 1967; Kitazawa et al., 2008; Leyser, 2003). In rose it has been shown that axillary buds lower on a stem have a higher degree of inhibition then apical buds (Le Bris et al., 1998). The process by which an axillary bud shifts from its dormant state to an actively growing stem is called bud break.

Methods for induction of bud break are commonly used in floriculture to achieve desired plant shape (e.g., to induce branching in potted plants) and for timing of harvests (e.g., cut flowers). The methods currently used on cut flower roses to achieve a particular bud break date, and consequent harvest date, include pinching, pruning, or bending.

The Greening of California Home Landscapes©

Author: David Fujino

PP: 219


Residential landscapes are an essential part of the quality of life we enjoy in California. They can provide refuge, solace, and food. But they also add to demands for scarce water resources. According to a 2010 study for the California Homebuilding Foundation, a new three-bedroom home will use approximately 174,000 gal of water, more than half of it for landscaping annually.

Runoff from landscaping also is a source of environmental pollutants such as pesticides and fertilizers that threaten fish and wildlife in rivers and streams. Faculty members in the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences at UC Davis recognized the need to make horticulture research and education more available for Californians to address these concerns.

The University of California Nursery and Floriculture Alliance: Providing Technical Education for Growers©

Author: Lorence R. Oki and David W. Fujino

PP: 222

The University of California Nursery and Floriculture Alliance (UCNFA) provides outreach programs that serve the educational needs of the California nursery and floriculture industry. Providers of these programs include University of California (UC) faculty and UC Cooperative Extension Advisors and Specialists. Outreach is conducted at events including workshops at grower locations, conferences, and seminars throughout California.

The UCNFA leadership includes Loren Oki and Dave Fujino, who serve as Co-Directors. Additional leadership is provided by the Executive Committee: John Kabashima, Mike Parrella, Ken Tate, and the Co-Directors. Cooperative Extension Advisors, Julie Newman serves as the Chair of Educational Programs, Steve Tjosvold is the Newsletter Editor, and Jim Bethke is Chair of Technology. Linda Dodge is the Program Representative and manages the activities of the program.

Micropropagation of Walnut Rootstocks©

Author: Parm Randhawa

PP: 225


Walnut is a popular crop with 5 million trees annually planted in California. Paradox walnut [Juglans hindsii ? J. regia ( Northern California black walnut ? English walnut)[ is a popular rootstock due to its high vigor. Nurseries often grow Northern California black walnut and a pollinating English cultivar side-by-side to produce paradox walnut. One disadvantage of this un-controlled open pollination is that its success varies from year to year and in some years the success rate is as low as 25%. This leads to a shortage of paradox walnut trees for walnut growers. Another disadvantage is genetic variability from one paradox walnut seedling to another that leads to tree-to-tree differences (disease resistance, vigor, etc.) in the orchard.

Production of Permanent Crops Using Tissue Culture Techniques, Does it Make Cents?©

Author: Michael Vietti

PP: 228


The term "tissue culture" has come to encompass many different techniques associated with the clonal reproduction of plants. Terms such as somatic embryogenesis, meristem culture, embryo rescue, protoplast fusion and micropropagation are all specialized techniques that are often referred to as "tissue culture" when discussing the propagation of plants. Any one of the above techniques would ultimately give rise to a new plant, but micropropagation has probably come to be the most widely adopted, since its relative ease in training novices in the technique.

At Duarte Nursery, in Hughson, Calif., micropropagation is used primarily to clonally reproduce rootstocks used in the production of stone fruit, nut, and citrus trees for commercial plantings. The technique allows us to produce elite, "clean" plant material, but not without substantial costs and investments.

Cutting Propagation of Azaleas Using Hot Water Treatments to Control Pathogens©

Author: Warren E. Copes and Eugene K. Blythe

PP: 231

Azalea web blight, caused by certain binucleate species of Rhizoctonia, occurs yearly on some azalea cultivars during nursery production in the southern and eastern U.S.A. Azalea shoots collected for cutting propagation can harbor the pathogen, thus allowing the disease to be perpetuated during the cutting propagation process. A previous study demonstrated that submerging Rhizoctonia-infested stem pieces of ‘Gumpo White’ azalea in 122 °F (50 °C) water for 21 min could eliminate the pathogen without causing damage to leaf tissue. The present study determined that this hot water treatment can be used safely for cuttings of twelve commonly grown azalea cultivars without causing detrimental leaf damage or adversely affecting root development.
A New University Greenhouse From Inception to Completion©

Author: Charles A. Brun

PP: 237

At our Washington State University Extension office complex known as the Heritage Farm we have 79 acres of county-owned farm ground which includes community garden plots, agricultural research plots, and a collection of older greenhouses utilized by our Master Gardener Foundation. While the individual greenhouses are serviceable they are very dated.


Washington State University conducted agricultural research at the Heritage farm from 1949 until 2008, at which time Clark County resumed ownership of the property with the intent of keeping it as a working farm. County staff reviewed the assortment of older greenhouses on the farm and determined that they should be replaced with modern structures incorporating the latest in greenhouse technology.

2011 Update on All-America Selections: Trialing New Flowers and Vegetables for a New Generation of Gardeners©

Author: Diane Blazek and Eugene K. Blythe

PP: 240

All-America Selections (AAS) was founded in 1932 by W. Ray Hastings as a way for home gardeners to learn which new varieties were significantly improved for better garden performance. The AAS includes a network of over 50 trial grounds all over North America where new, never-before-sold varieties are grown and evaluated by skilled, impartial AAS Judges. Only the best performers are declared AAS Winners. The AAS continues as the oldest, most established international testing organization in North America.

All-America Selections Display Gardens provide the public an opportunity to view the new AAS winners in an attractive well-maintained setting and provide educational AAS programs during "open house" or "field day" events.

Habitat Creation and Management for Native Pollinating Insects at the Manhattan Plant Materials Center, Kansas©

Author: P. Allen Casey, Richard L. Wynia, and John M. Row

PP: 242

Pollinators are keystone species to which many plants rely on to complete their reproductive lifecycle. Insects are the most numerous group of the pollinators. Some pollinating insects are also considered to be indicator species and can be used to determine ecosystem health. Pollinating insects provide for heterogeneity of the floral gene pool, larger fruit and seed size, and a more even development of fruits or seeds.
The Effect of Healing Chamber Design on the Survival of Grafted Vegetables©

Author: Sacha Johnson, Carol Miles, Patricia Kreider, and Jonathan Rooze

PP: 243

Successful grafting of vegetables requires high relative humidity (RH) and optimal temperatures for approximately 1 week following grafting to reduce transpiration of the scion until rootstock and scion vascular tissue are healed together and water transport is restored. This study evaluated the effect of three healing chamber designs on the survival of grafted eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), tomato [Solanum esculentum (syn. Lycopersicon esculentum)], and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.(.
Viability of Native Warm-Season Grass Seeds after 35 Years of Storage Under Two Different Environments©

Author: John M. Row and Richard L. Wynia

PP: 244

The ability to store native grass seeds for long periods of time is important to plant breeders, habitat restorationists, botanists, and seed vendors. Seeds stored in hot, humid climates are subjected to wide fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Such conditions are known to reduce longevity of seeds in storage. Seeds of nine warm-season grass species native to North America were stored under controlled and uncontrolled storage environments for 35 years at the Manhattan Plant Materials Center, Manhattan, Kansas.
The Efficacy of Flower Bud Removal Techniques for Enhancing Growth of Young Blueberry Cultivars©

Author: Jay D. Spiers, Elina Coneva, Bryan Wilkins, Jessica Bowerman, an

PP: 245

In this 2-year study, flower bud removal techniques were tested on young rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) plants to determine effects on flower bud mortality and growth parameters. The treatments consisted of no flower bud removal (control), hand stripping, and hydrogen cyanamide applied at 0.75% and 1.5%. Treatments were applied to three different cultivars exhibiting different stages of flower bud development.
King Range Native Perennial Bunchgrass Program©

Author: Jennifer Wheeler

PP: 246

Limited stands of historically abundant California native perennial bunchgrass remain in California wild landscapes. Many of these wild landscapes have been subject to a century or more of livestock grazing and decades of fire suppression. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in partnership with the Mattole Restoration Council (MRC), has inventoried, mapped, collected, and propagated seed of 11 native perennial bunchgrasses in order to generate enough seed and standing nursery capacity for on-the-ground restoration projects.
Hibiscus acetosella ‘Sahara Sunset’©

Author: Cecil Pounders

PP: 247

The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, has released a new African hibiscus, Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern., named ‘Sahara Sunset’ (USPP #21,765). This cultivar, tested as HAC06-11, was selected from a group of seedlings grown at the Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory in Poplarville, Mississippi. Seedlings were produced from seed of open-pollinated purple-leaf H. acetosella which were irradiated with a cobolt-60 source. The original seedling of ‘Sahara Sunset’ was selected in 2006. It is the first stable variegated form of the purple-leaf form of this species.
Speaking Plant Approach for Highly Sophisticated Intelligent Greenhouse©

Author: Seiichi Arima

PP: 251


Japanese agricultural sector has a serious problem in the workforce area. The population engaged in agricultural sector has decreased in the last 50 years because of rapid aging, i.e., people over 65 years old occupy 61% of the current agricultural workforce. This situation results in a decrease in self-sufficiency and increase in the dependence on imported food, and threatens the safety and reassurance of food in Japan. As a solution for this problem, the plant factory system attracts much attention as a prospective agricultural production system in Japan. However, at this moment, the plant-factory system does not always produce commercial success. So, further technological development is required.

Ferrous Ferric Chloride Water Decreases Attachment of Bacteria to Surfaces — Scanning Electron Microscopy Observation and Force-Volume Microscopy Measurement of Titanium Surfaces Immersed in Ferrous Ferric Chloride Water©

Author: Tadao Fujimori

PP: 254


Akatsuka Garden Company has continued research and development on various solutions which accelerate plant growth and activate physiological functions of plants since 1984. We have focused our attention on the behavior of iron ions in water and interaction of iron ions and water. Based on that research we developed a new water improvement device named "Ferrous Ferric Chloride (FFC®) ceramic balls" (Sugi and Yamashita, 1991) in 1995. Water treated with FFC ceramic balls (called "FFC water" ) possesses specific biological effects such as stimulation of plant growth, especially root growth (Hasegawa et al., 2006). In animals, FFC also possesses stimulative effects on cell growth (Hirobe, 2007). The FFC ceramic balls have been utilized by users in many different fields in primary and secondary industries.

Use of the Microbial Pesticide Hasumon Killer® Against Spodoptera litura©

Author: Yuki Sobue and Hiroshi Endo

PP: 257

The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (Fig. 1) is a serious harmful insect because the larvae attacks more than 80 kinds of plants, including vegetables (Fig. 2), flowers, and fruit trees. In Japan, the expanding of the damage started in the second half of 1950s. In the warm area of central Kanto district to the south, it has occurred continually to the present. This causes considerable concern because S. litura can overwinter in plastic and glass greenhouses built mostly from the 1950s and the increasing temperatures from global warming.

Although many depend on controlling S. litura larvae by spraying chemical pesticide, there are many examples of pesticide resistance occurring. In addition, chemical pesticide use may be restricted by the number of spray application times and crops on which it can be used even if it is still effective.

Effects of an Eco-Friendly Pot Medium "Chaco Ball" on Cuttings of Ficus benjamina©

Author: Wakanori Amaki, Soh Hatakeyama, Mikihisa Kato, and Susumu Kiryu

PP: 260

"Chaco Ball" (Japanese commercial name: Sumi-zutsumi) is an eco-friendly pot medium, and it has a structure of charcoal coated with porous ceramics. In this report, we examined its use as cutting medium. Tip cuttings of Ficus benjamina L. with 4 unfolded leaves were prepared from greenhouse-grown stock plants. The cut ends of cuttings were dusted with powder of 0.5% indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The cuttings were inserted in three kinds of media: Chaco Ball, akadama-soil, and expanded-clay balls (7 mm). They were irrigated by overhead irrigation or subirrigation. Rooting and subsequent growth of cuttings when Chaco Ball medium was used were superior to the other media, regardless of the irrigation method. The cutting root system after 2 months in the Chaco Ball medium was more fibrous and higher in weight than in other media, especially in the case of the overhead irrigation.
SuiSui System: A Method of Raising Strawberry by Capillary Watering©

Author: Tamaki Manabu, Morino Miho, and Takeda Hirotaka

PP: 265

Strawberry (Fragaria ?ananassa) is one of the more important fruits eaten in Japan. In commercial production, 8,000 plants per 10 acres is required which is several times that of other fruit vegetables. Almost all strawberry farmers are producing their plants themselves; this increases labor costs and also increases the risk of diseases. In order to reduce labor costs and potential for disease, we developed the "SuiSui system" a method of raising runner plants by capillary watering.

In this system, you grow runner plants by planting the cuttings (runner tips) in a SuiSui pot with capillary watering. The SuiSui pots are placed on trays with special watering mats placed on a bench.

Approaches to Multiplication and Supply of Virus-Free Japanese Yam (Dioscorea japonica) Seed Tubers©

Author: Yuki Takeba, Kazuyuki Okuzima, Masatoshi Tsumura, Yuki Tsuyuguch

PP: 268

We are students majoring in biological engineering at Iyo Agricultural High School. Since 2008 numerous attempts have been made by us to provide virus-free Japanese yam (Dioscorea japonica Thunb.) seed tubers with the help of the local Japanese yam production guild in Hirota village. In the past the guild had received the seed tubers from the Ehime Prefectural Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Examination Institution but they are not now supplied.

In Stage 1 of the original micropropagation method for the production of virus-free plantlets, the shoot apexes were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) supplemented with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) phytohormones

Effects of the Character of Cuttings and the Type of Auxin on Rooting Ability in Dragon Fruit©

Author: Masahiko Fumuro

PP: 270


Dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus Britt & Rose), also called pitaya of pitahaya, is a climbing cactus native to the tropical forest regions in Mexico and Central and South America (Mizrahi et al., 1997). Dragon fruit has been cultivated in Vietnam and currently in some countries such as Nicaragua, Columbia, and Israel (Merten, 2003).

In Japan dragon fruit has been cultivated mostly in Okinawa. In 2009 the growing area and amount shipped were 46 ha and 335 t, respectively (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 2011). Dragon fruit can be grown without heating in warm regions; therefore the cultivation has been increasing recently in areas north of Okinawa.

Effects of MKR1, a Dwarfing Rootstock, on Growth of Kaki Scion©

Author: Takuya Tetsumura, Shuji Ishimura, and Chitose Honsho

PP: 276

A dwarfing rootstock, MKR1, for kaki (Diospyros kaki L. ), is applied to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries for cultivar registration. We have intensively investigated the field performance of kaki trees on MKR1 and showed the following characteristics:
  • The growth of shoots on MKR1, which used to be named "rootstock-b" or "OD-1" was inhibited and the shoots hardly showed secondary growth (Tetsumura et al., 2010). As a result, the trees are dwarfed.
  • Early fruit drop, which is one of the big problems for kaki growers, was drastically decreased on MKR1 trees (Tetsumura et al., 2011a).
  • Efficiency, such as yield per ground area covered by tree canopy and yield per canopy volume, was the best in the trees on MKR1 (Tetsumura et al., 2010)
Reevaluation of Effects of Aminoethoxyvinylglycine on Growth of In Vitro Pear Shoots©

Author: Tomoyo Yoshida, Nana Eguchi, Chitose Honsho, and Takuya Tetsumur

PP: 279


Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), an inhibitor of ethylene, has been used for blocking ethylene biosynthesis and revealing the responses of plants to it. The chemical 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) is able to block ethylene receptors and is functionable at very low concentrations in cut flowers (Serek et al., 1995) and fruits (De Wild et al., 1999). At the end of 2010, 1-MCP was permitted for use as an inhibitor of overripening with apple, pear, and persimmon by Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan.

Ethylene is said to cause plant tissues responsive reactions at very low concentrations and to be promoted or inhibited by auxin. In in vitro culture, rose shoots required different concentration of ethylene depending on rooting process: an adequate amount of ethylene was needed for root emergence and root formation but more ethylene was necessary for root growth (Kepczynski et al., 2006).

Propagation In Vitro of Nothapodytes amamianus an Endangered Medicinal Tree©

Author: Katsuaki Ishii, Naoki Takata, Kenichi Konagaya, and Toru Taniguc

PP: 284


Wadatsuminoki (Nothapodytes amamianus Nagam. & Mak. Kato, Icacinaceae) is an endangered species only naturally found as a new species in 2004 in the southern part of Amamioshima Island located in the south of Japan (Nagamasu and Kato, 2004). It produces a useful alkaloid, camptothecin, which is a raw material of cancer drug irinotecan. Its related species, N. foetida, is currently cultivated for drug raw material production. For application of wadatsuminoki in the commercial usage and species conservation, propagation from limited number of trees is crucial. There are several reports about conservation of endangered species using in vitro culture (Sugii and Lamoureux, 2000; Ishii et al., 2004; and Ishii et al., 2005). So, screening of in vitro culture conditions of this species was carried out for the first time.

Micropropagation of Haworthia cymbiformis Through Thin-Cell-Layer Tissue Culture©

Author: Makoto Iizumi and Wakanori Amaki

PP: 288

Window haworthia [Haworthia cymbiformis (Haw.) Duval] was propagated through thin-cell-layer (TCL) tissue culture in vitro. Thin-cell-layer explants were prepared from leaves and stem of offsets. Leaves and stem segments were immersed in 70% ethanol for 10 sec, and then 1% sodium hypochlorite for 13 min. After washing in sterilized distilled water three times, TCL and transverse-TCL (t-TCL) explants were prepared from leaves into 1 mm and 3 mm thickness, respectively. Stem t-TCL explants were dissected to disk explants of 1 mm thickness. Those explants were cultured on the Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium [30 g·L-1 sucrose, 8 g·L-1 agar (pH 5.6)] supplemented with 0.1 mg·L-1 benzyladenine (BA), 0.5 or 1.0 mg·L-1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) under 24?2 °C and 16-h light with cool white fluorescent lamps (40 µmol·m-2·s-1 PPFD) / 8-h dark condition. Only stem t-TCL explants produced adventitious shoots on all media. The maximum number of regenerated shoots was 24.0 per explant on the medium supplemented with 0.1 mg·L-1 BA. The respective regenerated shoots produced additional numbers of secondary shoots (7.5 per a divided shoot) and roots after subculture on the growth-regulator-free medium.
The Report of IPPS International Exchange Program of New Zealand and Japan Region©

Author: Shuji Ishimura

PP: 295

I was very lucky to participate as a supported member of the 40th anniversary conference that was held at Napier in New Zealand (N.Z.) from 5 to 8 May. More than 200 members participated in the memorial conference, from which I learned many things. This report outlined what I learned during my stay in N.Z.

Scott Base Nurseries (Auckland). At first, I visited Scott Base Nurseries, which mainly produced ground cover and shrub plants. I practiced division of Phormium, which is one of the most popular plants in N.Z. Large plants of Phormium were planted on road slopes and small ones were supplied for gardens. The nursery produced a very beautiful two-colored cultivar, but the sorting operation was difficult because its coloration varied with stock plants.

Field Excursion at IPPS Japan 18th Conference in Matsuyama©

Author: Masanori Tomita

PP: 295

The annual meeting of IPPS-Japan this year was held in Matsuyama City, Ehime Prefecture (please visit: http://www.pref.ehime.jp/index-e.htm).

The excursion was arranged on 16 Oct. 2011 to visit nurseries, a market, and research institute. In the morning, 30 participants left the Hotel in Dogo Hot Spring Spa, Matsuyama City (http://www.city.matsuyama.ehime.jp/lang/en/sightseeing/dogo.html).

The first visit was the Fruit Tree Research Center of Ehime Prefecture, which is located northeast of Matsuyama City, where the aim is to breed new citrus cultivars and to establish stable production of high quality citrus fruits. All the participants learned something important about the cultivation of citrus from explanation by research staff.

The Development of Social Media for the IPPS Eastern Region©

Author: Katie Sanford McDavid

PP: 301


Whether we like it or not, more people, companies, and organizations are joining and using Facebook® each day. After the 2010 Eastern Region meeting, the IPPS Eastern Region created a Facebook page (www.facebook.com/IPPSER) and an informal committee to work on and maintain it. This page replaced an outdated Eastern Region Facebook group.


Currently, there are over 800 million active Facebook users in the world, of which about 200 million reside in the United States. Fifty percent of users log onto Facebook at least once each day (Facebook Statistics, 2011). Two-thirds of Facebook users will select a product or company based on a recommendation from a Facebook friend.

Where Have We Been in 2011 and Where Are We Headed?©

Author: Charles R. Hall

PP: 304

The green industry is comprised of wholesale nursery and floriculture (greenhouse) growers; landscape service providers (e.g., architects, design/build firms, contractors, and maintenance firms); retail garden centers, home centers, and mass merchandisers with lawn and garden departments; and marketing intermediaries such as brokers and horticultural distribution centers (re-wholesalers). This outlook paper will continue to use the term ?green industry? but most of the comments herein refer specifically to nursery and greenhouse growers.


Prior to the recession, total economic contributions for the United States Green Industry in 2007, including regional economic multiplier effects, were estimated at $175.26 billion in output (revenue).

Finding Your Business Niche©

Author: Rita Randolph

PP: 309


I was raised in the greenhouse and nursery business, with overnight, out-of-town trips for plants considered as a vacation. My father, Jack Randolph, started the nursery just after WWII, and my mother, Ruth, joined him as the greenhouse operator, while he pursued landscaping and most of the outdoor production. On family outings, we would trot through botanical gardens and other horticultural businesses, and on our way, we collected plants to bring back for ourselves. The youngest of five, I ended up being the one to stay behind and take over the family business. Beginning in the early 1970s, I have spent most of my spare time searching for new plants to grow and add to our collection. Most of the plants we asexually propagate are tropical, and we add these to annual and perennial container combinations for a colorful effect.

IPPS 2012 Annual Meeting: Brandywine Valley, Pennsylvania©

Author: Steve M. Castorani

PP: 313


Location and Hotel. The 2012 IPPS meeting will take place in the Philadelphia area Oct. 10?13, 2012. The Host Hotel is the Holiday Inn Express in Glen Mills, Pennsylvania. Room rate would be $109 single/double and includes comp WIFI and hot breakfast buffet. There is a restaurant and bar on site and many restaurants within walking distance or a short drive. Hotel has a free shuttle service. Parking is free. Travel time is 16 min to Winterthur; 11 min to Longwood Gardens.

Travel. Travel time is 25 minutes to Philadelphia airport, half hour to Wilmington, Delaware train station ($46 shuttle; $65 taxi). Hotel has an airport shuttle service that they recommend at a reasonable price also Delaware Express Shuttle Co. We will encourage people flying in to rent a car.

Updating Hydrangea Production and Potential Cultivars©

Author: Robert E. McNiel

PP: 318

For the last 12 years of my academic career, I was part of a team which was involved in evaluating woody plants to use as cut stems, flowers, and fruit for use in the florist industry. During that time, Hydrangea was one of a number of genera investigated.

In 1996, the first 20 cultivars were planted at the University of Kentucky Horticulture research farm, Lexington, Kentucky. Most were H. macrophylla cultivars. They grew nicely each year and died back to the ground each winter. Each summer there was sporadic flower production. Since nurseries were able to produce flowering plants, it was decided to make sure we could get consistent flower production by growing plants in containers and using cold frames for overwintering them. We were able to produce 10–20 usable blooms per plant when grown in a trade size #5 container (Editor’s note: container sizes all refer to trade size). Since we could obtain flowering with protection, the next step was to grow the plants in the ground and cover them with a cold frame which could support shade cloth in the summer and poly in the winter.

Plant Hormones: The Auxins, Points for Understanding Their Actions and Use©

Author: H. William Barnes

PP: 320


Whenever I travel to plant conferences — IPPS meetings and IPPS area meetings — I am inevitably asked: "Well what hormone do you use to root this particular plant?" While I might have a ready answer more often than not, I offer "well, it depends." This paper is an attempt to explain some of the things that fall under the category of "it depends."

From a commercial stand point auxins come to us in a variety of forms. There are auxins dissolved in an alcohol solvent to form a concentrate that we in turn dilute with water to the desired concentration. Some auxins come as a talc powder formulation that has a fixed dosage and in the last 10 years or so there are now auxin preparations that are completely water soluble and can be diluted to the desired concentration in the same manner as the alcohol concentrates but without the possible injury from the alcohol.

Mobilizing Resources to Conserve Ash Species in Response to Emerald Ash Borer

Author: Mark P. Widrlechner

PP: 329


Ash (Fraxinus) consists primarily of temperate, deciduous trees and shrubs, with ?60 species native to the Northern Hemisphere. Ash diversity is highest in China (22 species) and the U.S.A. (16 species). In Eastern North America, six native ash species are under threat of functional extinction by an exotic insect pest, emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis), introduced from Asia to southeastern Michigan, probably in the 1990s. Emerald ash borer adults feed on ash leaves, females lay eggs exclusively on ash, and larvae feed on cambial tissue in ash stems and trunks. There is no documented resistance to EAB among these six ash species, and larvae commonly infest and kill healthy and stressed mature trees and juvenile saplings alike. This severely reduces opportunities for the evolution of increased tolerance to EAB and may hasten extinction.

Growth of Cane (Arundinaria sensu strict), the Mysterious Native Bamboo of North America©

Author: Julian J.N. Campbell

PP: 334


In recent years, the generic name Arundinaria has become restricted in usage to the native "cane" species of eastern North America: gigantean (= macrosperma), gigantea subsp. tecta and appalachiana (Triplett et al., 2006, 2009, 2010). The closest living relatives of these bamboos are in East Asia, where they are now classified into several distinct genera (Li et al., 2006; Triplett and Clark, 2010). The purpose of this paper is to summarize what is known, superficially, about the biology of Arundinaria, as applied to problems in horticulture, restoration, and ecology.

Arundinaria has several unusual or unique characters, when compared to other native plants of eastern North America. These characters are also typical of many bamboos in temperate regions of East Asia. In flowering behavior, however, species of Arundinaria differ from most of their long-lost East Asian cousins, which generally exhibit gregarious flowering over many hundreds or thousands of acres or even whole regions, after nonflowering periods of several decades. Flowering is generally rare and sporadic in Arundinaria, with no evidence of such widespread gregarious events.

Yoshino and Beyond: Exploring the History and Diversity of Flowering Cherries in the U.S.A.©

Author: Margaret Pooler

PP: 346

The year 2012 marks the 100th anniversary of the planting of the historic flowering cherry trees around the Tidal Basin in Washington, D.C. These trees, a gift of friendship from Japan, have become synonymous with springtime in D.C. and have been the inspiration behind festivals, landscapes, artwork, and merchandise throughout the U.S.A. Given the popularity and notoriety of flowering cherries in the U.S.A. today, it is remarkable to think that they were almost unheard of in the U.S.A. just over a century ago.

Flowering cherries have been an important part of Japanese culture for at least a thousand years. The beauty and ephemeral nature of the blossoms is evident in historic and modern Japanese literature, art, language, and culture, as well as in landscapes. Flowering cherries were brought to the U.S.A. sometime in the mid-1800s, as evidenced by mention in several nursery catalogs from that time, but they were not well-known or widely grown.

How Perennials Are Born©

Author: Karl Batschke

PP: 349


I’m going to spend some time today giving a brief overview of how perennial plants come to market. This will include definitions of what a perennial plant is, history of plant introduction and cultivation, and modern-day examples of plants and techniques used to develop new perennials.

Perennial Definition:

  • Any herbaceous plant that survives multiple flowering cycles over multiple years.
  • Darwin Perennials definition: plants hardy to USDA Zone 6 or colder.

Why are perennials such an important class? Perennials continue to grow in popularity and are one of the fastest growing categories in the five-billion dollar green industry. Perennials are important because they are/have:

  • Excellent landscape feature and transition plant between woody ornamentals and lawn.
  • Long lasting.
  • Diverse texture, habit, and colors.
  • Very early to very late flowering species.
  • Many native cultivars.
How We Graft Japanese Maples©

Author: Larry Walsh

PP: 353


My name is Larry Walsh and I have worked at Prides Comer Farms in Lebanon, Connecticut for exactly 12 years as of this week. I have been involved in running our grafting program at Prides Comer Farms since 2003. In 2003 we grafted a total of 8,800 plants with a total of 13 taxa of plants, eight of them being Acer taxa. In 2011 we grafted over 15 taxa of Acer and a total of more than 30 different plants for a combined total of 31,000+ actual grafts. The most popular plants we do by grafting are A. palmatum ‘Bloodgood’, A. palmatum var. dissectum ‘Tamukeyama’, Pinus strobes ‘Soft Touch’, and Cornus kousa ‘Wolf Eyes’. We also graft some selections of Hamamelis, Magnolia, and Larix that are much harder to do and we limit these to just a few thousand or so every year.

Plant Exploration — Why Is It Important?©

Author: Mark Bridgen

PP: 356


As universities throughout the world eliminate classes and programs in plant breeding, this discipline is becoming a dying art and science. Instead, genetic engineering and molecular sciences are being touted as the future for new plant development. However, as the world climate changes, and as new pests and diseases damage and destroy commercially valuable plants, it is critical that new plants are found, evaluated, hybridized, and introduced. Novel genetic resources, that are adaptable, valuable, and ornamental, are critical for the future. Plant exploration, collection, and breeding are as important as ever to meet the new challenges of the green industry because germplasm is a vital resource for the generation of new plants (Chang, 1987).

There are three main reasons that plant exploration is important: To find and collect new plant material, to breed and develop new and valuable commercially acceptable plants with the collected germplasm, and to educate future plant breeders.

Tapping the Underappreciated Plant Diversity of the Eastern United States©

Author: Rick Lewandowski

PP: 359


The romance and intrigue of plant discovery and acquisition continues to entice plant explorers, most often to remote and exotic places far away from the United States. Though early explorers and botanists including the Bartrams, the Michauxs, Nuttall, Torrey, Gray, and Harper described the vast richness of eastern North America’s flora, the range of diversity and adaptability continues to be underappreciated to this day. In efforts to more fully document and explore its potential, we have continued to explore and promote this rich flora.


he forests of eastern North America are replete with a remarkable array of plant communities, habitats, and plant species, particularly, Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia, Alabama, and western Florida.

A to C: From the Adventure of Plant Exploration to Consumers©

Author: Tom Foley, Jr.

PP: 363


The global market for horticultural products has decreased. The shrinking horticultural market is due to the housing market contraction, over production of horticultural products (too many commodity products which were grown for the expanding housing market), and loss of consumers (especially young people) due to them not gardening. The reduction in plant sales per nursery as well as the closure of nurseries in North America is evident. We have seen several nurseries that serviced the national sales in the United States go bankrupt in the past several years.

Between 1999 and 2010, the average dollars spent per household on Do It Yourself "Lawn and Garden" fell from $532 to $355 USD. This precipitous plummet was not just a result of the recession. Even in the "boom" year of 2007, the 1999 figure dropped more than $100 to $428 per year.

How Cornus ‘KN30-8’, Venus® Hybrid Dogwood Made It to Europe©

Author: Wolfgang Eberts

PP: 366


Realistically, Dr. Elwin Orton should stand here and make this presentation to you, as all the honor goes to him.

I am really happy having been invited and would like to thank you all, especially my friend Susanne Lucas. I am here to let you know how Cornus ‘KN30-8’, Venus® hybrid dogwood made it from Rutgers University to Germany.

"The best service you can render a culture is to add a new plant to its horticulture."

The quote by Thomas Jefferson (Hatch) is exactly what Dr. Orton did.

Many of you will remember that Dr. Orton has worked successfully with many species of holly (Ilex) since 1960. In 1965, he also started assembling many different cultivars of three major species of large-bracted dogwood (Cornus florida, C. kousa, and C. nuttallii) to add another project to his program of inter- and intra-specific hybrids of woody ornamentals.

In the Company of Plantsmen©

Author: Allen Bush

PP: 372


In a recent talk in Raleigh, North Carolina, Tony Avent of Plant Delights Nursery described those of us, who are obsessed with plants and gardens, as being a little "odd." George Mitchell of Woodlanders Nursery in Aiken, South Carolina told me, at the same symposium, about the story of the nurseryman who had died, and met St. Peter at the Pearly Gates. They had a cordial chat and St. Peter finally asks the new arrival what he’d done for a living. He said he had spent his career as a nurseryman. St. Peter says, "Oh my God, you?ve lived your life in Hell."

George Mitchell’s business partner, Bob McCartney, tells the interesting story about how Amsonia hubrichtii came into the trade. "… a teenage Ken Wurdack, who now works at the Smithsonian, was doing a lot of research on rare plants and travelling all over the South following up on old records, herbarium collections, etc. in the early 1980s."

Appeal of the Aberrant©

Author: Carol Reese

PP: 375

Discovering or creating a new form is fabulous. Successfully propagating it is immensely satisfying. Getting the public interested is sometimes the more difficult key to success.

While there is a growing percentage of savvy gardeners hooked on looking for unusual plant selections, there are lots who have no inkling. How to hook them?

One avenue is to make gardening unintimidating. At conferences I often listen to talks by garden designers or landscape architects who trot out lofty principles or rules, striking fear into listeners that they might do something tacky.

A few "rules" we should help to expunge:

  • Never put a plant in the ground until you have a plan laid out on paper.
  • Never buy a plant unless you know where it will go in your plan.
  • Use plants with variegated or golden foliage minimally and with discretion.
  • Plant in drifts, or at least in groups of threes or fives.
New Plant Forum©

Author: Jack Alexander, Tim C. Brotzman, Allen Bush, Steve M. Castorani,

PP: 376

  • Agastache aurantiaca ‘Tango’
  • Agastache cana ‘Bolero’
  • Bouteloua gracilis ‘Blonde Ambition’
  • Camellia japonica ‘Anacostia’
  • Cercis canadensis ‘Vanilla Twist’ ppaf
  • Eritrichium canum ‘Baby Blues’
  • Hydrangea quercifolia ‘Munchkin’
  • Hydrangea quercifolia ‘Ruby Slippers’
  • Loropetalum chinense ‘Snow Panda’
  • Pinus strobus ‘Stowe Pillar’
  • Styrax japonicus ‘Spring Showers’
  • Tradescantia roseolens ‘Morning Grace’
  • Trollius × cultorum ‘New Moon’
  • Viola walteri ‘Silver Gem’
How to Improve Cuttings Propagation Using Water-Based Indole-3-Butyric Acid Rooting Solutions©

Author: Joel Kroin

PP: 381


The present studies were done to guide growers on successful cutting propagation from cuttings using water-based indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) rooting solutions. The following four studies:

  1. The time of foliar treatment after sticking,
  2. The effect of alcohol or wetting agents in the solution,
  3. The effect of cold temperature at time of treatment, and
  4. The use of basal long-soak method on cuttings which are seasonably difficult to root.
The present studies used two foliar and one basal method to apply aqueous IBA rooting solutions. Foliar application is only done to leafy cuttings taken during the growing season.
Cold-Hardy, Non-invasive Bamboo via Tissue Culture Propagation©

Author: Susanne Lucas and Jan Oprins

PP: 392


This poster outlines the basic steps of producing cold-hardy non-invasive bamboo via tissue culture propagation. Exact protocols are not included, as this poster is introductory in nature in effort to simplify the process for interested parties. Lab preparation and tissue culture propagation of the BambooSelect® line is conducted via an exclusive propagation license with North American Plants, LLC located in Lafayette, Oregon.

Tissue-culture propagation of bamboos leads to very uniform, vigorous, and robust liners. The protocols ensure the plants are disease-free and true-to-type propagation. Crop time is greatly reduced compared to traditional vegetative division or from seed. Micropropagation (in-vitro tissue culture) of cold-hardy non-invasive bamboo via axillary branch cuttings is the best method for mass production of uniform, vigorous clones with unique landscape potential as an evergreen grass as an elegant specimen, privacy screen, or hedge.

Utilizing Large Nursery Containers for Herbaceous Root Production©

Author: Michael Kolaczewski

PP: 395


Propagating and growing plants in containers, in this case herbaceous perennials for the purpose of producing rootstock or root mass divisions, can be a straight forward and effective low-tech method of propagation. This presentation describes the process used to produce several types of perennials for landscape use.


It has been said, the simplest idea is often the best. With that in mind, I sought to devise a method for producing herbaceous root stocks of various perennial plants. The goal would be to minimize stress to stock plants, and to have minimal steps in the production process.

Rooting Success of Summer Softwood Cuttings of Box Huckleberry (Gaylussacia brachycera)©

Author: David Kidwell-Slak and Margaret Pooler

PP: 398


The box huckleberry [Gaylussacia brachycera (Michx.) Gray] is a slow-growing, dwarf evergreen woody groundcover that is native to both the mountains and coastal plains of Pennsylvania, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia, Delaware, and Maryland (USDA, NRCS, 2002), and North Carolina (Wilbur, 2004). It has glossy, dark green, fine-textured foliage. New growth may have a deep red to maroon coloration as may older foliage under conditions of high light intensity or stress. Box huckleberry suffers from no known serious disease or insect pests. The box huckleberry?s global conservation status is listed as G3 (NatureServe Explorer, 2001), and the state listing for Delaware, Maryland, and Pennsylvania is S1 (critically imperiled). In Maryland, there is only one plantlet left of the known wild population. In Delaware, only three wild populations have been found. In the seven states in which it is native, there are less than 20 known populations of this species.


Author: Donna Fare and Stewart Chandler

PP: 405


The 36th Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators? Society-Southern Region of North America convened at 7:45 AM at the Rainwater Conference Center, Valdosta, Georgia, with President Donna Fare presiding.


President Fare welcomed everyone to Valdosta, Georgia, for the 36th Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators? Society-Southern Region of North America. She thanked Local Site Committee Chair, Stewart Chandler, and Co-chairs Kay Phelps and Fred May, and their committee for the long hours in arranging the excellent tours, hotel, and other planning activities and all their attention to detail. Dr. Fare thanked the Executive Committee and Tom Saunder ’s Sponsorship Committee, which raised $27,850 in cash sponsorships, which was outstanding with the challenging economic times.

New Ideas on Growing and Handling Container Trees©

Author: Mike Worthington

PP: 406


Worthington Farms uses fabric containers to grow trees. These fabric containers air-prune roots and keep root temperatures cool in the summer. Worthington Farms is located in eastern North Carolina (USDA Plant Hardiness 7b(. Windy conditions, high summer temperatures, and hurricane preparedness are primary issues that affect container tree growing. While pot-in-pot production is utilized by the company, the rising costs of plastic for socket pots, drainage pipe, and the labor to install the system is beginning to make the system less cost effective given the stagnant price of trees. Fanntum containers offer an option to pot-in-pot production where plants need marginal winter protection (http: / /www.fanntum.com/(.

Mixing Up Your Marketing©

Author: Matthew Sawyer

PP: 408


In today’s economy you might ask, "how can my business afford marketing?" After all, every expense has been minimized and the pie that is our market has not increased in size. Despite the bleak outlook, what should be asked is "how can my business afford not to market itself?" Nurseries that are increasing sales are doing so by gaining market share. Essentially they are getting a larger piece of the pie while others’ pieces are shrinking or going away all together. Market share is gained through successful promotion of products that exceed competitors’ quality and are backed by excellent customer service.

Mitigating Irrigation Pathogens Without Water Treatment©

Author: Chuan Hong

PP: 412


Irrigation is where agricultural water security meets plant biosecurity. In light of global water scarcity, capture and reuse of runoff water for irrigation is of strategic importance to the sustainability of ornamental nursery and greenhouse industry. Without water no plant can be grown nor can existing plants survive. However, this practice could potentially recycle and spread destructive plant pathogens from isolated infections to an entire production facility and from a single facility to all sharing the same water resources, wiping out entire crops within weeks or even days.

Pathogen diversity in water and evidence of their economic significance has been mounting in recent years. According to a recent review (Hong and Morman, 2005), the diversity of plant pathogens found in water include 17 species of Phytophthora, 26 of Pythium, 27 genera of fungi, 8 species of bacteria, 10 viruses, and 13 species of nematodes. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that contaminated water is a primary, if not the sole, source of inoculum for a large number of destructive diseases on ornamental crops (Stewart-Wade, 2011).

Propagation of Pecans and Japanese Persimmons by Grafting and / or Budding©

Author: Don Covan

PP: 417


Compared to the propagation and sale of pecan trees (Carya illinoinensis), which goes back to Simpson Nurseries’ inception in 1902, Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki) propagation is fairly new, going back only approximately 30 or 40 years. Another difference is that we only graft pecans, while we both bud and graft persimmons. In 2006 (Covan), I presented a paper which described field grafting of pecans and persimmons, and so, will address only bench grafting of pecans for containers, as well as bench grafting and chip budding of Japanese persimmons for containers.


Understock Preparation. Starting with the understock, we plant seed of the pecan cultivars ‘Elliott’ and / or ‘Candy’ in 1.2-m (4-ft) raised field beds. The seed are planted end to end in rows of three, 38 cm (15 in.) apart.

Post-Distilled Cedar as an Alternative Substrate in the Production of Greenhouse Grown Annuals©

Author: Taylor A. Vandiver, Glenn B. Fain, Charles H. Gilliam, and Jeff

PP: 420


Peat moss is the main component found in soilless greenhouse substrates today and is thus in high demand commercially. Due to the increasing demand for peat moss; the issue of peat bog preservation has been brought to light. Another concern associated with peat moss production is the cost of shipping from Canada or Europe and the economic strain it puts on growers. Perlite, another common media component, is also experiencing increased demand. Perlite is not only expensive to produce; there are also high amounts of energy required for both the production and shipping processes. Perlite is considered a nuisance, causing lung and eye irritation in cases involving over-exposure (Du et al., 2010). Due to these concerns, growers have been engrossed in finding replacement substrate options for both peat moss and perlite. In recent years research regarding alternative substrates has steadily increased; with an emphasis on local and regional sources of materials which are considered to be more sustainable.

Pre and Post Application Moisture Levels and Formulation Affect Preemergence Control of Spotted Spurge (Chamaesyce maculate) and Hairy Bittercress (Cardamine hirsute) with Flumioxazin©

Author: Qian Yang, Charles H. Gilliam, and Jeff L. Sibley

PP: 425

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate pre and post application moisture levels effect on preemergence control of spotted spurge (Chamaesyce maculata) and hairy bittercress (Cardamine hirsute L.) with flumioxazin in two different formulations. BroadStar 0.25G was applied as granular, and SureGuard 51 WDG (water dissoluble granular) was sprayed. In Experiment 1, three pre-moisture substrate levels (wet, medium, and dry) were treated with BroadStar and SureGuard® at 0.25 and 0.375 lb ai/A on 7 Sept. 2010. Four irrigation volumes were applied immediately after herbicides application, including 0.6, 1.3, 2.5, and 5.1 cm (0.25, 0.50, 1, and 2 in.). Each pot was overseeded with 25 spotted spurge seed the next day. Results showed that both main effects, formulation and herbicide rate, had significant influence on spotted spurge control. The only significant two-way interaction was formulation × rate. Granular was less effective than spray formulation, and low rate was less effective than high rate. Conversely, spray formulation provided 100% control at both 0.25 and 0.375 lb ai/A. In Experiment 2, the experiment was repeated with hairy bittercress on 1 March 2011. Each pot was overseeded with 25 hairy bittercress seed 1 week after treatment. Results showed formulation significantly influenced weed control; irrigation was slightly significant at 2 weeks after seeding; pre-moisture and herbicide rate did not influence bittercress germination number. The only two-way interaction of formulation × irrigation was slightly significant. When irrigation volume was 0.6 cm (0.25 in.), granular formulation had lower control of hairy bittercress germination at 2 weeks after seeding. Spray formulation at both rates provided excellent control of hairy bittercress.
The World Is Run by Those Who Show Up©

Author: Richard May

PP: 431


The title of my talk is a quote that Dr. Burl Long from the University of Florida told our class at my first meeting with the Wedgworth Leadership Institute. The intent of the Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources (http://wlianr.ifas.ufl.edu/) is to develop and refine the leadership capabilities of young leaders who, in turn, will be prepared to become increasingly involved in policy formation on behalf of agriculture.


Let me start by explaining a little bit about this program, and add that there are programs very similar to this one in other states in the Southeastern U.S.A. The program consists of class members, similar to a school class, except that each class is selected once every 3 years. Each class consists of up to 30 people, between the ages of 25 and 50, who make the majority of their income from agriculture, natural resources, or other related industries. The class is a state-wide mixture of individuals from different sectors of agriculture, including ornamental horticulture, timber, cattle, citrus, vegetables, row crops, fertilizer producers, etc.

Selection and Production of Mexico Oaks©

Author: David Creech

PP: 436


With 161 species, Mexico has the greatest number and diversity of oak species of any country in the world (Valencia, 2004). Of these, 36 are listed as globally threatened (Mendoza, 2007). In Mexico, oak and pine forests occur mostly in mountainous regions with temperate and semi-humid climates. These temperate forests cover 21% of the country and include 24% of the recorded flora. Unfortunately, biodiversity losses from these forests have been severe, and 25% of the original temperate forests have been converted to agriculture or livestock use (Rzedowski, 1998). These forests have been determined to be vulnerable to long-term climate changes. It has been predicted that an additional 13% of the temperate forests will be lost because of the effects of climate change (Villers and Trejo, 1998). There is scant literature available on performance of Mexico oaks in Southern U.S.A. landscapes, but there is a reasonable body of anecdotal information suggesting that the oaks of Mexico deserve further evaluation and perhaps promotion north of their accepted range.

Tea Oil Camellia: A New Edible Oil Crop for the United States©

Author: John M. Ruter

PP: 442


Camellia oleifera has been cultivated in China as a source of edible oil, but there is no documentation that the crop has ever been grown for edible purposes in the United States. This species has been used as a parent of hardy ornamental camellia hybrids in the USA since at least the late 1970s; the U.S. National Arboretum having released more than a dozen such cultivars (Ackerman, 2007). However, these cultivars are grown and used only as ornamental landscape plants. Traditional row crop agriculture is in need of new crops for the southeastern U.S.A. In 1999, I initiated a research program to evaluate C. oleifera as a commercial oil seed crop for the southeast (Ruter, 2002).

Considerable research is being conducted to develop agricultural crops with high levels of oleic acid due to oleic acid’s ability to help reduce low density lipoproteins (LDL, or "bad cholesterol"). The percentage of oleic acid in C. oleifera oil typically ranges from 75% to 85% (Shanan and Ying, 1982; Xia et al., 1993).

Great Plants for Southern Gardens That Missed the Marketing Push©

Author: Mark Weathington

PP: 447


The JC Raulston Arboretum (JCRA) has a 35-year history of collecting and evaluating new plants for introduction to the nursery industry. New plants drive the industry especially those that have a marketing push behind them. Many great landscape plants get passed over in the rush for the latest and greatest but deserve a second look.

The JC Raulston Arboretum (JCRA) has grown from the first plant the JCRA planted in the mid-1970s. Conifers which were not supposed to survive in the south have grown into mature specimens. Gardens and collections have been planted, grown up, torn out, and re-established. Students have been the mainstay of the arboretum development and have done a great job when given adequate direction.

The JCRA’s collection holds many great landscape plants that may never make it to the mainstream due to propagation difficulties. Other plants have shown they have great potential for the south.

Nothing Very New: The Perpetuation of Successful Plants for the South©

Author: Rick Berry

PP: 450


The horticulture industry and gardening are a lot like the fashion industry. Both always have to come up with a new trend, present something different, or make an imaginative statement to excite and keep the public’s interest. However, when it comes down to it, landscapers and the average gardener want plants that can stand up to a certain degree of neglect, can survive inexperienced and unknowledgeable maintenance crews, and still have the ability to provide a "WOW factor" with an expected and understood degree of longevity and dependability.

In fashion, when a lady requires a perfect look for an important event, she will pull out a classic black dress and her best string of cultured pearls. A gentleman will don a well-tailored suit, a perfectly starched shirt, a silk tie — and stylishly arrive in a Lincoln Town Car or silver Mercedes.

For success in horticulture, you are always going to depend on and select from your palette of plants that are "tried-and-true" and have stood the test of time, using the new introduction as an occasional accessory to the total look.

Ornamental Blueberry Breeding at The University of Georgia: Surround Yourself With Flavorful Beauty©

Author: D. Scott NeSmith

PP: 454

For nearly 70 years The University of Georgia (UGA) has been involved in commercial blueberry cultivar development. There has been great success with the effort, and a strong viable industry exists due largely, in part, to the research. With the growth of the commercial blueberry industry has come an increased interest from homeowners and consumers in having blueberry selections for their use as well. In fact, a rapidly growing movement across much of the U.S.A. is to have edible garden and landscape plants. Coupling edibility with attractive ornamental traits adds even more value to the plant material. The expectation is that consumers can "surround themselves with flavorful beauty."

In 2005, we initiated a pilot effort for selecting blueberries for the edible ornamental/home garden consumer. The effort quickly gained momentum from the ornamental industry, and is thus being expanded and becoming a second major effort of our UGA Blueberry Breeding Program. We are seeking a diversity of plant types for this industry that are specifically ornamental in nature.

Grafting Ilex for Increased Vigor and Durability©

Author: Kevin Gantt

PP: 458


Numerous forms of Ilex have been assembled over the years at Hefner?s Nursery for evaluation. Variegated leaf forms, slower growing forms, and forms with unique habits such as fastigiate or pendulous growth have been entered into trial for evaluation. Although all of the Ilex in trial can be easily rooted at the proper time of year, many have not grown off well in container or field production. This is primarily due to the lack of vigor in the root system. Factors such as heat in container production and compact clay soils in field production have lead to the lack of durability in these unique and marketable plants. In the year 2000, grafting of some of these hollies was tried on a small basis to evaluate potential for increased vigor and eventually durability in the landscape.

The ABCs of Plant Propagation at GreenForest Nursery©

Author: Hiram D. Baldwin

PP: 460


Successful propagation requires the same amount of planning as does finishing the plant for sale. A careful analysis of the plant material to be propagated is an important initial decision. Just as critical is a clear understanding of who makes that decision. At GreenForest Nursery, a team approach is used and involves the sales manager, the production manager, the propagation manager, and the owner. A team approach often helps identify potential strengths and problems. These decisions are based on how a plant is selling, how it is projected to sell, ease of production, and production time.

Deciding when to propagate is also a critical part of the planning process. This again requires input from the previously mentioned team. Liners need to be ready when the production manager needs them. Non-available liners when needed waste valuable production time.

Aronia: Cultural and Production Considerations as an Alternative Crop©

Author: Andrew G. Ristvey and Sudeep A. Mathew

PP: 463


Black chokeberry [Aronia melanocarpa, (Michx.) Elliot] or aronia, as it is known commercially, is a small fruit-bearing shrub in the rose family (Rosaceae) and apple sub family (Amygdaloides). Its range is from Newfoundland, west to Ontario, south into Alabama, and east to Georgia, and is hardy to Zone 3 (USDA NRCS, 2011).

Aronia is a landscape quality plant with few pests and diseases. Because of this, it is an ideal candidate for organic fruit production. The fruit is typically between 1 and 1.5 cm in diameter, very similar in size to commercial blueberries. Often misnamed as a berry, the fruit is actually a pome (apple) and grows in clusters of between 5 and 20 in cyme-like inflorescences. The aronia fruit has nutraceutical qualities, heightening its marketability and sales potential as a value added product. There is currently great interest in fruits and vegetables that contain high concentrations of flavonoids, considered potent antioxidants (Gu et al., 2004; Pietta, 2000).

Determining Trace Gas Flux From Container-Grown Woody Ornamentals©

Author: S. Christopher Marble, Stephen A. Prior, G. Brett Runion, H. All

PP: 469

In recent years, anthropogenic climate change and its effects on the global environment has garnered significant attention from the scientific community. Increased trace gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) are widely believed to be the driving force behind global warming. Agriculture is a large contributor to trace gas emissions. Much of the work on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has focused on row crop, forestry, and pasture systems, with little work in specialty crop industries such as horticulture. Our objective was to determine efflux patterns of CO2, CH4, and N2O associated with different nursery container sizes under common production practices. These data are needed to develop Best Management Practices for reducing trace gas emissions from container nursery production systems.
Cotton Waste Stretches Pine Bark Supplies©

Author: Elizabeth D. Riley, Helen T. Kraus, Ted E. Bilderback, and Brian

PP: 476

The objective of this experiment was to look at growth of Rhododendron obtusum ‘Sunglow ’ (azalea) and Juniperus rigida subsp. conferta ‘Blue Pacific’ (juniper) in different cotton waste amended substrates. Pine bark (PB) and whole pine tree (PT) were evaluated as substrate bases and were amended with composted cotton stalks without a nitrogen source added (CS), composted cotton stalks with a nitrogen source added (CSN), and aged cotton gin trash (CGT).
Assessing Phytotoxicity in Fresh and Aged Whole Pine Tree Substrates©

Author: Anthony L. Witcher, Eugene K. Blythe, Glenn B. Fain, Kenneth J.

PP: 477

Reduced plant growth in wood-based substrates has been attributed to a variety of factors, including phytotoxity. A detailed method for evaluating the phytotoxic potential of wood-based substrates has not been identified. Two biological assays (Phytotoxkit and seedling growth test) were conducted for identifying phytotoxicity in WPT, while examining the potential of such methods for testing other alternative substrates. Substrates evaluated in the Phytotoxkit included a reference soil (RS), aged (WPTA) and fresh (WPTF) whole pine tree, aged (PNA) and fresh (PNF) pine needles, pine bark (PB), peat moss (PM), and a saline pine bark (SPB) substrate. Substrates evaluated in the seedling growth test included WPTA, WPTF, PB, and a peat-lite (PL) substrate. The Phytotoxkit revealed some plant species may be sensitive to compounds present in PNF. The greatest germination/emergence rate and root length varied by species in regard to WPTA and WPTF; therefore, factors other than phytotoxicity affected seedling development in WPT. In the seedling growth test, total root length was greatest in the PL substrate for all three species, while substrate air space was lowest in the PL substrate.
Milled Paulownia tomentosa as a Substrate Component in Greenhouse Annual Production ©

Author: Tyler L. Weldon, Glenn B. Fain, Jeff L. Sibley, Charles H. Gilli

PP: 483


The increase in demand for peat moss and the environmental concerns that are associated with the harvesting of peat bogs provide justification for seeking new alternatives to the industry standards. Two alternatives currently marketed for greenhouse crop substrate use are rice hulls and coconut coir. Recent research has indicated the potential of wood fiber products. WholeTree, a component made from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) was evaluated along with starter fertilizer rate in the production of greenhouse-grown petunia (Petunia ‘Dreams Purple’) and marigold [Tagetes patula L. ‘Hero’ (Fain et al., 2008)]. Results of this study revealed that with the addition of an adequate starter nutrient charge, WholeTree is an acceptable substrate component replacing the majority of peat moss in production of petunia and marigold.

Managing Growth of Hibiscus acetosella by Controlling Substrate Moisture With Sensor-Controlled Irrigation ©

Author: Amanda Bayer, Matthew Chappell, Marc van Iersel, and John Ruter

PP: 488


Understanding how available water in the substrate affects plant growth and how much water plants use is important for effective irrigation management. A better understanding of plant water use will allow growers to irrigate more efficiently, increasing sustainability, reducing leaching and runoff, and decreasing disease incidence and severity. Precise control of irrigation can also provide growers the possibility to manipulate plant growth rate(s) by controlling substrate water content. The use of soil moisture sensors to successfully monitor substrate water content has been demonstrated in both greenhouse and nursery settings (Lea-Cox et al., 2008; van Iersel et al., 2009; van Iersel et al., 2010). Used in tandem with an automated irrigation system, soil moisture sensors can be used to monitor and control substrate water content (Nemali and van Iersel, 2006).

The ability to manage plant growth via control of substrate water content can be a valuable tool for growers, providing the possibility to increase or decrease the length of production cycles, foster or impede plant growth, or potentially help plants adapt to water-stressed environments.

Evaluating Potential Plant Health Strengtheners©

Author: Diana R. Cochran, Richard L. Harkess, Patricia R. Knight, Eugene

PP: 493

Plant strengtheners are increasing in popularity in the agronomic industry, and recently some chemical companies have expressed interest in exploring use of these products with ornamental crops. In our study, two fungicides were evaluated as potential drought tolerance enhancers using Impatiens walleriana Super Elfin Series XP White. Pageant (pyraclostrobin + boscalid), a conventional fungicide, and Regalia® (extract of Reynoutria sachalinensis), an organic fungicide, were applied weekly as a foliar spray to plants grown in soilless substrate maintained at selected moisture contents [85%, 70%, 55%, 40%, and 25% volumetric water content (VWC) in Expt. 1; and 85%, 55%, and 25% VWC in Expts. 2 to 4]. Daily VWC was determined by creating a soil moisture curve based on the relationship between the soil moisture reading and actual VWC. In all four experiments, daily VWC, final growth indices, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight were measured. Use of Pageant applied at a 1.0X rate to well-watered impatiens (85% VWC) had greater shoot growth compared to all other rates and substrate VWCs, Expt. 2. In Expt. 3 the use of Regalia as a foliar spray did result in greater root dry weights compared to the nontreated, however there was no rate 5 moisture interaction.
Optimization of Select Native Seed Propagation©

Author: Shane H. Huff, Richard L. Harkess, Brian S. Baldwin, Gary R. Bac

PP: 499

Ecological restoration has become a grave concern due to long-term, anthropogenic impacts. The Coastal Roots program, a U.S. Gulf States project, provides educational opportunities working with local schools to inform and instruct students and teachers regarding successful propagation of various native species for ecological restoration. Two plant species native to Crosby Arboretum, Picayune, Mississippi, and surrounding natural areas have been chosen due to the lack of commercial availability, propagation knowledge, wildlife significance, and threatened or endangered status. Vernonia angustifolia Michx. (tall ironweed) and Coreopsis nudata Nutt. (pink coreopsis) seed were collected and acquired. Seed were placed in coin envelopes and stored under refrigeration at 5 °C until germination tests were conducted. Seed were germinated on Whatman® filter paper (#1, Whatman International Ltd., Maidstone, England) hydrated with 5 mL Captan® Fungicide 50WP (2.37 g a.i./L H2O) (Southern Agricultural Insecticides, Boone, North Carolina) solution in Petri dishes to determine optimal temperature regime. Seed were exposed to five alternating temperature regimes set at 5 °C increments to simulate day and night temperatures: 10/5, 15/10, 20/15, 25/20, and 30/25 °C. To check for seed viability after germination, the remaining ungerminated seed were pricked and soaked overnight in 0.1% tetrazolium chloride (TZ). Germination tests from 2010 and 2011 indicated pink coreopsis germinated best under warmer temperature regimes (30 day / 25 °C night to 25 day / 20 °C night) resulting in 41.45% and 7.65% overall germination, respectively. Tall ironweed germinated best under the mid- to upper-temperature range (20 day / 15 °C night to 25 day / 20 °C night) resulting in 36.15% and 9.35% germination, respectively.
Timing of Fungicide Sprays to Prevent Azalea Web Blight Symptoms©

Author: Warren Copes, Austin Hagan, and John Olive

PP: 505

Rhizoctonia web blight affects azaleas, as well as other plant genera such as hollies, in nurseries in the southern and eastern U.S.A. Our research is demonstrating how little is known about some plant pathogens that infect ornamental plants in nurseries. Binucleate Rhizoctonia fungi grow and survive on azalea stems throughout the canopy and in the rooting media 12 months of the year, although plant damage only occurs in July to September. In a typical year, only about a quarter or fewer of the infected plants develop severe damage.

Several fungicides will control web blight, but guidelines about when to spray have not been clearly understood.